In general, after you finish reading and studying this chapter, you should understand the
the evolution of state and local governments
the major institutions of state governments, including state election trends
different types of local governments, the foundation of their authority, and
special characteristics of the institutions
the nature of grassroots power and politics
national and state government relations with Indian nations
the budgeting process for state and local finances
In this section, you are provided with a basic outline of the chapter and key words/points
you should know. Use this outline to develop a complete outline of the material. Write
the definitions or further explanations for the terms. Use the space provided in this
workbook or rewrite that material in your notebook. This will help you study and
remember the material in preparation for your tests, assignments, and papers.
in our history, state governments came first—
local government created by—
governmental institutions in the U.S. are not built from the bottom—
district boundaries for state legislators did not change in response to
population shifts in the post-Civil War era—
federal government added to state and local government responsibilities in
the 1960s and 1970s—
recent trends in federalism affecting state and local governments from the
1970s up through 2002—
primary responsibilities of state government—
early state constitutions in the U.S.—
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787—
effect of Civil War on constitutions of southern states—
trend since the 1960s of state constitutional amendments—
relative ease of amending state constitutions—
implications of simple amendment process for state constitutions—
most important role governors play—
governors and the budget process—
package or general veto—
executive responsibilities of governors—
methods of limiting gubernatorial power—
general trend in power and authority of governors since the 1960s—
role of the legislature—
one-person, one-vote rule—
annual legislative sessions in the country in 1960 and in 2006—
Nebraska state house—
legislative houses in the states—
legislative terms in the states—
States with Term Limits for State Legislators (Table 4.1)—
primary function of courts—
two separate court systems: state and federal—
the only time state and federal courts converge—
when there is a conflict between state and federal law—
state courts encouraged to consider federal government as setting
minimum standards for individual rights—
state court structure—
State Court Structure (Figure 4.2)—
characteristics of appellate courts—
how state judges selected for the bench—
Judicial Selection Patterns (Table 4.2)—
Elections and Political Parties
partisan and non-partisan elections—
recent trends in state legislative seats won by Republicans & Democrats—
one reason for Republican success in the south—
party identification downplayed—
patterns of party competition in state legislatures—
ethnic, racial and gender factors in elections—
direct (popular) referendum—
personal nature of local governance—
responsibilities of local government—
counties and school districts: examples of state government creation—
how are cities, towns and villages established—
home rule charters—
Types of Local Government
formal and informal arrangements among local governments—
decision-making offices of local governments—
local government and separation of powers—
executive and legislative patterns in local government—
commission form of government—
Galveston, the 1900 hurricane and the city commission—
Major Forms of Municipal Government (Table 4.3) and trends—
public corporation (authority)—
The “Big Seven” Intergovernmental Associations (Table 4.4)—
role of local news media—
importance of ties and influence—
frequent patters of decision-making—
ad hoc, issue-specific organizations—
domestic dependent nation—
Federal Policies Toward Indian Nations (Table 4.5)—
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975—
State and Local Finances
difference between federal government and state and local governments
differences between private business and state and local governments—
importance of the level of funding that governments give to one another—
federal funding for state governments declining—
requirements by the federal government on what state and local
government must spend on national programs and concerns—
state governments rely primarily on what taxes?—
local government rely primarily on what taxes?—
State and Local Government Revenues (Figure 4.3)—
nature of sales taxes—
regressive nature of property taxes—
Research Ideas and Possible Paper Topics
1) The requirement that state legislative districts have approximately the same
number of people so that legislative representation would be equitable was
established in Baker v. Carr (1962). This decision led to decreased control in state
a. rural areas.
b. big city political machines.
c. the federal government.
d. the Democratic Party.
2) Which of the following enhanced the importance of state and local governments?
schools to private businesses to manage.
b. Increased federal government authority in domestic security.
c. Reduced federal mandates during the Reagan administration.
d. The prohibition on the ability of states to establish direct ties with other
countries to spur economic growth.
3) The federal government has expanded its role in domestic security despite the fact
that it has traditionally been the responsibility of
a. the United States Army.
b. state and local police and health agencies.
c. the United Nations.
d. the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
4) State governments have primary responsibility for
b. economic development.
c. public health.
d. All of the above.
5) The first state constitutions provided for
a. limits on the authority of state governors, legislatures, and courts.
b. checks and balances.
c. strong executives.
d. All of the above.
6) Direct voter participation was advocated in the states by the
c. Republican Party.
7) In 43 states, governors have the power to
a. propose budgets.
b. veto an entire bill.
c. line-item veto.
d. package veto.
8) The authors highlight the extensive and creative use of the line-item veto
a. George W. Bush (TX).
b. Gray Davis (CA).
c. Tommy Thompson (WI).
d. John Engler (MI).
9) In 1962, the Supreme Court decided the case Baker v. Carr, the result of which
a. legislatures more accurately represented their states.
b. agendas became more relevant and policies more appropriate.
c. state legislatures became more professional.
10) State and federal courts are
b. all part of a single system.
c. share rules, procedures, and routes for appeal.
d. overlap in virtually every circumstance.
11) The principle that municipalities owe their origins and derive their powers from
the states is called
b. Dillon's Rule.
c. charter power.
d. the township rule.
12) One of the most important features of home rule is that a local government is
a. legislate on any issue.
b. legislate on any issue that does not conflict with existing state law.
c. legislate on any issue that does not conflict with existing federal law.
d. legislate on any issue that does not conflict with existing state or
13) Half of all cities in the United States have what type of municipal government?
a. mayor and council
b. council and professional manager
d. town meeting
14) Under U.S. law and the Constitution, Indian tribes are
a. given the same rights and responsibilities as states.
b. ignored completely.
c. treated as totally foreign nations.
d. considered domestic dependent nations.
15) Local and state government budgets rely on as sources of revenue.
a. sales taxes
b. property taxes
c. income taxes and fees
1) States recognize and authorize the creation of local governments.
2) The state government is the unit of government that licenses and regulates
professions such as doctors, lawyers, barbers and dentists.
3) The intent of the authors of the original state constitutions was to empower state
4) State constitutions are relatively easy to amend and amendments occur
frequently to many state constitutions.
5) All governors have line-item and package veto powers.
6) Originally, most states had part-time, citizen legislatures.
7) All judges in state courts are selected by nonpartisan elections.
8) Every state is divided into subunits that are called “counties.”
9) The commission form of city government is the most widely used form in the
United States today.
10) Local governments rely primarily on sales taxes for their revenues.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST
nonpartisan and partisan elections
the goals of the writers of the state constitutions vs. those of the national
compacts, reservation land, and trust land
the powers of state governors and those of state legislatures
state and federal courts and laws
methods of judicial selection: elections (partisan and nonpartisan), choice by
legislature or governor, merit plans
initiative, referendum, and recall
county, municipality, and special district governments
municipal governments: mayor-council, mayor-manager, commission, town
types of gubernatorial vetoes