Stokstad survey of art history I instructor: S. Worley, Ph. D

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STOKSTAD - SURVEY OF ART HISTORY I - Instructor: S.Worley, Ph.D.

4th edition 2010

Upper Paleolithic period 42,000-8,000bc paleo “old” and lithos “stone”

homosapiens sapiens evolved 120,000 years ago
*communication: visual arts

*shelters: constructed of branches and hides 15-20 feet in diameter with central hearth

1-5) Reconstruction drawing of a mammoth-bone house, from Ukraine, 16,000-10,000bc, 24x33 ft

*treeless grasslands; settlements of 10 houses using bones of wooly mammoth

1-6) Lion-Human from Hohlenstein-Stadel, Germany, c. 30,000-26,000bc, mammoth ivory, 11"

*human figure carved in the round

*cat head (person wearing a mask? participating in a ritual?)

1-7) Venus of Willendorf, Austria, c.22,000-21,000bc, limestone, 4"

*nude women subject of sculpture

*limestone covered with red ochre

*emphasis on gender/ minimizes non-gender areas: fertility figure (no proof of religious significance)
1-9) Woman from Brassempouy, Grotte du Pape, France, 22,000bc, ivory, 1"

*abstract rendering of human head into simplified shapes

*memory image: relies on memory of basic form of an object for recognition
CAVE ART 28,000-10,000BC

*Animals represented: wild horse, bison, mammoth, bear, panther, owl, deer, aurochs (extinct oxen), woolly-haired rhino, wild goat or ibex, people, hand prints, geometric shapes

*Artists returned to same site many times

*used for ritual - not living quarters

*small stone fat burning lamps found


1-1) Spotted Horses and Human Hands, Pech-Merle cave, Dordogne, France, Horses, 16,000bc; hands, 15,000bc, paint on limestone, length 11'

*used repeatedly over 5,000 years

*over 600 geometric symbols

*positive and negative handprints

*bright red circles on horses could be animal spots or rock weapons hurled at the animal

*technique of wall painting: saliva and charcoal

1-13) Bison, ceiling of cave at Altamira, Spain, 12,000bc, paint on limestone, 8'

*discovered in 1879; dismissed as a hoax

*accepted in 1902 with discovery of additional caves with paintings

*used red and brown ochres for body; and blacks and browns ochres for legs, tails, heads

*natural irregularities in cave create sculptural effects
1-11) Hall of Bulls, Lascaux Caves, c. 15,000-13,000, paint on limestone

*discovered in 1940, opened to the public after WWII

*cows, bulls, horses, deer
1-12) Bird-Headed Man with Bison and Rhinoceros, Lascaux caves, 15,000-13,000bc, paint on limestone, length 9'

*found in a 16' shaft containing spears and a stone lamp

*the bison has been disemboweled

* myth representing the death of a hero/vision of a shaman

NEOLITHIC PERIOD 8,000-2,300bc

*warming of climate brought an end to the Ice Age creating temperate regions with grassy plains

*hunters invented bows and arrows and dugout canoes

*domesticated animals and agriculture/settled villages

*radiometric dating measures the rate at which carbon-14 diminishes in organic material

1-21) Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England, 2750-1500bc

*megalithic mega ‘large’ and stone ‘lithos’ henge is a circle of stones surrounded by a ditch

* five sandstone trilithons topped by lintels surrounded by a sarsen circle weighing up to 50 tons each and 20' tall for a diameter of 106' capped by a continuous lintel

*mortise and tenon joints

* circle of bluestones just inside the sarsen circle
BRONZE AGE 2300-1000bc

*metals appear in 2300bc; bronze is a alloy of tin and copper


* agriculture emerged in the ancient Near East prior to Europe in an area known as the Fertile Crescent between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (an area called Mesopotamia: ‘land between the two rivers)

*communities emerged 9,000bc and constructed large scale water control systems for irrigation

*farming spread from the fertile crescent to the Atlantic coast of Europe by 5,000bc

*between 4,000-3,000 a cultural shift occurred with the emergence of city-states with governments

*polytheistic worship of nature deities with priests; gods own state

SUMER: city-states emerged along the rivers of Mesopotamia between 3500 and 2340

*invented wagon wheel and plow

*cast objects in copper and bronze

*developed system of writing: pressing cuneiform (wedge-shaped) symbols into clay tablets with a stylus (writing stick) creating pictographs

