Standards scope and sequence test items specifications



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Standards

SCOPE AND SEQUENCE

TEST ITEMS SPECIFICATIONS

Benchmark SS.8.A.4.8 Strand A: American History Standard 4: Demonstrate an understanding of the domestic and international causes, course, and consequences of westward expansion. 

Benchmark SS.8.A.4.8: Describe the influence of individuals on social and political developments of this era in American History. Common Core State Standard Connections Indicate appropriate alignments to the CCSS Literacy Standards for Social Studies whenever applicable. (See Appendix B.)

 Benchmark Clarifications Examples may include, but are not limited to, Daniel Boone, Tecumseh, Black Hawk, John Marshall, James Madison, Dolly Madison, Andrew Jackson, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, James Polk, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, Horace Mann, Dorothea Dix, Lucretia Mott, Sojourner Truth, and Harriet Tubman. 

Content Limits Item content is limited to the scope and intent of the instructional benchmark as related to the M/J United States History course.

Standard 4: Demonstrate an understanding of the domestic and international causes, course, and consequences of westward expansion.

 Benchmark SS.8.A.4.17: Examine key events and peoples in Florida history as each impacts this era of American history. 

Common Core State Standard Connections Indicate appropriate alignments to the CCSS Literacy Standards for Social Studies whenever applicable. (See Appendix B.)

 Benchmark Clarifications Students will understand the actions of Andrew Jackson’s military expeditions and their impact on Florida and the nation. Students will understand the key events in Florida becoming a territory and then a state. Examples may include, but are not limited to, Andrew Jackson’s military expeditions to end Indian uprisings, developing relationships between the Seminole and runaway slaves, AdamsOnis Treaty, Florida becoming a United States territory, combining former East and West Floridas, establishing the first state capital, Florida’s constitution, Florida’s admittance to the Union as twenty-seventh state. Content Limits Item content is limited to the scope and intent of the instructional benchmark as related to the M/J United States History course.

Standard 4: Demonstrate an understanding of the domestic and international causes, course, and consequences of westward expansion. 

Benchmark SS.8.A.4.16: Identify key ideas and influences of Jacksonian democracy. 

Common Core State Standard Connections Indicate appropriate alignments to the CCSS Literacy Standards for Social Studies whenever applicable. (See Appendix B.)

 Benchmark Clarifications Students will discuss the expansion of voting rights gained during Andrew Jackson’s tenure as president. Students will discuss Andrew Jackson’s position on the Bank of the United States. Examples may include, but are not limited to, political participation, political parties, constitutional government, spoils system, National Bank veto, Maysville Road veto, tariff battles, Indian Removal Act, nullification crisis. Content Limits Item content is limited to the scope and intent of the instructional benchmark as related to the M/J United States History course.

Tuesday, January 26, 2016

Standards from Blueprint:

SS.8.A.4.1 Examine the causes, course, and consequences of United States westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness (War of 1812, Convention of 1818, Adams-Onis Treaty, Missouri Compromise, Monroe Doctrine, Trail of Tears, Texas annexation, Manifest Destiny, Oregon Territory, Mexican American War/Mexican Cession, California Gold Rush, Compromise of 1850, Kansas Nebraska Act, Gadsden Purchase)

SS.8.A.4.2 Describe the debate surrounding the spread of slavery into western territories and Florida. Examples may include, but are not limited to, abolitionist movement, Ft. Mose, Missouri Compromise, Bleeding Kansas, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Compromise of 1850.

SS.8.A.4.3 Examine the experiences and perspectives of significant individuals and groups during this era of American History. Examples may include, but are not limited to, Lewis and Clark, Sacajawea, York, Pike, Native Americans, Buffalo Soldiers, Mexicanos, Chinese immigrants, Irish immigrants, children, slaves, women, Alexis de Tocqueville, political parties

Objective: How did President James Monroe handle international affairs?

Bell Work: Page 345- Explain the quote from the Monroe Doctrine in your own words.

