Questions by Rob Carson, Mike Cheyne, Andrew Hart, Gautam Kandlikar, Shan Kothari, Bernadette Spencer, Cody Voight, and special guest Ike Jose
Packet 01: Tossups 1. This state is home to Matthew Barnett’s Dream Center in Echo Park, near the former site of Life Bible College, which is the educational arm of a denomination founded in this state. In 2008, a Lake Forest megachurch in this state hosted the Civil Forum on the Presidency between John McCain and Barack Obama and was moderated by the author of The Purpose Driven Life. A Roman Catholic diocese in this state recently purchased the building where Robert Schuller hosted the Hour of Power; that building is a Philip (*) Johnson-designed glass church. Aimee Semple McPherson founded the Church of the Foursquare Gospel in a southern city in this state, which is home to the Rick Warren’s Saddleback Community Church near Mission Viejo in Orange County. For 10 points, name this state, home to the Archdiocese of Los Angeles.
ANSWER: California 2. This man wrote much of one movement of a suite, marked “covered in pedaling,” in a dual 2/4 and 6/8 time signature. That movement, “A Boat on the Ocean,” is part of a suite that includes “Noctuelles” and “Alborada del Gracioso.” This man uses a B-flat octave ostinato to depict a bell tolling near a hanged man in a piece whose third movement was written to be harder than (*) Balakirev’s Islamey. This composer of Miroirs wrote a suite whose six movements, including a “Forlane” and “Toccata,” are each dedicated to a friend who died in World War I. This composer of Le Tombeau de Couperin included “Le Gibet” and “Scarbo” in Gaspard de la Nuit. Another piece features a repetitive melody in a crescendo over a snare drum ostinato. For 10 points, name this French composer of Pavane for a Dead Princess and Bolero.
ANSWER: Joseph-Maurice Ravel 3. The claim that this author established “modern realist narration” was advanced by James Wood in How Fiction Works. Singular, circular, immobile and imaginary time in one of this man’s novels are described in a book-length essay my Mario Vargas Llosa entitled The Perpetual Orgy. In a 1984 novel by another writer, Geoffrey Braithwaite attempts to track down a stuffed animal that was on the desk of this author when he wrote A (*)Simple Heart. Julian Barnes wrote about the “parrot” of this author, who wrote about the merchant Lheureux’s schemes to collect the title character’s debt in another novel. In that novel by this author, the title woman marries a country doctor names Charles and has affairs with León and Rodolphe. For 10 points, name this French author of Madame Bovary.
ANSWER: Gustave Flaubert 4. The rate at which these particles are exchanged is modeled using two macroscopic spheres in Marcus theory. Whether a bridged structure forms depends on whether an “outer sphere” or “inner sphere” transfer of these particles occurs. Niels Bohr derived from the Planck-Einstein relation a “frequency condition” that gives the frequency of photons being (*) emitted or absorbed during transitions of these particles. The deep colors of alkali metals in ammonia are caused by “solvated” examples of these particles, which are the smallest possible anions. These particles, which can occupy the HOMO or LUMO, are modeled as dots in Lewis structures. For 10 points, name these negatively charged subatomic particles that orbit the atomic nucleus.
5. This kingdom’s pantheon was depicted on a large rock formation near the springs at Eflatun Pinar. A document from this kingdom describes a people’s assembly called the pankus. One of its rulers had to abandon a military campaign against Arzawa, after it was attacked by by their long time enemies from the Mitanni Kingdom. This kingdom’s succession events are documented in an edict which was proclaimed by its King (*) Telepinu. Its efforts to control Syria put them in conflict with the armies of Ramses II, to whom these people lost at the Battle of Kadesh. This kingdom’s earliest documented ruler is Hattusilis I, who ruled from its capital Hattusas. For 10 points, identify this kingdom which was based in Central Anatolia for much of the 2nd Millennium BC.
6. He’s not Euler, but a condition stating that along the optimal consumption path, the intertemporal rate of change in consumption is equal to the marginal rate of transformation was attributed to this man by Frank Ramsey. An equation giving the sum of earnings per unit output and the profit per unit output of the consumption goods sector is one of the “fundamental equations” named for this man. He suggested the existence of “precautionary”, (*) “speculative”, and “transactions” motives for the demand of a certain commodity, which were captured by Hicks in the IS-LM model. This man defined the sum of consumption, investment, and government spending as “aggregate demand” and argued for government spending to maintain full employment. For 10 points, name this economist who championed countercyclical spending by issuing debt in his General Theory.
ANSWER: John Maynard Keynes [accept Frank Ramsey until mentioned]
7. In the aftermath of World War II, the majority of this country’s parliament was controlled by the Smallholder Party, and many members of that party were targeted by a secret police called the AVH. A State Department employee turned communist spy named Noel Field spent his final years in this country, in which he was used in show trials to implicate Interior Minister Rajk. A longtime ruler of this country introduced some market reforms and reduced trade barriers under the (*) “New Economic Mechanism”. This country’s attempt to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact sparked its 1956 revolution, which was crushed by tanks, resulting in the ouster of Imre Nagy. For 10 points, name this former Soviet republic in which Janos Kadar introduced “Goulash Communism”.
