( Тeaching the history of stalinism through Internet)
The purpose of the given message is
to analyse Internet educational potential in the field of teaching the topic "Stalin and stalinism",
to judge some experience of using such analysis from the point of the opportunities which network Internet has for educational purposes.
World information INTERNET network is the new scientific and educational environment of historical science and education.
The further development of Internet educational opportunities, the increasing of efficiency and quality of scientific and educational resources demands the development of problems of their creation and use, the regular account and the analysis.
Such work is already conducted.
Within the framework of historical computer science such direction as Internet historiography (the history of historical ideas in Internet) is determined and is developing now. The historiography of scientific and educational historical resources of Internet becomes an organic component of historiography as a whole.
Specific "computer" character of Internet information resources, environments and forms of their creation and visualization, preservation and organization creates opportunities for enriching methodical arsenal of historiographic research by new means and methods of the analysis. The development and perfection of such means, methods and techniques of their application also makes actual the study and analysis of Internet resources.
I mean the opportunity of application of quantitative methods of the substantial analysis of files of historical resources, applications of technologies of the databases, the computer aided content-analysis, methods of artificial intellect, computer modeling for historiographic research.
To our opinion it will results in the occurrence of a new direction in a historiography - a computer historiography and new type of historiographic researches - the computer aided historiographic research.
Considering the problem of creation and use of Internet resources, historians address to the analysis of Internet resources on separate subjects and problems of historical science and education.
The most necessary analysis of resources is linked to the problems, which are:
First, problems, actual from the point of view of development of modern historical science and education and which cause public interest;
Second, problems, which are submitted by the big and dynamically increasing files of Internet-resources.
The selected topic "Stalin and stalinism" in Internet is delivered to such problems.
For the analysis of the opportunities of studying the historical problems of Stalin and stalinism through Internet we reveale the content of files of Internet resources on this problem with the help of toolkits available in Internet itself.
The revealing was carried out on basic keywords and word collocations with the help of search engines.
In Russian-speaking segment of Internet - by Yandex. pic. 1
In speaking another language - by «Alta Vista». pic. 2
The basic keywords, word collocations and results of searching are submitted in pictures 3.
The received results became a basis for the quantitative analysis.
The totalInternet resources containing the information of various character on the topic "Stalin and stalinism" include more than one hundred thousand files.
The number of links to resources during the search category “Stalin” contains (according to our data 28.07.03.)
In Yandex - (pages/servers) 357267/ not more than 3605
In «Alta Vista»- 333,200 results
The number of links to resources during the search category “Stalinism” contains (according to our data 28.07.03.)
In Yandex - (pages/servers) 27774/ not more than 779
In «Alta Vista»- 27,728 results
Thus, there is a rather significant amount of resources on the topic "Stalin and stalinism" in Internet network today. Its presence allows to draw a relative conclusion on the rather essential educational potential which has Internet on the considered problem.
The thematic distribution of resourcesin the network also was received with the help of the specified methods of search of the data.
They are submitted in the tables 1, 2, and others.
From the received data it is visible that:
Now Russian-speaking Internet segment contains resources, on such thematic directions as
· I.V.Stalin's biographies;
· Stalin totalitarianism, a Stalin mode, Stalin dictatorship,
The diagram constructed on the basis of received data shows:
The greatest amount of the resources concerns to such subjects as Stalin totalitarianism, dictatorship, regime, reprisals, terror. It is a lot of resources containing biographies and the information on them. The essential place is occupied
by resources on the following subjects: Stalin and war, Stalin - the leader, Stalin, Stalin policy.
In general, from our point of view, such thematic distribution of Internet resources corresponds to the scientific and public interest to Stalin's and stalinism problems nowdays in Russia.
As it was marked, the data for the analysis of the speaking another language segment of the network were received with the help of the search engine Alta Vista. Its particular feature is, that it automatically distributes resources on thematic headings.
