Standard vus. 10a The student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II by



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Mrs. Knapp US History

Unit 11: World War II

SOL Review

STANDARD VUS.10a


The student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II by


a) analyzing the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including military assistance to Britain and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

Essential Understanding

The United States gradually abandoned neutrality as events in Europe and Asia pulled the nations toward war.



Essential Knowledge

The war in Europe

World War II began with Hitler’s invasion of Poland in 1939, followed shortly after by the Soviet Union’s invasion of Poland from the east and the Baltic countries.

During the first two years of the war, the United States stayed officially neutral as Germany overran France, most of Europe, and pounded Britain from the air (the Battle of Britain). In mid-1941, Hitler turned on his former partner and invaded the Soviet Union.

Despite strong isolationist sentiment at home, the United States increasingly helped Britain. It gave Britain war supplies and old naval warships in return for military bases in Bermuda and the Caribbean. Soon after, the Lend-Lease Act gave the President authority to sell or lend equipment to countries to defend themselves against the Axis powers. Franklin Roosevelt compared it to “lending a garden hose to a next-door neighbor whose house is on fire.”



The war in Asia

During the 1930s a militaristic Japan invaded and brutalized Manchuria and China as it sought military and economic domination over Asia. The United States refused to recognize Japanese conquests in Asia and imposed an embargo on exports of oil and steel to Japan. Tensions rose but both countries negotiated to avoid war.

While negotiating with the U.S. and without any warning, Japan carried out an air attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941. The attack destroyed much of the American Pacific fleet and killed several thousand Americans. Roosevelt called it “a date that will live in infamy” as he asked Congress to declare war on Japan.

After Pearl Harbor, Hitler honored a pact with Japan and declared war on the United States. The debates over isolationism in the United States were over. World War II was now a true world war and the United States was fully involved.


STANDARD VUS.10b


The student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II by


  1. Describing and locating the major battles and turning points of the war in North Africa, Europe, and the Pacific, including Midway, Stalingrad, the Normandy landing (D-Day), and Truman’s decision to use the atomic bomb to force the surrender of Japan.

Essential Understanding

Wartime strategies reflect the political and military goals of alliances, resources on hand, and the geographical extent of the conflict.



Essential Knowledge

Allied strategy

America and its allies (Britain and the Soviet Union, after being invaded by Germany), followed a “Defeat Hitler First” strategy. Most American military resources were targeted for Europe.

In the Pacific, American military strategy called for an “island hopping” campaign, seizing islands closer and closer to Japan and using them as bases for air attacks on Japan, and cutting off Japanese supplies through submarine warfare against Japanese shipping.

Axis strategy

Germany hoped to defeat the Soviet Union quickly, gain control of Soviet oil fields, and force Britain out of the war through a bombing campaign and submarine warfare before America’s industrial and military strength could turn the tide.

Following Pearl Harbor, Japan invaded the Philippines and Indonesia and planned to invade both Australia and Hawaii. Its leaders hoped that America would then accept Japanese predominance in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, rather than conduct a bloody and costly war to reverse Japanese gains.

Major battles and military turning points

North Africa

El Alamein—German forces threatening to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal were defeated by the British. This defeat prevented Hitler from gaining access to Middle Eastern oil supplies and potentially attacking the Soviet Union from the south.



Europe

Stalingrad—Hundreds of thousands of German soldiers were killed or captured in a months-long siege of the Russian city of Stalingrad. This defeat prevented Germany from seizing the Soviet oil fields and turned the tide against Germany in the east.

Normandy landings (D-Day)— American and Allied troops under Eisenhower landed in German-occupied France on June 6, 1944. Despite intense German opposition and heavy American casualties, the landings succeeded and the liberation of western Europe from Hitler had begun.

Pacific

Midway—In the “Miracle of Midway,” American naval forces defeated a much larger Japanese force as it prepared to seize Midway Island. Coming only a few months after Pearl Harbor, a Japanese victory at Midway would have enabled Japan to invade Hawaii. The American victory ended the Japanese threat to Hawaii and began a series of American victories in the “island hopping” campaign that carried the war closer and closer to Japan.

Iwo Jima and Okinawa—The American invasions of the islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa brought American forces closer than ever to Japan, but both invasions cost thousands of American lives and even more Japanese lives, as Japanese soldiers fought fiercely over every square inch of the islands and Japanese soldiers and civilians committed suicide rather than surrender.

Use of the atomic bomb—Facing the prospect of horrendous casualties among both Americans and Japanese if American forces had to invade Japan itself, President Harry Truman ordered the use of atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to force the Japanese to surrender. Tens of thousands of people were killed in both cities. Shortly after the bombs were used, the Japanese leaders surrendered, avoiding the need for American forces to invade Japan.


STANDARD VUS.10c


The student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II by


c) describing the role of all-minority military units, including the Tuskegee Airmen and Nisei regiments.