I Do- Review Common Board

We Do- Bell Work

You Do – In pairs, read Chapter 10 Section 2 pages 345- 348

Answer the following questions

Page 345


  1. In 1812, which counties were not under European control?

  2. Which European country controlled most of the territory in North and South America?

  3. Where was Spain’s control especially weak?

  4. Why do you think enslaved Africans were leaving plantations in Alabama and Georgia and escaping to Florida?

  5. Who did these Africans join when they were in Florida?

  6. Who was sent to recapture the runaway slaves?

  7. What did Andrew Jackson do when he was in Florida?

  8. In lieu of Andrew Jackson’s actions and Spain weak defense system, what did the Spanish decide to do?

  9. What was the name of the treaty?

PAGE 346

  1. Which revolutions inspired the Spanish colonies to declare independence from Spain?

  2. How did Father Miguel Hidalgo rebel against Spanish rule?

  3. What happened in 1821?

  4. What happened in 1823?

  5. Who was Simon Bolivar?

PAGE 347

  1. What happened in August 1819?

  2. Simon Bolivar became president of….

  3. What happened in 1822?

  4. What happened by 1825?

  5. Which countries indicated that they would help Spain regain its colonies in Latin America?

  6. What was John Quincy Adams advice to President Monroe?

  7. What were the major points of the Monroe Doctrine?

Page 348

  1. Why did the British give the Canadians the power of self- government?

  2. What was the Convention of 1818?

Essential Question: Do you think the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine because they were genuinely concerned about the safety and welfare of Central and South America or did we have ulterior motives?

Homework: Study for Midterm

Exit Ticket: How did the United States federal government gain power under President Monroe?

Wednesday, January 27, 2016

Objective: Today, I will begin the DBQ on Andrew Jackson… How democratic was Andrew Jackson?

Vocabulary- Electoral College, electors, republicanism, democracy, revolution, embezzle, calamity, mortified, idealistic, monopoly, foreign and domestic exchange, bureaucracy, wantonly, heretofore, manifestly, internal improvements, accelerated, inaugural. Tariff and Nullification Crisis.

Essential Question: After today’s exercise, do you think America is a true democratic society?

Ticket Out: List at least five rights you think should be included in a democratic society?

Materials: DBQ Hook Exercise, Pen or Pencil

Vocabulary- For the week**

Gradual Release
I DO – Pass out the DBQ and have the students peruse it to get comfortable with it and the question they are being asked to answer.
WE DO- Review the Hook Activity and begin reading the background essay
YOU DO- Complete hook activity with your group. Underline all of the words in the background essay that you do not understand. Write your own definition of democracy
If time permits, start…

BACKGROUND Essay… Have students read the Background Essay. Be sure they are oriented in time (see Time ESSAY Line) and place (see Map). The essay addresses four topics: Jackson's boyhood, his military career, his entry into presidential politics, and Jackson's notions about democracy.


HOOK EXERCISE

Exercise Unit III

How Democratic Was Andrew Jackson?

Defining Key Terms

There are many terms used in the study of history and social studies that feel very familiar but are hard to define. For example:

Just what is political power?

What is social change?

What exactly are civil rights?

What do we mean when we say America is a democratic society?

We do not have time here to examine all of these terms, but we will look briefly at the last.

What is democracy?



I. Looking at the Roots

“Kratos” is a Greek word that means strength or power. It is the root word for

“-ocracy” which is English for “rule or government by.” Therefore, if you had a pond that

was ruled by ducks you would have a “duckocracy.” Now, “duckocracy” is not a legitimate

word, but the following terms are. Match each with the correct defining term.

aristocracy rule by the rich

theocracy rule by one person

plutocracy rule by thieves

democracy rule by the nobility or titled people

meritocracy rule by disorganized bunches of people

kleptocracy rule by church leaders

mobocracy rule by the people

monarchy rule by the most capable
II. A Brief Consideration of Democracy.

In this document based question you will be asked if President Andrew Jackson was a true champion of democracy. If a person is honest-to-goodness democratic, which of the following does he or she have to support? Circle your answers. Be ready to explain your choices voting rights for all adults equal income for all working adults the right to run for political office complete freedom of speech dress codes in public schools abortion rights majority rule civil disobedience (breaking laws you think unjust)

Vocabulary: Aristocracy, theocracy, plutocracy, democracy, meritocracy, kleptocracy, monarchy and speculation.

