Step One—Read the Chapter and Take Notes As You Go

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Step One—Read the Chapter and Take Notes As You Go

This outline reflects the major headings and subheadings in this chapter of your textbook. Use it to take notes as you read each section of the chapter. In your notes, try to restate the main idea of each section.

Chapter 18: Colonial Encounters in Asia and Africa, 1750–1950

I. Industry and Empire

A. Colonies as suppliers of raw materials and food

B. Colonies as markets

C. Colonies as investments

D. Nationalism and imperial expansion

E. The tools of empire

F. Technological superiority as racial superiority

G. Social Darwinism

II. A Second Wave of European Conquests

A. New European players in Asia and Africa

B. European military superiority

C. Slow imperial creep in India and Indonesia

D. The Scramble for Africa and rapid expansion elsewhere

E. Settler colonialism and mass death in the Pacific

F. American and Russian expansion

G. Japanese colonization in Taiwan and Korea

H. Defiant Ethiopia and diplomatic Siam

III. Under European Rule

A. Cooperation and Rebellion

1. Soldiers, administrators, and local rulers

2. A small Western-educated elite

3. Indian Rebellion, 1857–1858

B. Colonial Empires with a Difference

1. Racial boundaries

2. Settler colonialism in South Africa

3. Impacts on daily life

4. “Traditional India” and “tribal Africa”

5. Gendering the empires

6. Political contradictions and hypocrisies

IV. Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies

A. Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State

1. Unpaid required labor on public works

2. King Leopold II’s Congo Free State

3. Cultivation system in the Dutch East Indies

4. Resistance to cotton cultivation in East Africa

B. Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market

1. Encouragement of existing cash cropping

2. Rice in the Irrawaddy and Mekong deltas

3. Cacao in the Gold Coast

C. Economies of Wage Labor: Migration for Work

1. Internal migrations to plantations, mines, and cities

2. International migrations of Indians, Chinese, Japanese, and others

3. “Native” labor in settler colonies

D. Women and the Colonial Economy: Examples from Africa

1. Men grew cash crops while women grew food

2. Labor migrations separated husbands and wives

3. Women became heads of households

E. Assessing Colonial Development

1. Jump-start or exploitation?

2. Global integration

3. Some elements of modernization

4. No colonial breakthrough to modern industrial economy

V. Believing and Belonging: Identity and Cultural Change in the Colonial Era

A. Education

1. The door to opportunities

2. Adopting European culture

3. Modernity?

4. Colonial glass ceiling

B. Religion

1. Christian missionaries in Africa and the Pacific

2. Religious conflicts over gender and sexuality

3. Colonial definition of Hinduism

4. Colonial identification with Islam

C. “Race” and “Tribe”

1. Rise of an African identity

2. Pan-Africanism

3. Colonial creation of “tribes”

VI. Reflections: Who Makes History?

A. Colonizers’ efforts to shape the colony

B. Colonized people’s agency

C. “History from below”

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