a. have no problems in allowing photographers to sexualize their bodies.
b. refuse to pose nude because they know it will devalue women’s sports.
c. females athletes face gendered choices when comes to media photographs.
d. can make more money as models than they make playing their sport. .
47. Compared to past coverage, current media representations of race and ethnicity
a. present fewer narratives that reproduce racist stereotypes.
b. present fewer images of the lifestyles of successful black male athletes.
c. avoid any images of black male athletes as angry and fearsome.
d. ignore the records and achievements of black athletes.
48. When sport journalists ignore in their coverage the dynamics of living in a white-dominated, white-identified, and white-centered society, they
a. reproduce dominant racial ideology as they claim to be color blind
b. allow all athletes to escape the influence of race in their sport.
c. ultimately serve as positive role models in the society as a whole.
d. help white athletes get along with teammates from diverse racial backgrounds.
49. The sports journalists most likely to avoid stereotypes related to ethnicity and nationality are those who have
a. studied the history of sport journalism.
b. covered high school sports in areas with large minority populations.
c. played sports themselves.
d. learned about the national and ethnic histories of the players they cover.
50. The most effective way to reduce subtle forms of racial, ethnic, and national bias in the media coverage of sports is to hire at all levels of media production people who
a. have degrees in communication studies.
b. see the world in colorblind ways.
c. come from diverse racial, ethnic, and national backgrounds.
d. have had experiences in jobs that are unrelated to sport.
51. Research shows that color-blind media coverage of sports
a. privileges athletes of color and disadvantages white athletes.
b. should be the goal of all people in the media.
c. misses important parts of sport reality and reproduces the status quo.
d. allows journalists with knowledge about ethnic groups to get ahead.
52. Studies of the relationship between consuming media sports and the actions of spectators show that
a. the media coverage of sports is organized to encourage people to gamble.
b. people who watch sports on TV are more obese than other people.
c. the media have a positive effect on attendance at all sport events.
d. watching media sports does not influence patterns of sport participation.
53. Research on media audiences shows that
a. men and women who live together often watch sports together.
b. “football widows” are more common than many people believe.
c. watching television sports is the primary leisure activity of U.S. adults.
d. watching sports is disruptive for most married couples.
54. Research in the United States shows that when it comes to watching sports on television, the men and women in male-female married couples
a. seldom want to watch the same events.
b. seldom have similar viewing patterns but this does not affect their relationship.
c. often watch together and see this as a positive thing in their relationship.
d. often argue about watching patterns to the point that it leads to divorce.
55. Research examining the legacies of the Olympics for people in the country hosting the games has shown consistently that watching sports on television is likely to lead to
a. more sport participation.
b. more television watching.
c. less sport participation.
d. less television watching.
56. A people acquire large screen, HD televisions for their homes, stadium managers are trying to maintain attendance at games by
a. making the stadium experience like the home viewing experience.
b. dropping ticket prices and giving season ticket holders free seat upgrades.
c. banning all hand held media devices from stadiums.
d. hiring more cheerleaders who are assigned to certain seat sections.
57. According to a 2012 NCAA study of college students,
a. nearly all male college athletes follow NCAA anti-gambling rules.
b. female athletes are more apt to bet on sports than male athletes.
c. nearly all athletes on big-time teams had been contacted by outside gamblers.
d. over half of all male students report that they have gambled for money.
58. Ove the past few decades, independent investigative journalism has nearly disappeared. Emerging in its place has been
a. corporate journalism.
b. attack journalism.
c. entertainment journalism.
d. critical journalism.
59. Tensions between elite athletes and sportswriters exist primarily because
a. there is a lack of trust between them.
b. journalists are controlled by teams and leagues.
c. athletes find it difficult to articulate their feelings about sport experiences.
d. sport management people tell athletes not to talk with journalists.
60. Tensions between elite athletes and sportswriters has intensified as
a. athletes have discovered that they can write their own stories online.
b. salary differences between athletes and sportswriters have increased.
c. journalists have ignored personal information in stories about athletes.
d. more sportswriters have come from low-income and minority backgrounds.
61. Most media coverage of sports today represents the interests of
a. those who control and profit from sports.
b. sport agents and lawyers.
c. the players with the highest celebrity rankings.
d. the companies that advertise on social media sites.
ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. A paradox associated with the media coverage of sports is that the media open up new opportunities for spectators to view sports, but they also limit and define the experiences of spectators. Explain how the media can do both these things at once.
2. As deregulation and private ownership have increased, the media have become hyper-commercialized. Explain how the goals of the media change when this occurs and use examples to show how this change has impacted the media coverage of sports in the United States.
3. Magazine editor Kerry Temple claims that when we watch sports through the media today, we are watching versions of soap operas with planned story lines, plots, plot twists with and designated heroes, villains, and underdogs. Using examples from mediated sports, explain whether you agree or disagree with Temple.
4. For-profit corporations sponsor about 99 percent of all televised sport programs. Explain why these organizations want to be associated with sports and athletes and what would happen if televised sports were sponsored exclusively by feminist and women’s organizations, or environmental groups, or labor organizations. Would media sports change in any way and would people be more likely to ask critical questions about the images and messages in that programming? Explain your answers to both these questions.