Homework: None


Accommodations:

Check Comprehension

Think/Pair/Share

Smart Technology

Extra Time if Needed

Jackson DBQ Lesson Plan - Shorter Version (SV)

Thursday, January 28, 2016 – Friday, January 29, 2016
Objective- Today, I will read the background essay and begin my analysis of the DBQ documents?
Bell Work: What is your definition of democracy? Which issue do you feel President Obama should support to be describe as a “Champion of Democracy”?
Gradual Release
I DO – Review objective and bell work
WE DO- If it was not completed the day before, students will read background essay and underline all of the words they do not understand.
Then the students will bucket the documents according to their particular categories.

***After handing out the document packets, ask students to skim each of the documents. Ask what images, or ideas stand out. Next, ask students if there are any documents that can be grouped together. Explain that these groupings can be called analytical categories.

Homework For homework, ask students to read through the documents and finalize their analytical categories. They should then place each document in the appropriate category. Explain

to students that by doing this they are really formulating a simple outline. Outlines of document groupings are due at the beginning of the next class.




The Documents:

Document 1: Voting for Presidential Electors -A State-by-State View

Document 2: The Election of 1828: One Historian's View

Document 3: "King Andrew the First" (a cartoon)

Document 4: Jackson's Veto of the National Bank

Document 5: Daniel Webster's Reply to Jackson's Bank Veto Message

Document 6: Jackson Discusses Rotating Government Officials

Document 7: The Swartwout Case: A Study in Corruption

Document 8: Jackson on Native Americans and Indian Removal

Document 9: The Cherokee Plea

Document 10: Map - Indian Removal

Document 11: Jackson's Letters about His Adopted Native American Son


The Buckets
Jackson and America - Extending Power to the "Common Man"

Document 1: Voting for Presidential Electors - A State-by-State View

Document 2: The Election of 1828: One Historian's View
Jackson and the National Bank

Document 3: "King Andrew the Firsf' (a cartoon)

Document 4: Jackson's Veto of the National Bank

Document 5: Daniel Webster's Reply to Jackson's Bank Veto Message

128
Jackson and the Spoils System

Document 6: Jackson Discusses Rotating Government Officials

Document 7: The Swartwout Case: A Study in Corruption
Jackson and Native Americans

Document 8: Jackson on Native Americans and Indian Removal

Document 9: The Cherokee Plea

Document 10: Map - Indian Removal

Document 11: Jackson's Letters about His Adopted Native American Son

OR
Jackson and the Government

Document 1: Voting for Presidential Electors - A State-by-State View

Document 2: The Election of 1828: One Historian's View

Document 3: "King Andrew the First' (a cartoon)

Document 6: Jackson Discusses Rotating Government Officials

Document 7: The Swartwout Case: A Study in Corruption

Jackson and the National Bank

Document 3: "King Andrew the First' (a cartoon)

Document 4: Jackson's Veto of the National Bank

Document 5: Daniel Webster's Reply to Jackson's Bank Veto Message

128
Jackson and Native Americans

Document 8: Jackson on Native Americans and Indian Removal

Document 9: The Cherokee Plea

Document 10: Map - Indian Removal

Document 11: Jackson's Letters about His Adopted Native American Son

YOU DO- Read the documents and answer the corresponding questions. Then analyze the documents using the AP form ACAPS

Essential Questions/ Higher Level Questions/Ticket Outs: In a whole-class setting, discuss the following:


  • What can we learn by making connections between voter participation and the results of the 1828 election?

  • Do the data tend to prove or disprove the idea that Andrew Jackson appealed to the common man?

  • Why did sectional differences develop during the Jacksonian era, and how did they influence political beliefs and dominate political decision –making?

  • How did Andrew Jackson’s concept of democracy differ from that of Thomas Jefferson, and how did it affect the political system?

  • How were Jackson’s personality and political views reflected in his response to the political issues of his presidency?

  • What lasting changes were produced in the American political system during the Jacksonian Era?

  • Was Andrew Jackson a “ Champion of Democracy”?

DISCUSSION/ TEACHER NOTES

Teacher Document Notes - Shorter Version (SV)

Document 1 : Voting for Presidential Electors - A State-by-State View

Content Notes: Teaching Tips:

Both Documents 1 and 2 place Jackson in the By 1836 there were 25 states in the Union. Ask

middle of a larger democratizing spirit sweeping students how many states had already allowed the United States. It is important to note that people to elect the electors by 181 6. (1 3) Which

Jackson was both the product and the cause of states had already chosen this path? (See Map in

this wave of egalitarianism. (Background Essay.)

