Storm clouds over europe



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CHAPTER 1: “STORM CLOUDS OVER EUROPE,” (pp. 8-59)

SHADOW OF THE DICTATORS: TIMEFRAME AD 1925—1950




  1. Black Thursday, October 24, 1929, is typically taken as the start of this. _____________________

  2. This is the nickname given to a market in which stocks are on the rise. ___________________

3—7. Born in 1883, he would dabble in a number of jobs, including that of socialist-leaning journalist, before becoming leader of Italy in 1922. _____________________ The name of his political party, it was derived from an ancient Roman symbol of authority, a bundle of rods with an axe. ___________________ The strongmen who helped him to reach power. _________________ In the mythology of the party, the crucial five days that brought him to power became known as this. ________________ Literally “Leader,” this was the title he came to be known by. ________________

  1. The more familiar name for the Schutzstaffel, Hitler’s elite personal bodyguard. _____________

  2. What did Hitler do during World War I? _______________________________

  3. The name given to Germany’s postwar Republican government, derived from the town in which the national assembly first met. _____________

  4. What was the name of the peace treaty signed at the end of World War I? _________________

12—13. The most familiar name for the Storm Section, the private army of the Nazis. ___________ The army officer who led this group. ____________________

  1. To force the German payment of these, the French occupied the Ruhr industrial heartland in 1923. ______________________

  2. How many German marks did one need to buy one dollar by November 1923, when the post-war inflation peaked? ____________________

16—17. What was the more familiar name of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party? _______________ This crooked cross was a good-luck charm in ancient Asia and had been used by early Christians to hide their religious affiliations – it was adopted by the party as its symbol. __________________

18—20. Hitler’s aborted “beer hall putsch” of 1923 took place in this city. __________ The book Hitler wrote in prison after this coup attempt. __________________________ In the book, Hitler insisted Germany was entitled to seize this, literally “living space,” in the east. _____________________



  1. He became Hitler’s Minister of Information and Propaganda. _________________

  2. In 1933, Hitler assumed this national post. _________________

  3. In 1933, this auxiliary Nazi police force was organized. ________________

24—25. Hitler used this 1933 fire as a pretext for suspending civil liberties. ____________ In the aftermath of the election that followed, this legislation gave Hitler near-dictatorial powers for a four-year term. __________________

  1. The nickname given to the night of June 29—30, 1934 when the newly-formed SS destroyed the power of the increasingly independent SA. _______________________

  2. Literally “Leader,” it became Hitler’s preferred title. ___________________

  3. These 1935 laws banned Jews from many jobs and professions, and forbid “intermarriage” with German “nationals.” ________________________

  4. In March 1936 Hitler openly violated the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles by marching soldiers into this demilitarized zone lying on the French border. ______________

30—33. In 1935, Mussolini’s Italy invaded this African nation. _____________ What were Italy’s three African colonies at the time. ______________; ________________; __________________

  1. The name given to the Germany-Italy alliance. __________________

  2. The April 1938 union of Germany and Austria. ________________

  3. The French, taking their cues from the defensive warfare of World War I, had set up this impressive series of fortifications along their eastern border. ______________________

37—38. Explained by British leaders at the time as the compassionate attempt to understand and to respond to the legitimate grievances of former enemies, this strategy would later be branded as weak-kneed cowardice in the face of aggression. ___________________ Becoming British prime minister in 1937, he strove to be remembered as a great peacemaker. ____________________________

  1. The Nazis’ term for the supposed German ethnic type. _________

40—41. Some 3 million German-speaking inhabitants lived in this heavily industrialized section of Czechoslovakia bordering Germany. ______________________ At an emergency meeting in late September 1938 in this German city, Britain and France agreed to Hitler’s demands for a partition of Czechoslovakia. _______________

42—44. The Japanese military used a manufactured incident to justify intervention in this Chinese province in 1931. _________________ the chief of staff in charge of this invasion, he would rise to become Japan’s prime minister and war leader. ___________ Who was the Japanese emperor? ___________________________



45—47. This European nation was torn by a bitter civil war in the late 1930s that brought in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union as less-than-fully-committed participants. ________________ The leader of the Falangists, the small Fascist party, he would emerge as military dictator of the nation. __________________________ This Basque capital was bombed by the German air force, foreshadowing the horrors of World War II. ____________________

  1. A nonaggression pact with this hated enemy in August 1939 freed up Hitler from the immediate fear of a two-front war. _____________________

  2. The German invasion of this nation in September 1939 signaled the beginning of World War I. ________________

50—51. Literally “lightning war,” it was a German battle strategy devised to avoid the military stalemates of World War I. ___________________ The familiar name for the Junkers-87 dive bombers that, along with tanks, played such a pivotal role in this strategy. _________________

  1. The name given to the lull that took place for the first nine months of war in Europe. __________________

  2. The fall of Norway led to the resignation of the British prime minister and the appointment of this man as head of a wartime coalition government. ________________________

  3. In May 1940, the Germans attacked France, using Hitler’s plan of an armored push through this hilly forest. _____________

  4. The British “miracle” at this French port in late May 1940 was actually a panicked retreat of some 300,000 Allied troops back across the English Channel. ___________

  5. What was the date of the fall of Paris to the Nazis? ______________

  6. Who was commander of the German Luftwaffe? ___________________

  7. It began August 12, 1940 with German aerial attacks on coastal radar stations and air bases, and involved both civilian bombing and dogfights between Messerschmidts and Hurricanes and Spitfires. __________________________

  8. What did Hitler order transferred from a Paris museum for the 1940 ceremony of French surrender to Germany? _________________________________________ _____________________________________

  9. Who was Churchill referring to when he said, “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few?” ___________________

  10. The code name for the German invasion of the Soviet Union. ________________ ________________

  11. A series of these plans designed to speed Russia on the way to becoming an industrial power were announced by Stalin at regular intervals. ________________

  12. The propaganda symbol of the model Soviet worker, this Ukranian coal miner was fraudulently portrayed as capable of cutting fifteen times more coal than normal due to his efficient methods. _____________________

  13. The murder of Leningrad Communist party chief Sergei Kirov in 1934 set off this five-year witch hunt for suspected enemies of the Soviet state. _______________

  14. The so-called Winter War began in November 1940 when the Soviet Union invaded this country. _______________





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