**Step one—Read the chapter, then restate the main idea of each heading Chapter 11: Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongol Moment, 1200–1500

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**Step one—Read the chapter, then restate the main idea of each heading**

Chapter 11: Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongol Moment, 1200–1500

  1. Looking Back and Around: The Long History of Pastoral Nomads

    1. The World of Pastoral Societies

      1. Small populations on large amounts of land

      2. High levels of social and gender equality

      3. Mobile but in contact with settled agriculturalists

      4. Tribal alliances and military power of horsemen

    2. Before the Mongols: Pastoralists in History

      1. Modun of the Xiongnu (r. 210–174 b.c.e.)

      2. Bedouin Arabs and the rise of Islam

      3. Turkic nomads versus China, Persia, and Byzantium

      4. Berbers and the Almoravid Empire

  1. Breakout: The Mongol Empire

    1. From Temujin to Chinggis Khan: The Rise of the Mongol Empire

      1. Desperate and poor childhood

      2. Generous to friends, ruthless to enemies

      3. Supreme Leader of a Great Mongol Nation, 1206

      4. Started five decades of expansionist wars, 1209

    2. Explaining the Mongol Moment

      1. No plan or blueprint

      2. Weak enemies and a strong army

      3. Discipline, loyalty, and charisma … and loot!

      4. Incorporation of useful conquered people

      5. Ruthless and terrifying

      6. Strong administration and systematic taxation

      7. Favorable conditions for merchants

      8. Religious toleration

  1. Encountering the Mongols: Comparing Three Cases

    1. China and the Mongols

      1. 70 years of conquests, 1209–1279

      2. Yuan Dynasty and Kublai Khan (r. 1271–1294)

      3. A foreign and exploitative occupation

      4. Collapse of Mongol rule and rise of the Ming Dynasty

    2. Persia and the Mongols

      1. Chinggis Kahn (1219–1221) and Helugu (1251–1258)

      2. Damage to agriculture

      3. Persian civilization of barbarian Mongols

    3. Russia and the Mongols

      1. Brutal invasion of a disunited Kievan Rus (1237–1240)

      2. Khanate of the Golden Horde

      3. Exploitation without occupation

      4. Resistance and collaboration

      5. Rise of Moscow and expansion of the church

  1. The Mongol Empire as a Eurasian Network

    1. Toward a World Economy

      1. Not producers or traders but promoters of commerce

      2. Security on the Silk Roads

      3. Connected to the larger world system

    2. Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale

      1. European envoys sent east

      2. European discovery of the outside world

      3. Mongol linkage of China and Persia

    3. Cultural Exchange in the Mongol Realm

      1. Forced population transfers and voluntary migrations

      2. Technology transfer and the spread of crops

      3. Europe gained the most

    4. The Plague: An Afro-Eurasian Pandemic

      1. The Black Death

      2. China, 1331, Europe, 1347, and East Africa, 1409

      3. The end of the world?

      4. Social changes in Europe

      5. Demise of the Mongol Empire

  1. Reflections: Changing Images of Pastoral Peoples

    1. Bad press for nomads

    2. Sources from urban centers

    3. Winners write history

    4. A new history of nomadic achievements

    5. Was Mongol violence unique?

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