The Methods of Electing Presidential Electors chart is a good way of showing the shift in power from the wealthy elite, who still controlled many of the state legislatures, to the more common, less prosperous classes in society.

The framers of the Constitution saw the Electoral College as a way to keep less educated groups in society from making a bad decision when electing the President.

It is important to note that by the time Jackson was elected in 1828, the process of allowing the people to choose electors was nearly complete. Jackson did not cause this change, but he clearly benefitted from it. Ask students if this document helps answer the DBQ question. (Not really – it only provides a context for understanding Jackson's rise to power.) Ask students where this document might be used in their final essays. (in the introduction as they are setting up the question and providing background) The teacher might tell students that South Carolina is in a familiar role as rebel. The South Carolinians under the leadership of Jackson's first V.P, John C. Calhoun, had almost started a civil war with the Tariff and Nullification Crisis. They also were the first state to secede, of course, from the Union after Lincoln was elected in 1860.



Document 2: The Election of 1828: One Historian's View

Content Notes:

Remind students that the "Revolution of 1800" was the election of Thomas Jefferson and his defeat of the John Adams and Alexander Hamilton led Federalist Party. This peaceful transition of power from one party to another is a hallmark of American style democracy.

Remind students that Jackson was the first president from west of the Appalachian Mountains.

Not only was there a class shift in power, but a regional shift as well. This might also be a good time to share the story of Jackson's 1829 inauguration party held at the White House. At least one observer recounts that many of the 20,000 people who followed Jackson from his inauguration to the reception nearly pressed to death their new president as they tried to shake his hand. Not only were Jackson's clothes ripped, thousands of dollars of White House China was destroyed, ladies fainted, men left the party with bloody noses, and those who could not exit the party through the front door were seen climbing out the White House windows.

In this document and in Document 5, Daniel Webster comes across as an enemy of Jackson.

While it is true that Webster hated Jackson for political reasons, he did side with him on one of the most important issues of the 1830s, the Tariff and Nullification Crisis. Webster's insistence of the primacy of federal law over states' rights appealed to Jackson at least on the issue of the tariff.



Teaching Tips:

Emphasize to the students that this document does not really discuss any specific action of Andrew Jackson. It does not provide an answer to the question, was Jackson democratic. It does, however, suggest that because of Jackson a certain group of people felt connected to the government for the first time. Just like Document 1, this document might be referenced in the introduction or even the conclusion. Have students underline the single phrase from this document that they would like to quote in the essays. Ask why they chose what they did.



Document 3: "King Andrew the First" (a cartoon)

Content Notes: Teaching Tips:

Critics of Andrew Jackson believed he ignored the separation of powers among the three branches of government. Here Jackson stands with the veto power in hand, the Constitution under foot, and two key Congressional efforts -the re-chartering of the National Bank and an internal improvement bill (perhaps the Maysville Road bill) - under another foot. The cartoonist believes that Jackson is thwarting constitutional democracy. Note the wary American eagle holding up Jackson's work table. One gets the feeling that the nation may be on its last democratic leg. This cartoon appeared during the campaign for Jackson’s second term. Jackson won that election by a considerable margin receiving 55% of the popular vote and winning 219 electoral votes to 49 for runner-up Henry Clay. Apparently most voters did not see Jackson as a would-be king, or at least weren't fearful of the prospect.

Have students begin their cartoon analysis by -pointing out details. What is Jackson standing on?

(See Content Notes.) What does it mean when you "walk all over" something? What is holding up the table? Significance? (See Content Notes.) What is Jackson holding in his hands? (a veto sign and a scepter) What is a scepter? (a staff held by a ruler as a symbol of authority) What is Jackson wearing on his head? (A crown)Taking all the details together, what is the cartoonist’s? message? (See Content Notes.)