*built ziggurats: stepped pyramid structures with a temple on top “Bond between Heaven and Earth” “House of the Mountain”; included “waiting rooms” for the deity to reveal himself to worshipers; decorated with mosaics (small colored stones attached to wall surface)

* Epic of Gilgamesh: recounts adventures of legendary Sumerian king of Uruk and his companion Enkidu; with Enkidu’s death Gilgamesh searches for secret of eternal life from Utnapishtim, a survivor of a Great Flood
2-7) Nanna Ziggurat, Ur, Iraq, 2100-2050bc base 190x130'

*simple rectangular mud-brick structure oriented to points of the compass; originally topped by three platforms with places of worship for the gods

*dedicated to moon god Nanna (Sin)
2-4) Votive statues, from the Square Temple, Eshnunna (Modern Tell Asmar, Iraq), c.2900-2600bc, limestone, alabaster and gypsum, height 30'

*votive figures are images dedicated to the gods placed in a shrine before the image of the god

*cuneiform text show the importance of approaching the god with an attentive gaze

*cylindrical stylized shape

p.35) Bull lyre from the tomb of Kin Abargi, Ur, 2685bc, wood with gold lapis lazuli, bitumen, and shell in modern wood support

*animals and men depicted in registers: gazelle, donkey, bear, hyena carries a table with pork and mutton, lion, bulls

*harp used in rituals for the dead; the animals probably depict the real of the dead and offerings to the goddess

2-5) Cylinder seal from Sumer and its impression, 2500bc, marble

* appearance of written records

*Sumerians developed stamps and seals for identifying documents and est. property ownership

*originally simple clay stamps with designs incised or to mark clay seals on container lids or store rooms pressed against a damp clay surface; 3400bc the seal was redesigned as cylindrical seals

*rearing lions fighting with a human-headed bull and stag, hunter on the right
AKKAD: settled north of Uruk and adopted Sumerian culture; they spoke a Semitic language and under the figure Sargon I (2332-2279), they conquered the Sumerian cities and most of Mesopotamia; he ruled from his capital at Akkad as ‘King of the Four Quarters of the World’ and elevated himself to the status of a god

2-1) Stele of Naramsin, 2254-2218bc, limestone, 6'6"

*stele: upright stone slab carved in relief

*commemorates the military victory of Naramsin, grandson of Sargon I

*composition: arrangement of forms on the surface

*Naramsin ascends a mountain wearing a horned crown; he his represented in hierarchical scale (larger than the other figures indicating his status); three solar deities are represented above
LAGASH: 2180bc Akkadian empire fell under attack by the Northern Gutti people who ruled Mesopotamia until the Sumerians regained control of their region. One city which remained independent during the Gutti period was Lagash.

2-8) Votive statue of Gudea from Lagash, Iraq, 2120bc, diorite, 29"

*Gudea was ruler of Lagash; and built and restored many temples and placed votive statues of himself as governor; 20 statues survive

*he holds a vessel out of which two streams of water filled with fish emerge

*included cuneiform inscriptions stating that he dedicated himself to the goddess Geshtianna, divine poet and interpreter of dreams
BABYLON: Amorites, Semitic peoples from the Arabian Desert, reunited Sumer under Hammurabi whose capital was called Babylon and his subjects Babylonians

p. 38) Stele of Hammurabi, from Susa, Iran, c.1792-1750, basalt, stele 7'

*first systematic codification of laws: peoples’ rights, duties and penalties

*Hammurabi represented in an attitude of prayer listens to the sun god and god of justice Shamash; three flat tiers beneath his feet indicate they are on a mountain top; Shamash holds symbols of divine power: measuring rod and rope circle; fire emanates from his shoulders

*laws are engraved in cuneiform on the stele below

*300 entries concern commercial and property issues primarily; 68 domestic laws; 20 assault laws

*”to cause justice to prevail in the land and to destroy the wicked and the evil...”