Essential Understanding

World War II solidified the nation’s role as a global power and ushered in social changes and established reform agendas that would preoccupy public discourse in the United States for the remainder of the 20th century. Women entered into previously male job roles as African Americans and others struggled to obtain desegregation of the armed forces and end discriminatory hiring practices. 



Essential Knowledge

Minority participation

African Americans generally served in segregated military units and were assigned to non-combat roles but demanded the right to serve in combat rather than support roles.



All-Minority military units

Tuskegee Airmen (African American) served in Europe with distinction.

Nisei regiments (Asian American) earned a high number of decorations.

Additional contributions of minorities

Communication codes of the Navajo were used (oral, not written language; impossible for the Japanese to break).

Mexican Americans also fought, but in units not segregated.

Minority units suffered high casualties and won numerous unit citations and individual medals for bravery in action.



STANDARD VUS.10d


The student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II by


d) examing the Geneva Convention and the treatment of prisoners of war during World War II.

Essential Understanding

The conduct of war often reflects social and moral codes of a nation.

The treatment of prisoners of war often reflected the savage nature of conflict and the cultural norms of the nation.

Essential Knowledge

The Geneva Convention attempted to ensure the humane treatment of prisoners of war by establishing rules to be followed by all nations.

The treatment of prisoners in the Pacific Theater often reflected the savagery of the fighting there.

In the Bataan Death March, American POWs suffered brutal treatment by Japanese after surrender of the Philippines.

Japanese soldiers often committed suicide rather than surrender.

The treatment of prisoners in Europe more closely followed the ideas of the Geneva Convention.


STANDARD VUS.10e


The student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II by


e) analyzing the Holocaust (Hitler’s “final solution”), its impact on Jews and other groups, and postwar trials of war criminals.

Essential Understanding

Specific groups, often the object of hatred and prejudice, face increased risk of discrimination during wartime.



Essential Knowledge

Terms to know

Genocide: The systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group

Final solution: Germany’s decision to exterminate all Jews

Affected groups

Jews


Poles

Slavs


Gypsies

“Undesirables” (homosexuals, mentally ill, political dissidents)



Significance

In the Nuremberg trials, Nazi leaders and others were convicted of war crimes.

The Nuremberg trials emphasized individual responsibility for actions during a war, regardless of orders received.

The trials led to increased demand for a Jewish homeland.


STANDARD VUS.11a


The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front by


a) explaining how the United States mobilized its economic, human, and military resources.

Essential Understanding

Success in the war required the total commitment of the nation’s resources. On the home front, public education and the mass media promoted nationalism.



Essential Knowledge

Economic resources

U.S. government and industry forged a close working relationship to allocate resources effectively.

Rationing was used to maintain supply of essential products to the war effort.

War bonds and income tax were used for financing the war.

Business retooled from peacetime to wartime production (e.g., car manufacturing to tank manufacturing).

Human resources

More women and minorities entered the labor force as men entered the armed forces.

Citizens volunteered in support of the war effort.

Military resources

The draft/selective service was used to provide personnel for the military.



STANDARD VUS.11b


The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front by


b) describing the contributions of women and minorities to the war effort.

Essential Understanding

Contributions to a war effort come from all segments of a society. Women entered into previously male job roles as African Americans and others struggled to obtain desegregation of the armed forces and end discriminatory hiring practices.



Essential Knowledge

Women during World War II

Women increasingly participated in the workforce to replace men serving in the military (e.g., Rosie the Riveter).

They typically participated in non-combat military roles.

African Americans during World War II

African Americans migrated to cities in search of jobs in war plants.

They campaigned for victory in war and equality at home.

STANDARD VUS.11c


The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front by


c) explaining the internment of Japanese Americans during the war.

Essential Understanding

Prejudice, coupled with wartime fears, can affect civil liberties of minorities.



Essential Knowledge

Reasons for internment

Strong anti-Japanese prejudice on the West Coast

False belief that Japanese Americans were aiding the enemy

Internment of Japanese Americans

Japanese Americans were re-located to internment camps.

Internment affected Japanese American populations along the West Coast. The Supreme Court upheld the government’s right to act against Japanese Americans living on the West Coast of the United States. A public apology was eventually issued by the U.S. government. Financial payment was made to survivors.

STANDARD VUS.11d


The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front by


d) describing the role of media and communications in the war effort.

Essential Understanding

During World War II, the media and entertainment industries saw their role as supporting the war effort by promoting nationalism.



Essential Knowledge

Media/Communications assistance

The U.S. government maintained strict censorship of reporting of the war.

Public morale and ad campaigns kept Americans focused on the war effort.

The entertainment industry produced movies, plays, and shows that boosted morale and patriotic support for the war effort as well as portrayed the enemy in stereotypical ways.