So, the resources searching of the keyword "Stalin", are distributed on the following basic headings:
Comparison of thematic distribution of resources in Russian-speaking and speaking another language segments of Internet shows both – similarity and differences. They, in our opinion, reflect features of approaches and interests of foreign science and public to the topic "Stalin and stalinism".
It is interesting to mind the thematic distribution of resources in speaking another language INTERNET segment by searching a keyword "stalinism".
It is submitted in the table and on the diagram. (табл. 6)
So they are distributed on the following basic headings:
· Soviet Union,
· Working Class,
Thus it is necessary to note, that by the further search within the framework of the chosen heading, deeper distribution of resources on subheadings can be made.
So, for example, by search the category "stalinism" in heading «Soviet Union» among subheadings within the framework in which the resources are grouped, there are also such as Communist Party, Eastern Europe.
Due to this it is possible to receive deeper performance about thematic distribution of Internet resources.
It seams, that thematic distribution of resources in speaking another language Internetsegment allows to say that they are more aimed at Stalin's and stalinism as the phenomena in the framework of the larger historical phenomena and processes of the world and Russian (Soviet) history and permits the comparative study of these phenomena with some others. At the same time the subjects of resources of Russian-speaking segment are more focused on "inner" problems of phenomena of Stalin and stalinism.
The comparative analysis of the received data, the tables and diagrams show, that files of resources on the topic "Stalin and stalinism" in Russian-speaking and speaking another language Internet networks are approximately identical. So according to this parameter educational potentials of the both parts of the network are equal.
Features of thematic distribution of resources on the subject specify that for full, multidimensional, complex knowledge about Stalin and stalinism in the Russian and world history it is necessary to base on the information potentials of the both - domestic (Russian), and foreign historiography. Internet resources give for this purpose unique and hopeful opportunity.
On the topic "Stalin and stalinism" thousands of different resources are totaled now. It is difficult to imagine an opportunity of the complex analysis of these files on the thematic distribution by another ways and means, than Internet gives.
The data received as the result of search operations illustrate the distribution of resources on formats of documents as well. So, they show, that the topic "Stalin and stalinism" is submitted by not only various textual documents, but also a plenty amount of images (among them pictures, photos, drawings etc.of the most various character), audio and video-documents. (Picture 7 – 14)
See pict. - Yandex, "Stalin": 1633
It is obvious, that these resources represent special value for educational process. For the first time Internet network gives the wide access and opportunity of various use and various formats of resources for the studying the problems of the history of stalinism.
The analysis of resources distribution on the subject and formats on the topic "Stalin and stalinism" has shown, that they open wide access to many most important sources. Among those are: Stalin's works, works of his colleagues and opponents, Stalin's biographies, various documents of Stalin epoch, unique, rare photos and other images.
The resources accessible through Internet allow to open with the help of various forms of visualization of the information practically the most important problems and aspects of studying Stalin’s regime , Stalin reprisals, Stalin terror, the USSR at Stalin, Stalin external and internal policy, Stalin and bolshevism, Stalin and nuclear bomb, Stalin and cold war, Stalin's death and many others.
However the done analysis gives only relative knowledge about the amount and structure of Internet-resources. It allows to draw probably the hypothetical conclusions about the educational potential of INTERNET and opportunities of using the network resources at studying the subject.
Unfortunately, the data of the results of searching the Internet-resources with the help of search engines do not allow to speak with necessary accuracy about character of their contents and purposes, the quality of electronic documents.
The solution of these aims needs to follow the traditional methods of the bibliographic and historiographic analysis. Work in this direction is conducted. It deserves a special conversation.
In summary, once again it would be desirable to emphasize that the received quantitative characteristics of Internet resources on the topic "Stalin and stalinism" testify that their study and use should be the important component in modern educational process in teaching the history of the XX century. The use of opportunities which opens Internet for studying Stalin and stalinism allows finally to maintain more full and deep knowledge and comprehend in a new fashion this complex historical phenomena.