ASSYRIA: rose to dominance in northern Mesopotamia; they began conquering neighboring regions in 1000, they controlled most of Mespotamia and extended their power to Egypt by 700bc; by 600bc their empire collapsed

2-10) Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions from the palace complex of Assurnasirpal II, Nimrud, Iraq, 850bc, alabaster, 39"

*est. ambitious building program, fortifying his capital city at Nimrud with mud brick-walls, 5 miles long and 42 feet high; limestone and alabaster were used for decorations

*panels cover the walls carved in low relief of the king participating in religious rituals and war campaigns or hunting expeditions

*Assurnasirpal II is represented standing in his chariot hunting lions

2-12) Human-Headed Winged Lion (Lamassu), from the palace of Sargon II, limestone, height 10' c.721-706

*Lamassus are guardian protectors of palaces and throne rooms

*combine the bearded head of a man, body of a lion, wings of an eagle, horned headdress of a god

*five legs so they look immobile from the front and in motion from the side
2-11) Reconstruction drawing of the citadel and palace complex of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin, Iraq, c.721-706

*the walled citadel included 200 rooms and 30 courtyards; palace complex was on a raised platform with a ziggurat (7 levels each 18' high painted a different color)

2-13) Assurbanipal and His Queen in the Garden from the palace at Nineveh, Iraq, 647 bc, alabaster

*ruled three generations after Sargon II

*palace was decorated with alabaster panels in low relief originally painted

*shows the king and queen in a pleasure garden
NEO-BABYLONIA: Babylonians rose to power again and began attacking Assyrian cities in 615bc; the Medes invaded northern and eastern Assyria and controlled a region below the Black and Caspian Seas while the Neo-Babylonians controlled a region from modern Turkey to norther Arabia and from Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean Sea.

2-14) Reconstruction drawing of Babylon in the 6th century

*Built around the banks of the Euphrates River

*included a Processional Way for processions to honor city’s patron god, Marduk

*walls were faced with dark blue bricks that were glazed

*walls were crenellated

2-15) Ishtar Gate and throne room wall from Babylon, Iraq, 575bc

*topped by four crenellated towers

*decorated with tiers of dragons sacred to Marduk and bulls with blue horns and tails
ANATOLIA: Hittite civilization whose founders moved into mountains and plateaus of central Anatolia; they created an empire that stretched around the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the area of modern Syria and Lebanon; they were the first people to work with iron using it for chariot fittings and weapons, farming instruments and masonry tools.

2-9) Lion Gate, Boghazkeui, Turkey, c.1400, limestone

*7' high half animal half-human creatures were used to frame doorways
PERSIA: In the 6th century the Persians, a nomadic people began seizing power from the region of Parsa or Persis (modern Iran). They eventually conquered Mesopotamia and the rest of the Ancient Near East establishing a vast empire. Rulers traced their ancestry to a Perisan king Achaemenes.

2-16-18) Apadana (audience hall) of Darius and Xerxes, ceremonial complex, Persepolis, Iran, 518-460bc

*Darius was the son of a government official

*complex is set on a raised platform and laid out in a rectangular grid, th platform was 40' and 1500x900'area

* Darius’ son added a new public reception space, the Hall of 100 Columns

2-18) Darius and Xerxes Receiving Tribute, relief panel from stairway leading to the Apadana, limestone 491-486bc

*Darius is represented holding audience while Xerxes listens from behind the throne room

*originally painted in blue, scarlet, green, purple, turquoise with Darius’s crown and necklace covered in gold leaf


*Egypt is located along the Nile River. Every year the flood waters receded leaving behind a new layer of silt making it a fertile region. Egypt’s rulers were divine kings, sons of the sun god Ra. At death they joined him and rode in his solar boat across the sky. Temples were built to the gods to ensure Egypt’s prosperity.

*Gods and goddesses included Osiris, god of the dead, who appears as a mummy. His wife was Isis and their son Horus, the sky god was depicted with a falcon’s head. Osiris became the king of Egypt, but his envious brother killed him and cut up the body of Osiris. Isis gathered the pieces of his body and with the help of Anubis created the first mummy from which she conceived their son Horus. Horus defeated Seth and became the king of the earth, while Osiris became the god of the underworld.


p.52) Palette of Narmer, Dynasty 1, c.3000bc, mudstone, 25"

*carved in low relief

*ruler’s name appears in pictographs on each side flanked by images of the cow goddess Horus

*flat stones with circular depressions were used for grinding eye makeup

*Narmer is depicted in hieratic scale, larger than other figures to indicate his importance

*Narmer wears the white crown of Upper Egypt, above the symbol of Horus holds a papyrus plant representing lower Egypt, indicating the union of Upper and Lower Egypt; on the other side he represented with the red crown of Lower Egypt indicating that he rules both lands.