ANSWER: Hungary [accept “People’s Republic of Hungary” or “Soviet Republic of Hungary” since most of the clues are from that era]
8. In De Constantia, Justus Lipsius attempts to reconcile Christianity with this philosophical tradition. This school included disposition and relative disposition among its categories of being, and it classified primary emotions into distress, pleasure, appetite, and fear. This school viewed God as immanent within matter and identified God with a creative principle called (*) pneuma. This school’s emphasis on maintaining a prohairesis, or will, in accordance with nature was described in the Discourses and Enchiridion of one member of this school. Its founders include Chrysippus of Soli and Zeno of Citium, and it is also exemplified by Epictetus and the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius. For 10 points, name this classical school, named for an open porch, which resisted the influence of destructive emotions.
ANSWER: Stoicism [or Stoa]
9. An author from this country included the punning line “Tupi or not Tupi, that is the question” in his Cannibal Manifesto. Another author from this country wrote a novel that features an entirely blank chapter representing the narrator’s silence and is dedicated to “the first worm that gnawed on the cold flesh of my corpse”. Oswald de Andrade is from this country, which also produced the author of The Posthumous Memoirs of (*)Bras Cubas. This country is the setting of a novel that opens with the death of the hard-partying Vadinho and recounts his widow’s courtship by Teodoro and Vadinho’s return in ghost form. The author of Dona Flor and her Two Husbands is from this country. For 10 points, name this South American country home to Joaquim Machado de Assis and Jorge Amado, who both wrote in Portuguese.
ANSWER: Brazil [or the Federative Republic of Brazil; or Republica Federativa do Brasil]
10. The humpback chub and razorback sucker are two endangered fish species endemic to this location, and this non-Three Lakes location houses one of the two populations of the Kanab Ambersnail. An early ecologist named C Hart Merriam developed the concept of “life zones” using observations at this location. The explosion of a deer population here in the 1920s is often used to illustrate the concept of carrying capacity. The mnemonic “Know [this thing’s] history, study (*) rocks made by time” describes geological strata at this location, whose topmost layer of Kaibab limestone includes endemic plant species like the Tusayan flameflower and the Sentry Milk-vetch. Its ecology has been significantly altered after the construction of Glen Canyon dam upstream of it along the Colorado River. For 10 points, identify this natural feature in central Arizona.
ANSWER: Grand Canyon [prompt on “Colorado River” until “Merriam”]
11. A character in this novel uses a treatment mandated by Dr. Bencomb as an excuse not to attend a party hosted by the unfashionable Professor Emerson Sillerton. In the opening scene of this novel, Christine Nilsson is performing in Gounod’s Faust. Its protagonist’s mother begs the Van der Luydens to invite another character to a party on behalf of the Duke of St. Austrey. A climactic point in this novel is when the failure of Julius Beaufort’s bank causes the obese society matron Mrs. (*) Manson Mingott to have a stroke. It ends with the protagonist taking a trip to Paris with his son Dallas, where he refuses to see his former lover. Its protagonist marries May Welland despite his lifelong love for Ellen Olenska. For 10 points, name this Edith Wharton novel about Newland Archer.
ANSWER: The Age of Innocence 12. Julian Schwinger proposed an oscillator model of this quantity. After the quantum harmonic oscillator, ladder operators are most commonly used to obtain the eigenstates, and thus eigenvalues, for this operator. The commutation relations for this operator represent the SO(3) group. In 3 dimensions, the square of this operator commutes with any one of its vector components. The operator for this quantity is negative i h-bar times the cross product of the position operator and del. According to Noether’s theorem, the (*) conservation of this quantity corresponds to rotational symmetry. In classical mechanics, this quantity is equal to the position crossed with mass times velocity. For 10 points, identify this quantity whose total for a particle is equal to the sum of its orbital type and intrinsic, or spin, type.
ANSWER: orbital angular momentum [do not accept or prompt on “momentum”; do not accept “linear momentum”]
13. This character is duped into investing in a stud horse by a man whose funeral features an Elvis impersonator played by this character. This character’s sister Abby briefly moves in with a man who works at a marketing firm with mostly female employees. She tries to get her parents back together by crafting parent trap scenarios. This character is promoted to (*) Vice Principal, after which she has to fire her friend who she had gotten hired as a basketball coach. One of her love interests chooses to be a bartender despite having gone to law school, gets advice from an old Vietnamese man named Tran, and lives with character in Loft 4D. For 10 points, identify this title character of a Fox sitcom, who is the female roommate of “Coach”, Schmidt, Winston, and Nick, and is played by Zooey Deschanel.
ANSWER: Jess [or New Girl; or JessicaDay]
14. A still life by this man is distinguished from an ordinary “thing,” and contrasted with the poem “The Roman Fountain” by C. F. Meyer, in Martin Heidegger’s essay “The Origin of the Work of Art.” This painter of several still lifes entitled A Pair of Shoes placed a foxglove plant in the foreground of a portrait that shows a red-haired man in a white cap glumly staring ahead while resting his head on his right fist. This man’s painting The (*)Cottage shows the exterior of a Nuenen abode, in whose interior he painted a woman pouring a kettle on the right as four other people sit around a table below a single oil lamp hung from the ceiling. In a painting depicting Saint-Rémy, this painter of two versions of a Portrait of Dr. Gachet showed dark cypress trees in front of a swirling sky. For 10 points, name this Dutch painter The Potato Eaters and The Starry Night.