World War II

The War in Europe

The War in Asia

  • Began – Hitler’s invasion of ___________ in ________, followed shortly by Soviet Union’s invasion of Poland from the east

  • US stayed officially neutral for first two years as Germany overran France, most of Europe and pounded Britain from the air (______________________)

  • Hitler turned on former partner and invaded _______________ (1941)

  • US helped Britain with war supplies, old warships in return for military bases in Caribbean (______-_______ Act) – Roosevelt compared to “lending a __________ to a next door neighbor whose house is on fire”

  • Japan invaded and brutalized ________________ and _________ (1930s)

  • US refused to recognize Japanese conquests and imposed an _____________ on exports of oil and steel to Japan

  • While still negotiating with the US, Japan attacked the naval base of ___________________, Hawaii on December 7, 1941. Much of the American Pacific fleet was destroyed with thousands dead.

  • Roosevelt called it “a date that will live in infamy” while asking Congress to declare war on ___________

  • After Pearl Harbor, Hitler honored his pact with Japan and declared war on the _____________________

Allied Strategy

  • America and its allies (___________ and _______________) followed a “Defeat _________ First” strategy

  • Most American military resources were targeted for ___________

  • In the Pacific, American military strategy called for an “__________________” campaign seizing islands closer and closer to Japan and then using them for air bases. Submarine warfare was used against Japanese shipping.

Axis Strategy

  • Germany hoped to defeat the Soviet Union quickly and gain control of the Soviet _____________.

  • Germany hoped to force __________ out of the war through a bombing campaign and submarine warfare before America’s industrial and military strength could turn the tide. This campaign was called _____________________________.

  • Following Pearl Harbor, Japan invaded the ____________________ and ______________ and planned to invade both Australia and Hawaii. Its leaders hoped that America would then accept Japanese predominance in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, rather than conduct a bloody and costly war to reverse Japanese gains.

Minority Participation in World War II

  • African Americans generally served in segregated military units and were assigned to non-combat roles but demanded to serve in combat rather than support roles.

  • The African American military unit that served in Europe with distinction was the _________________________________.

  • Asian American units that earned a high number of decorations were called __________ regiments.

  • Communication codes of the ___________ were used (oral, not written language; impossible for the Japanese to break.)

  • Mexican Americans also fought, but in units not ___________________.

  • Minority units suffered high casualties and won numerous unit citations and individual medals for bravery in action.

Major Battles and Military Turning Points

Europe

Pacific

  • STALINGRAD

    • Russian defeat prevented ___________ from seizing Soviet oil fields and turned tide against ___________ in the east.




  • NORMANDY LANDINDS (D-DAY)

    • American and Allied troops under ____________________________ landed in German occupied France on ___________________

    • Heavy casualties

    • Landing succeeded and liberation of ____________________ from Hitler began

  • MIDWAY

    • “Miracle of Midway” American Navy defeated __________ as it prepared to seize Midway Island

    • A Japanese victory at __________ would have enabled Japan to invade Hawaii

    • Began series of American victories in “___________________”




  • IWO JIMA AND OKINAWA

    • Brought American forces closer than ever to ___________

    • Many losses on both sides

    • Japanese soldiers and civilians committed ___________ rather than surrender




  • HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI

    • Rather than invade Japan itself and suffer more casualties President _________________ ordered use of atomic bombs

    • Shortly after, Japanese leaders surrendered

North Africa

  • EL ALAMEIN

    • German forces threatening to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal were defeated by the _____________

    • Defeat prevented Hitler from gaining access to Middle Eastern ______________ and potentially attacking the Soviet Union from the south

The Geneva Convention

The Geneva Convention attempted to ensure the humane treatment of prisoners of war by establishing rules to be followed by all nations. The treatment of prisoners in the Pacific Theater often reflected the savagery of the fighting there.



  • In the _________________________ American POWs suffered brutal treatment by Japanese after surrender of the ______________________.

  • Japanese soldiers often committed suicide rather than surrender.

  • The treatment of prisoners in Europe more closely followed the ideas of the _____________________________.

Hatred and Prejudice

  • Holocaust – Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, “undesirables”

  • __________________________ emphasized individual responsibility regardless of orders received

  • Trials led to increased demand for a ______________________

Terms to Know

_________________: The systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group


Final Solution: Germany’s __________________________________

Nationalism

    • Success in the war required the total commitment of the nation’s resources.

Resources

Economic Resources

Human Resources

Military Resources

  • Rationing

  • War bonds and _____________

  • Business retooled from peacetime to wartime production: an example –

____________________

____________________



  • Women and _______________ entered workforce

  • Citizen _____________

  • Draft/selective service

Women and Minorities During World War II

  • _____________________ represented women who increasingly participated in the workforce to replace men who were serving in the military. Women typically participated in _________________ roles.

  • African Americans migrated to cities in search of jobs in ____________________ -- and campaigned for victory in war and equality at home.

Treatment of Japanese Americans

  • There was strong ________________________ prejudice on the West Coast.

  • There was a false belief that ______________________ Americans were aiding the enemy.

  • Japanese Americans were relocated to ________________________________.

Media/Communications Assistance

  • The US government maintained strict __________________ of reporting of the war.

  • Public morale and _______________________ kept Americans focused on the war effort.

  • The entertainment industry produced movies, plays, and shows that ________________________________ and ___________________________________ as well as portrayed the enemy in stereotypical ways.


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