*Egyptian artists used a canon of human proportions

Funerary Architecture

Mastaba: flat topped one story building with tapered walls erected over an underground burial chamber hich contained serdab: a sealed room housing the ka or spirt of the deceased and a chapel for offerings

3-3) Plan of Djoser’s funerary complex, Saqqara, Dynasty 3, c.2667-2648

*designed by the Prime Minister Imhotep

*1800x900' replica of Djoser’s actual palace

*shaft descended from the peak to a burial chamber below

*adjacent funerary temple used to embalm the king and worship the king’s ka in his statue

*engaged columns with papyrus bud capitals decorate the columns

3-4) Great Pyramids, Giza, Dynasty 4, c. 2613-2494, erected by Menkaura (left), Khafra, and Khufu (ruling 2589-2503bc), granite and limestone, pyramid of Khufu 450'high, area of 13 acres

*king’s tomb located at center and 3 false passagways

*originally covered with a veneer of smooth limestone

*next to each pyramid was a funerary temple connected by a covered causeway

3-8) Khafra, from Giza, Dynasty 4, c.2500bc, 5'6"

*one of 20 ka statues found inside his tomb depicting him as an enthroned king

*Horus is perched on the back of the throne protecting his head

*he wears traditional costume with pleated kilt; linen headdress with cobra symbol of Ra; false beard symbol of royalty

*sculptors treated sculpture in the round as though it were relief, literally blocking out the figure and refining three-dimensional features; the statue would then be polished and painted

*carved from unusual stone northosite gneiss imported from Nubia, it glows a bluish color in the light
3-9) Menkaura and a Queen, perhaps his wife Khamerernebty from Giza, Dynasty 4, 2500bc, Graywacke with traces of red and black paint, 54"

*Khafra’s son

* king depicted as ideal youthful athletic nude

*traces of red paint (male figures were painted red)

*queen show a symbolic gesture of embrace and protection

* Egyptian balanced pose with one foot in front of the other, arms straight at his sides and fists clenched
3-10) Seated Scribe, from the tomb of Kai Saqqara, Dynasty 5, c.2494-2345bc, painted limestone with inlaid eyes of rock crystal calcite and magnesite mounted in copper, 21"

*found in the tomb of a vizier (Prime Minister)

*naturalistic rendering of the body

*scribes lived privileged lifestyles and could be appointed to “house of life” where lay and priestly scribes worked on sacred and scholarly texts


3-12) Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt, from the tomb of Ti, Saqqara Dynasty 5, 2494-2345bc, painted limestone relief, 45"

*tombs were decorated with paintings and reliefs to provide the Ka with a pleasant living quarters

*from a mastaba of the government official Ti

*hunting scenes show the ruler’s power to maintain order and balance

*hippopotamus’ damaged crops and so it was an official duty to hunt them

*they also personified Seth, god of darkness, and thus the hunt represents the triumph of good over evil

*Egyptian canon of human proportions and hieratic scale


3-14) Rock-cut tombs, Beni Hasan, Dynasty 12, c.1985-1796bc

*during the 11th and 12th Dynasties the nobility and officials commissioned rock cut tombs hollowed out of cliffs along the banks of the Nile River

*included columns, lintels, false doors and niches; entrance, portico, main hall, shrine with burial chamber under offering chapel

3-17) Funerary Stele of Amenemhat I from Assasif Dynasty 11, 2055-1985, painted limestone

*funerary stele represents Amenemhat I at a table with food watched over by a young woman Hapi; the pharaoh embraces his son Antel

*hieroglyphs or pictographic symbols provide identifications
NEW KINGDOM: Eastern Mediterranean people called the Hykos invaded Egypt disrupting dynastic rule. The early rulers of the New Kingdom reestablished centralized rule. Thutmose III (1479-1425bc) is the first ruler to call himself pharaoh meaning ‘Great House.’He extended Egypts power along to eastern Mediterranean to modern Syria.
3-18) Plan and Temple of Amun, Karnak, 1295-1186bc

*active religious center for 2000 years before New Kingdom kings began adding courtyards and temples over 500 years; complex covered 60 acres

