Standard 3 pass review Multiple Choice



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Name_________________ Date__________
Standard 3 PASS Review
Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. South Carolina native John Calhoun first became a national figure when he became one of the leading War Hawks in the United States congress. The term "War Hawk" described which of the following groups?


a.

War veterans who had entered into politics after their military careers had ended.

b.

Eager young Republicans who pushed for war against England prior to the War of 1812.

c.

Dedicated Federalists who interfered with Republican campaigns to keep them out of political office.

d.

Men who opposed war at all costs, even if it meant being forced to make a payment to enemy nations to keep the peace.

____ 2. For several decades, citizens living in the Upstate of South Carolina were frustrated that the citizens in the Lowcountry dictated most of the state's politics. How did the invention of the cotton gin in the late 1790s shift this balance of power?




a.

It took the place of slave labor. This helped farmers in the Upstate who did not have any slaves, and hurt farmers in the Lowcountry who had hundreds of slaves.

b.

It limited the exportation of cotton. This hurt merchants working at the ports in Charleston, but helped Upstate farmers who sold their crops locally.

c.

It decreased the value of cotton. This put a great strain on the plantations in the Lowcountry, but finally enabled Upstate farmers to compete.

d.

It helped cotton plantation to thrive in the Upstate. This gave the growing number of wealthy plantation owners more negotiating power with citizens living in the Lowcountry.

____ 3. When the War of 1812 ended, very little land changed hands and England did not agree to all of the demands of the United States. Still, Americans felt that the war was a great victory because:




a.

the United States proved that it could compete militarily with the world powers of Europe.

b.

the United States gained important allies during the war, specifically Spain and France.

c.

the United States was able to continue using slave labor despite the British objection to it.

d.

the United States was able to make a great profit by selling the British pieces of land in Canada that was useless to American citizens.

____ 4. After the War of 1812 ended, the morale in America improved and citizens began to feel united as a country. A term often used to describe this patriotic feeling is:




a.

Realism

b.

Isolationism

c.

Nationalism

d.

Conservatism

____ 5. Which of the following statements is true about the changes in the population of the United States between 1790 and 1820?




a.

The population more than doubled, and many people started to move to areas further to the West.

b.

The population of African Americans decreased because the northern states stopped using slave labor.

c.

The population switched from being mostly Protestant to being mostly Catholic.

d.

The population of immigrants decreased because the United States closed its borders after the War of 1812.

____ 6. The period following the War of 1812 was defined by a strong feeling of nationalism, a booming economy, and a rise of confidence in the United States. This period, from 1815 to 1824, is often called:




a.

The Era of Good Feelings

b.

The Age of Enlightenment

c.

The Progressive Era

d.

The Temperance Movement

____ 7. In the early 1800s, the Second Great Awakening swept across America, largely resembling the first movement that took place during the 1730s and 1740s. What were these "Great Awakenings"?




a.

Scientific advancements

b.

Cultural revolutions

c.

Political rebellions

d.

Religious revivals

____ 8. For the most part, South Carolina did not become an industrial state until the 20th century. However, in the mid-1800s, the first signs of industry did start to appear.


The first major industry to take hold in South Carolina during the 19th century produced which products?


a.

textiles

b.

firearms

c.

glass

d.

chemicals

____ 9. Which of the following statements is true about the changes in the population of African slaves from 1790 to 1820?




a.

The population of African slaves remained the same because, while the use of slave labor was common, it became illegal to import slaves from overseas.

b.

The population of African slaves decreased because, while more blacks worked in the fields, most of them were getting paid small wages instead of being forced to work.

c.

The population of African slaves increased drastically as cotton plantations thrived.

d.

The population of African slaves decreased because most of the black people living in South Carolina moved to the North to avoid the hardships of slavery.

____ 10. The invention of the cotton gin immediately made it more profitable to grow cotton and it revolutionized agriculture in South Carolina. Which of the following explains the exact task that the cotton gin performed?




a.

It soaked the cotton fibers in chemicals to make them strong enough to use in textiles.

b.

It dyed the cotton white, making it much more appealing to the consumer market.

c.

It picked the cotton from the plant.

d.

It separated cotton fibers from the cotton seeds.

____ 11. The cotton gin separated cotton fibers from the cotton seeds, a task that was very labor intensive. Why did the invention of cotton gin increase the need for slaves by reducing the need for labor to complete this task?




a.

The cotton gin was very expensive, and only the very large plantations used them. However, this made cotton a competitive crop, and smaller plantations (without a cotton gin) had to use more slaves to stay in business.

b.

The cotton gin made it more profitable to grow cotton. This increased the number and size of cotton plantations, so more slaves were needed to pick the cotton.

c.

The cotton gin did save time on labor, but it was an extremely complicated machine. Therefore, more slaves were needed to operate the cotton gin.

d.

The cotton gin only gathered the fiber and crushed the cotton seeds. Slaves were still needed to physically pick through the fibers and pull out the seeds.

____ 12. A major section of the State Road in South Carolina was completed in 1829. This was just one of the many internal improvements being made within the state during that time. Which of the following describes the main purpose for building the State Road?




a.

To raise revenue for the local governments (the road was maintained by individual counties and towns, and each charged a toll to those who traveled on it).

b.

To make sure that all of the African slaves were working on a task (this helped prevent any slave rebellions).

c.

To limit trading with other states (the road encouraged merchants to trade only within the boundaries of South Carolina).

d.