5. Experiencing a sport event through the media is different than experiencing the same event in person. Pick a sport that you have attended in person and watched on television, and explain the major differences between the two experiences. What are the origins of those differences? In your explanation, discuss the notion that a televised sport is a "re-presented" version of the event.
6. The Internet and other new media offer the potential for radically altering media experiences related to sports. What do new media do that is different from the traditional electronic and print media? Explain the differences and how they impact the relationships between spectators and the sports they consume through the media.
7. New media change both the production and consumption of sport-related content and programming. Use parkour or another “action sport” as an example to show how this occurs and how new media alter the experiences of both athletes and media sport consumers.
8. Fantasy sports have grown rapidly among certain people who consume sports through the media. Explain why this growth has occurred and how it has changed the media consumption experience for spectators who consume NFL football and Major League Baseball through the media.
9. Athletes at your university have gotten into trouble using social media. You have been hired to create a social media policy for the athletic department. Identify the three main components of the policy, and describe how you would explain to the athletes why you created each of them.
10. Video games are becoming increasingly sophisticated in terms of their ability to simulate the athletes and actions of television sports. Do you think that video game sports will ever become as popular as televised sports? Explain why or why not. In your explanation emphasize the differences between the two experiences.
11. Research is needed to study the experiences of people who play sport video games. You are heading up a research team that is doing one of these studies. What are the major research questions you would ask, and how would you go about trying to answer them?
12. Many of us play sports that do not depend on the media. But commercial sports are different than recreational sports, and they depend on the media for their success. Explain the differences between recreational and commercial sports and explain how commercial sports depend on the media.
13. Your friend says that sports have sold out to the media and that television has corrupted sports. She argues that sports have changed over the past 40 years, and that the changes are caused by television. You say that she is jumping to conclusions and she wants you to explain your point. Use material from the chapter to respond.
14. People who watch ESPN and use ESPN apps to consume sports content are heavily subsidized by people who never watch ESPN and don’t care about watching sports. How does this occur and what would happen if things changed so that people who wanted to watch certain sports had to pay the full amount of their access costs as charged by cable and satellite companies?
15. Page through a recently published sports section of a major city newspaper. List the ads that appear in the section. To whom are those ads directed? What do the ads tell us about whom the sports section is written for? Do the stories and photos in the sports section reflect these assumptions?
16. A few television companies around the world have paid massive amounts of money for the rights to cover certain sport events, even when they don't anticipate that the ratings will be as high as they are for prime time programming. Why would television companies be so eager to cover sports in light of the fact that they seldom attract massive audiences, except in the case of a limited number of special events?
17. The relationship between sports and the media is fueled by economics and ideology. What does this mean? As you respond to this question identify the global economic factors that have intensified the relationship between sports and the media, and then indicate which of those factors are most important in the country where you live.
18. People without detailed knowledge about a particular sport often say they would rather watch the sport on TV than read about it in the newspaper. Why is this? What are the major differences between the ways sports are covered in the print media versus the ways they are covered in the broadcast media?
19. Mediated sports are symbolic constructions, just as Hollywood films and television soap operas are symbolic constructions. What is meant by this point, and what is involved in the media construction of sports? Provide examples to support your points.
20. The images and messages underlying media coverage of sports in the United States often revolve around success. How is success represented in media images and narratives and does this representation have an impact on the way you or others think about issues related to achievement, status, and forms of social organization in the U.S.?
21. The coverage of sports in North American media has influenced the ways that people in Canada and the U.S. think about masculinity, femininity, and gender relations as a whole. Use material from the chapter and from your personal experience to either agree or disagree with this statement.
22. You're a new editor at Sports Illustrated. At your first editorial meeting the major item on the agenda is the February swimsuit issue. It is decided that it is economically unwise to drop the swimsuit issue, but it is also decided that if the swimsuit issue is continued, there must be other changes in the magazine to present a fair image of women in sports. As a new editor, you are called on to make some suggestions for changes. How would you respond?
23. You know a highly visible female athlete who has often been asked to present herself in sexy poses for the photos taken in connection with stories written about her. She asks you why this happens, and wants to know what she should do – take it off or leave it on? You discuss with her the consequences of her choices along with the other issues involved. What do you say to her?
24. People from the media sometimes deal with men and women athletes in different ways. What are examples of some of these differences? And how would you advise women athletes who must face interviewers and photographers whose approaches are grounded in traditional gender ideology? What is the goal underlying your advice?
25. One of your friends says that the only fair and informative way to cover sports in the media is to use a colorblind approach when it comes to race and ethnicity. You say that this is neither fair nor informative. Your friend accuses you of being a typical liberal, but he is willing to listen to your explanation. What do you say to support your position?
26. You are called in as an advisor to the President's Council on Fitness, Sports and Nutrition. The two topics being discussed are (1) whether television sports are turning people in the U.S. into couch potatoes, and (2) whether the television coverage of professional sports is destroying people's interests in local high school, college, and amateur sports. The Council wants advice from you. What do you tell them?
27. A journalism student in your sport sociology course asks you why there seems to be so much tension between elite athletes and sportswriters. She also has noticed that there is much less tension in the relationships between athletes and television announcers. How would you respond to her question? In your response, identify the major differences between sportswriters and sports announcers, and discuss them in terms of how they might be related to tensions with athletes.