* dedicated to worship of three deities: Amun, his wife Mut and their son Khons

*hypostyle hall: forest of columns; and massive wedge shaped gateways called pylons

* statue of deity Amun was placed in the sanctuary and worshiped by priests with bathing and offerings

*hypostyle hall was erected by Sety I and his son Ramses II, 340x170'; columns 66'high and 12'diameter; along the side walls is a row of windows called a clerestory filled with open grill work

peristyle court (an open courtyard ringed with covered walkways)

* in front two colossal statues of the king and a pair of obelisks: tapered square shafts topped by a pyramidion

*pylon is decorated with reliefs showing the king’s military exploits
3-22) Funerary Temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri, Dynasty 18, c.1475-1485bc

* rule Hatshepsut one of only four queens to rule Egypt; daughter of Thutmose I, she married her half brother Thutmose II; upon his death she became regent for his son by a concubine Thutmose III

*she had herself declared herself king by priests of Amun

* her vizier Senemut designed her funerary temple (she was buried elsewhere in the necropolis of the Valley of the Kings)

*designed along an axial plan (longitudinal axis); a causeway from the Nile was lined with sphinxes

* designed as two levels joined by ascending ramps leading to a hypostyle hall fronted by colossal statues and containing chapels dedicated to the gods Amun and Ra-Horakhty, Hatshepsut and her father; includes scenes depicting her divine birth as daughter of Amun

*innermost sanctuary cut deep into the rock cliff

3-21) Hatshepsut kneeling. red granite c.1473 portrayed as a male pharaoh with false beard, linen nemses and cobra crown

p.74-75) Temple of Rameses II, Abu Simbel, Dynasty 19, c.1279-1213bc

* includes a row of colossal statues of the pharaoh 65' high; figures of his wife Nefertari and other family members stand next to his feet

*temple stretches back 160'; designed so on the most important day of the Egyptian calendar, the first rays of the sun illuminated the four statues of the king and the gods Amun, Ptah and Ra-Horakhty
AMARNA PERIOD: ruled by Amenhotep IV who came to the throne about 1352bc and ruled for 17 years. He founded a new monotheistic religion dedicated to the sun deity Aten symbolized by the sun disk and changed his name to Akhenaten ‘One who is affective on behalf of Aten.’ Seeking to break the power of the priests of Amun who controlled Thebes, Akhenaton built a new capital further north called Akhenaten: Horizon of the Aten. He emphasized maat or divine truth. He considered himself to be the son of Aten and worshiped focused in open air courtyards.
3-26) Akhenaten and His Family, Dynasty 18, 1352-1336bc, painted limestone relief

*sunken relief: background is carved away so figures project out from finished surface with incised outlines and details

* depicts Akhenaton who had unusual features with an elongated head and protruding belly with his wife Nefertiti and their children; they are depicted with a greater informality and naturalism which Akhenaton favored.
3-27) Queen Tiy, from Kom, Medinet el-Ghurab, Dynasty 18, c.1352, yew, ebony, glass, silver, gold, lapis lazuli, cloth, clay and wax, 3"

*portrait of Akhenaton’s mother

*two versions of this portrait exist with elaborate headdresses
3-28) Nefertiti, from Akhetaten, Dynasty 18, c.1352-1336bc, painted limestone, 20"

*found in the studio of the sculptor Thutmoses at Akhetaten

POST-AMARNA PERIOD: following Akhenaten’s death, the priests of Amun regained power. The young king Tutankhamun returned to Thebes. When he died, he was buried in the Valley of the Kings.
3-29) Inner Coffin of Tutankhamun’s sarcophagus, from the tomb in Valley of the Kings, near Deir el-Bahri, Dynasty 18, c. 1336-1327bc, gold inliad with glass and semi-precious stones, 6'

*inner tomb chamber was intact when it was discovered by Howard Carter in the 1920s.