Document 4: Jackson's Veto of the National Bank

Content Notes: Teaching Tips: 1

Next to slavery, the most hotly debated issue in Congress in the entire 19th century may have been re-chartering the national bank. For Andrew Jackson, the bank pitted poor farmers and factory workers against those wealthy Americans who would take advantage of them. The bank could hurt the nation in several ways. One, it could limit the loans it gave out and make money tight. This hurt farmers who tend to be debtors and would benefit from being able to pay back with inflated dollars. Two, the bank hurt democracy by favoring certain Congressmen with lower interest loans, thereby influencing their votes on key issues. Jackson believed that he must destroy the bank in order to Relying entirely on the words in the document, ask students to explain why Jackson does not like the Bank of the United States. (1. Stock ownership isin the hands of foreigners and a few hundred rich Americans. 2. The directors of the bank are mostly chosen by the rich stockholders. 3. There is no one, therefore, looking out for the interest of the average American.)*Ask students if they can think of ways that the National Bank might actually hurt the average person. (See Content Notes.)

Ask students about how the National Bank might help the average person. Protect the people.

Document 5: Daniel Webster's Reply to Jackson's Bank Veto Message

Content Notes: Teaching Tips:

Daniel Webster, U.S. Senator from Massachusetts, was an adversary of Jackson. Webster represented Eastern banking interests. Indeed, at times he received a retainer fee from the National Bank for legal services. Historical footnote: Jackson eventually caused the fall of the National Bank by withdrawing government funds and placing them in state banks. The state banks created too many paper money loans for everybody's taste, Jackson included, which led Jackson to issue his Species Circular, requiring land mortgages to be paid off in gold or silver. This, and other factors, led to the Panic of 1837 and a depression. It could therefore be argued that, in the long run, Jackson hurt the very people he was seeking to help. But the majority of the American people loved him to the end. Ask students what arguments in Webster's reply 1might be used to show that Jackson's attack on the -bank was undemocratic. (Two possibilitiesexist: 1. Jackson's use of the presidential veto squashes the majority vote of both houses in Congress and extends the power of the president. 2. Jackson’s words encourage a kind of class war between rich and poor. Reading beyond Webster's words, this conflict would weaken the nation and democracy with it.)Do students feel Jackson's anti-bank position is democratic or undemocratic? Why?


Document 6: Jackson Discusses Rotating Government Officials

Content Notes:

This document is the first of two pertaining to the appointment of officeholders. Here Jackson standup for rotation of officers in government, aka the patronage system or the "spoils system."

Doing the math reveals that Jackson removed 9%of office holders during the first 18 months of his tenure. Apologists for Jackson have argued that given reasons like illness, corruption and

Incompetence, this is not an outrageous number. Jackson saw it as necessary house cleaning.



Teaching Tips: '1

Is if needed, explain to students the derivation of “spoils." (To the victor go the spoils. Spoils are the bounty of war just as the right to appoint friends to government positions is one of the perks of becoming a mayor, or a president. Patronage is a classic way to lock in political control: I appoint you; you help me get elected in the next election. It was widely used in cities like Chicago and Boston earlier in the 20th century.)

*Ask students what Jackson said to put a positive, pro-democracy spin on his appointment power. (He said he would use it to give more Americans an opportunity to participate in government and to weed out corruption and incompetence.)Do students buy Jackson's argument that the spoils system is really a democratic tool?
Document 7: The Swartwout Case: A Study in Corruption

Content Notes: Teaching Tips:

The collector of the Port of New York collected tar- Review the main idea of the document. (Swartwout if on goods arriving in New York harbor. was an embarrassment to Jackson;

Opponents of Jackson saw rotation in office as just behavior made Jackson's position on the spoils a political device Jackson was using to get his buddy Stem look dies government jobs. It was another instance of Jackson's abusing his presidential powers andundercutting the smooth running of government. The Swartwout case was proof of the pudding.When the story of Swartwout's theft became public, Swarhvout quickly fled to France, and Jackson wasleft angry and embarrassed. Some 50 years later, in 1883, Congress passed the Pendleton Act which created a non-partisan Civil Service Commission and established a competitive examination system for granting many government jobs. It is a system we still have. Mention the Pendleton Act reform described above. Ask students if Andrew Jackson would have supported this reform. (This is an interesting question because it would have limited Jackson’s appointment opportunities. Is the Pendleton Act more democratic than the spoils system Jackson embraced?)Ask students, when all is said and done, if Jackson’s ideas and actions regarding appointment to government jobs were democratic or undemocratic.
Q Document 8: Jackson on Native Americans and Indian Removal