To make it easy to travel from Charleston to Columbia (and later to the Western areas of the state).

____ 13. In the early 1800s, South Carolina contained a series of canals throughout the state that encouraged transportation and trade. Which of the following gives the best definition for the word "canal"?




a.

Any body of water that is drained annually during the rainy season (to prevent flooding)

b.

An artificial waterway.

c.

A natural body of water that is convenient for travel and shipping

d.

An unpaved or gravel roadway

____ 14. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 established the southern boundary of Missouri as an important political divider. According to the compromise, what did this line divide?




a.

Agricultural states and industrial states.

b.

New slave states and new free states

c.

The Union and the Confederacy

d.

Established states and unorganized territories

____ 15. John Marshall was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835. He had a number of influential cases, including Marbury vs. Madison. This established the principle of judicial review, which:




a.

allowed the media to closely follow and review all Supreme Court cases.

b.

gave the Supreme Court the power to decide if acts of Congress were constitutional.

c.

prevented any higher authority (including the President) from questioning the decisions of the Supreme Court.

d.

gave the public a right to vote on Supreme Court decisions, thus giving power to the majority.

____ 16. As Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835, John Marshall oversaw a number of important cases. His most influential case may have been McCulloch v. Maryland, which officially upheld the Bank of the United States.


The more significant outcome of this case was that it:


a.

established the power of the federal government over all state governments.

b.

prevented the federal government from interfering in the economic affairs of private companies.

c.

determined the types of currency that are used in the United States.

d.

made it legal for a bank to loan money to people and businesses, and to charge interest on that money.

____ 17. Andrew Jackson is often considered to be the first United States president who was a "common man." What does this mean?




a.

He was not born into an Elite family, but instead grew up poor and managed to rise up through the political ranks.

b.

He did not serve in the military or in any previous political office, as most presidents before him had done.

c.

He was extremely prejudiced, and did not support women, African Americans, or anyone else who was not a "common man."

d.

He was extremely friendly and mild-mannered, and made very few enemies as president.

____ 18. Andrew Jackson was accused of using the spoils system when he was elected office, but his supporters defended him by noting, "To the victor go the spoils."


Which of the following were critics referring to when they claimed Jackson was abusing the "spoils system"?


a.

Jackson used his meager upbringing to connect with the common people of America.

b.

Jackson constantly vetoed (or voted against) Congress when it passed laws he did not like.

c.

Jackson filled federal offices with personal friends and those who were loyal to him.

d.

Jackson openly disagreed with his Vice-president, John Calhoun.

____ 19. Which of the following best describes a typical complaint that a South Carolinian might have about the federal government during the Nullification Crisis of the 1830s?




a.

The federal government is trying to put an end to the plantation system in South Carolina.

b.

The federal government is trying to stop individual states from trading with one another.

c.

The federal government is trying to deny South Carolina representation in the Senate.

d.

The federal government is trying to infringe on the laws and rights of the individual states.

____ 20. American politics changed drastically during the mid-1800s. Politicians began to hold rallies, barbecues, and parades to convince people to vote.


This transformation is largely because Andrew Jackson and his "Jacksonian Democracy" stressed that:


a.

politicians need to be able to handle the difficult issues of the country, and the American people should be spared of the stress, anxiety, and confusion.

b.

politicians should appeal to the masses and no group should have more privileges than another group.

c.

political elections should be a friendly and peaceful affair, and the days of "dirty politics" are over.

d.

politicians should be elected by a majority vote only, and the electoral college should be eliminated.

____ 21. Andrew Jackson was not liked by everyone. Three influential senators--John Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster--constantly argued with him on the issues and they even formed a political party to oppose Andrew Jackson.


This political party became known as the:


a.

Federalist Party

b.

Republican Party

c.

Communist Party

d.

Whig Party

____ 22. Denmark Vesey was a former slave in South Carolina who managed to purchase his own freedom. In 1822, Vesey organized an event that, when his plans were discovered, led to his hanging.


What was the event that Vesey was trying to organize?


a.

An assassination of John Calhoun

b.

A plot to burn large cotton plantations

c.

A massive slave rebellion

d.

A strike of all government workers

____ 23. In a way, the Vesey Plot had the opposite outcome that was intended. The slave rebellion led to more slave codes (laws to control the African slaves) and more defenses to protect the white population. It also changed the attitude of South Carolinians towards the institution of slavery.


Which of the following describes this change in attitude?


a.

Instead of closely dictating the entire life of their slaves, South Carolinians decided that it was better to let the slaves have some degree of freedom.

b.

Instead of looking at the institution of slavery fairly, South Carolinians began to defend slavery just on principle.

c.

Instead of viewing the African slaves as non-threatening, South Carolinians began to realize that they could be extremely smart and crafty.

d.

Instead of supporting the institution of slavery, South Carolinians began to feel that it was too risky and difficult.

____ 24. Sarah and Angelina Grimke were two sisters born in Charleston, but who moved North to join the Religious Society of Friends, or the "Quakers." The Grimke sisters then gained national fame by:




a.

convincing thousands of citizens in South Carolina to become Quakers.

b.

becoming the first females to vote in a national election.

c.

sharing the methods of the plantation system (commonly used in South Carolina) with Northern farmers.

d.

speaking out against the cruelties of slavery.

____ 25. In 1828, Andrew Jackson supported a tariff (or tax) on materials arriving from Europe. This tariff sparked the




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