*The inner most of three nesting coffins was made of solid gold; the king holds a crook and flail (used for thrashing grain) symbols which identified him with the god of the dead Osiris

3-31) Judgment before Osiris, from the Book of the Dead, Dynasty 19, 1285bc, painted papyrus

*in the New Kingdom, Egyptians believed that only a person free of sin could enjoy an afterlife

* the dead had to pass a last judgment in which their souls (hearts) were weighed against the ostrich feather of Maat, goddess of truth

*Hunefer is led by Anubis to the last judgement; Ammit waits to devour the soul of dead while Thoth records the results; on the right Hunefer is presented to Osiris by Horus; Osiris sits on lake of nitron used to preserve the dead while the four sons of Horus entrusted to preserved the each of the deceased vital organs stand atop a lotus blossom

CH 4 AEGEAN ART: consists of three Bronze Age cultures: Cycladic, on the Cycladic Isles; Minoan on the island of Crete, and Mycenaean on the Mainland of Greece
CYCLADES: Neolithic culture with no written records; created ceramic objects and small scale sculptures

4-2) Figure of a Woman, from Cyclades, c.2500-2200bc, marble, 13"

*used white marble for sculpture from the islands of Naxos and Paros

*most sculptures represent female figures

*originally painted red, black and blue with facial features, hair and ornaments

*abstract simplified rendering of human figure

*found in graves or used as votive figures worship; larger statues used for communal worship

* sculpture in the round
MINOAN CIVILIZATION: Excavated by Arthur Evans in 1900, the civilization is named Minoan after the legend of King Minos, a king who ruled from Knossos. Wealthy sea power producing grains, olives, fruits, cattle and sheep. Used writing scripts heiroglyphic, Linear A and Linear B (early form of Greek) to keep administrative records and inventories.

Minotaur legend: half-man, half-bull, he was the son of the wife of King Minos and a bull belonging to Poseidon; the monster lived in a labyrinth or maze; King Minos ordered an annual tribute of 14 youths and maidens from Athens to sacrifice to the minotaur.

4-4) Reconstruction of the palace complex, Knossos, Crete.

* suites of rooms arranged around a central courtyard with private rooms and apartments, administrative areas and ritual areas, storerooms.

Court with staircase reconstructed by Sir Arthur Evans, at palace complex, Knossos, Crete

* old palace formed the core of a new one built after an earthquake in 1700 destroyed Knossos

*double axe motifs used throughout the palace complex refer to labyths or double axe

*tree trunks for columns which taper downward

4-7) Woman or Goddess with Snakes, from palace complex, Knossos, Crete, Second Palace period, c.1600-1550bc, faience, 11"

*woman is bare breasted holding a snake in either hand

*leopard or cat symbol of royalty is placed on her crown; wears open bodice with flounced skirt

4-8) Harvester Vase, from Hagia Triada, Crete, Second Palace period, 1650-1450bc, steatite, 4"

*rhyton: ceremonial vessel for pouring liquids

*may have been covered with gold leaf

*procession of men with exuberant facial expression; fall harvest festival or procession

4-10) Octopus Flask, from Palikastro, Crete, second palace period, c.1500-1450bc, 11"

*marine style represents sea life
LATE MINOAN PERIOD: In 1450bc Mycenaeans from Greece conquered and occupied Knossos until a final earthquake in 1375bc when the site was abandoned.
4-6) Bull Leaping, wall painting with areas of modern reconstruction, from the palace complex at Knossos, Crete, late Minoan period, 1450-1375bc

*may represent fertility ritual

*a dark skinned man vaults over the bull with light skinned women on either side
MYCENAEAN CIVILIZATION: Helladic is the term used for Bronze Age civilization on the mainland of Greece from 3,000-1000bc.
4-13) Citadel, Mycenae, Greece, occupied c.1600-1200bc

*identified as the home of the Greek army that conquered the ancient city of Troy during the Trojan War

*walled city or citadel

*includes a grave circle for burials

*square megaron or throne room
p.96) Lion Gate, Mycenae, 1250bc, limestone relief

*post and lintel construction gate to citadel (above) with relieving arch
p.95) Mask of Agamemnon, funerary mask, from the royal tombs, Grave Circle A, at Mycenae, Greece, c.1600-1550bc, gold, 12"

*death mask thought by Heinrich Schlieman who excavated the site in 1876 to be the face of the legendary Greek ruler Agamemnon.

*the wealthy buried their dead in grave shafts outside the city in opulent costumes and jewelry with weapons and gold and silver objects
4-13) Tholos, Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, Greece, c.1300-1200bc

*by 1600 they began building above ground beehive tombs with corbeled vaults

*entered by a walled passageway

*the tomb chamber is 47'diameter and 43' high

*corbeled vault built with layers of ashlar cut blocks tapering inward and meeting at a single capstone at the top

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