Content Notes: Teaching Tips:

Most students will have difficulty, as they should, *Ask students if they think Indian removal was an -.giving Jackson's position on Indian removal an undemocratic or a democratic act? Why? Democratic spin. Indeed, removal appears to run students at least to consider Jackson's side of the counter to the many reform efforts - abolitionism, argument. (See Content Notes.) Temperance, and public education - that were why Jackson’s arguments should be either beginning to emerge. Accepted or rejected? It is likely that Andrew Jackson sincerely believed that removal was the only way to save the eastern and southern Indian tribes from extinction. At least, that is what he argues here. It is a question that every president before him wrestled with. Jackson also believed that since it had the approval of most Americans (certainly not all) and since it promoted the security and economic welfare of many Americans, removal was an act in the interest of most of the people. In that sense it was democratic. Jackson went to extraordinary lengths to carry out this policy, including ignoring an 1835 ruling by the Supreme Court that supported Cherokee rights of sovereignty in Georgia.


Document 9: The Cherokee Plea

Content Notes:

It is important to stress, as it is in any discussion of large scale oppression, that the Cherokee were not passive victims. Any decent American history textbook will relate that the Cherokee, along with several other Indian tribes, decided that survival required adapting to the ways of White America.

The Cherokee settled in towns and farms. Some converted to Christianity. Schools and churches were built, and Sequoya, the great Cherokee Chief, created an alphabet. There were even some Cherokee who ran cotton plantations with slave labor. Despite all of these efforts to assimilate, Jackson insisted that Native Americans could never peacefully live alongside Americans. The Cherokee eventually took their case to the U.S. Supreme Court. In Worcester K Georgia, the Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice John Marshall, upheld the Cherokee right to establish their own nation within the state of Georgia. Jackson ignored the decision and allowed Georgia to pressure the Cherokee into ceding their lands in1835.The Indian Removal issue was hotly debated in Congress throughout the 1820s and 1830s. Many people in the country, especially in New England, felt it was unjust to deny Native Americans a right to their ancestral homelands.
Teaching Tips:

*Ask students to list the reasons the Cherokee do not want to move. An interesting discussion always emerges when students are asked to rank the strongest of the Cherokee's arguments.


Content Notes. Ask why Jackson was able to ignore the Supreme Court's decision. (maybe

because he knew the majority in Congress supported his position and impeachment was unlikely)

This might be a good time to discuss the concept of tyranny of the majority. Students often equate majority rule with justice and democracy. Help students broaden their definitions of democracy by brainstorming times in history when the will of the majority denied basic rights to the minority. Does a true democracy exist only when the basic rights of all are protected?*Ask students if the Cherokee today deserve their lands back. Some will say it's too late. The issue of

reparations for many different groups flow naturally from this document.


Essential Question: Do you think Andrew Jackson was democratic?

Ticket Out – What did you learn from this DBQ?


Guided Essay: Was Andrew Jackson Democratic?

  1. Introduction

  1. Grabber

  2. Background on Andrew Jackson

  3. Restatement of the Question

  4. Thesis and Roadmap- Andrew Jackson was/ was not democratic because_____________1st reason, __________________ 2nd reason and ________________ 3rd reason

  1. Body Paragraph Reason 1________________

  1. Baby Thesis One reason Andrew Jackson was/was not democratic _________

  2. Evidence- Use a document to provide 2 or 3 details

  3. Argument- This evidence shows that Andrew Jackson was/was not democratic

  1. Body Paragraph Reason 2________________

  1. Baby Thesis One reason Andrew Jackson was/was not democratic _________

  2. Evidence- Use a document to provide 2 or 3 details

  3. Argument- This evidence shows that Andrew Jackson was/was not democratic

  1. Body Paragraph Reason 3________________

  1. Baby Thesis One reason Andrew Jackson was/was not democratic _________

  2. Evidence- Use a document to provide 2 or 3 details

  3. Argument- This evidence shows that Andrew Jackson was/was not democratic

  1. Conclusion- Restate your thesis

  1. Summarize key ideas of your argument

  2. Explain why this question is significant. Why is it important to judge whether an American President is democratic or not?

Essential Question: Do you think Andrew Jackson was democratic?

Ticket Out – What did you learn from this DBQ?

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