ANSWER: Vincent van Gogh [or Vincent Willem van Gogh]
15. Journalist Ruben Salazar was killed while covering an event in favor of this cause. At a Republican National Convention, the paralyzed Ron Kovic led a demonstration in favor of this cause. The Baltimore Four, including Father Philip Berrigan, drenched papers withblood to support this cause. Supporters of it had their free speech rights protected in the Supreme Court case (*) Tinker v. Des Moines.This cause was also the subject of a John Kerry led group's "Winter Soldier Investigation." People in favor of this cause frequently chanted "hey hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?" For 10 points, name this cause in which Americans expressed opposition to military participation in a Southeast Asian conflict.
ANSWER: protesting the Vietnam War [accept any answers that suggest opposition to Vietnam War]
16. Most of the reign of this city’s mythical king Labdacus was actually overseen by the regents Nycteus and Lycus. After leaving this city, one of its kings became the ruler of the Enchelei. A queen of this city was deified under the name Leucothea after leaping into the sea holding her son Melicertes. No king of this city appears in the Iliad due to Telephus’s earlier killing of Thersander. The walls of this city were built using the magic lyre-playing of (*) Amphion, who co-ruled it with his brother Zethus. This city, the subject of an epic by Statius, was founded by a man who followed a cow marked with a half-moon to a spot near the Ismenian spring, where he killed a dragon and sowed its teeth to produce the Spartoi. For 10 points, name this Boeotian city founded by Cadmus, which under Eteocles fought an army led by Polynices and six others.
ANSWER: Thebes [or Thebai]
17. Critics who deem a secondary character in this work feminine “in the pejorative sense of the word” are attacked in an essay by Carolyn Heilbrun. This work is said to be “bigger than any of the frames of reference it inhabits” in an essay about its “Value” by Stephen Booth. A speech in this work describes the “respect that makes Calamity of so long life” and describes a “ a consummation devoutly to be wished”. This play was deemed an “artistic failure” for not finding an adequate (*) “objective correlative” for its protagonist’s emotions in a T.S. Eliot essay about that character’s “Problems”. A speech in this play calls death “the undiscovered country” and debates the nobility of suffering “the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune”. For 10 points, name this Shakespeare play that contains a soliloquy that begins “To be, or not to be…”
ANSWER: Hamlet [or The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark]
18. Though not inertia, the maximum frequency of vertically propagating waves named for this thing is the Brunt–Väisälä frequency. The most prominent examples of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are surface waves named for this thing. The “internal” type of waves named for this thing are formed at the interface between warm and cold or fresh and salt water. Density differences drive flows, or currents, named for this thing, whose most common example is turbidity currents. If density decreases with height, waves named for either buoyancy or this (*) force can result. All points on the geoid have the same value for this force's potential. This force is balanced by friction below the angle of repose and is the principal force behind mass wasting. For 10 points, identify this force whose differential field due to the Moon and Sun drives the tides.
ANSWER: gravity 19. One monarch of this name signed the Ordinance de Villers-Cotterets, which mandated the use of French in all official documents, earning him the nickname “father and restorer of letters.” That king of this name was a prolific patron of the arts who brought many foreigners to France to work on the Chateau de Chambord. Before becoming king, the second French monarch of this name became King Consort of (*) Scotland by marrying Mary, Queen of Scots. The first and third kings of the house of Valois-Angouleme were the only two French monarchs to bear this name. For 10 points, give this shared name of two French monarchs, the first of whom lost the Battle of Pavia and purchased the Mona Lisa from Leonardo da Vinci in a reign that lasted from 1515 to 1547.
ANSWER: Francis [or Francois; accept Francis I or Francis II]
20. A contemporary artist who works in this medium has made series such as “Venetians,” “Ikebanas” and “Jerusalem Cylinders”, some of which can be found in a Seattle Gardens named for that artist and this medium. This medium is used by Dale Chihuly, who studied at the famed Toledo Museum of Art studio under Harvey Littleton. A “Favrile” type of this medium was used in the studio of an American artist to produce (*) lampshades. Limoges and Murano were major centers where raw material for this medium was produced. The workshop of Louis Comfort Tiffany produced many objects using this medium, which in versions including metallic pigments was used in Gothic cathedrals for their “rose windows”. For 10 points, identify this artistic medium used in many medieval churches in its “stained” variety.
ANSWER: glass [accept “stained glass”]
TB. The title character of a story by this author grinds his large teeth on several occasions, including when his employer forces him to drink several flagons of wine and when that man shoves his girlfriend Trippetta to the ground. Two of this author’s stories were written to spite his rivals Elizabeth F. Ellet, who embroiled him in scandal, and Thomas Dunn English. He wrote a story about a dwarf who tricks a king and his councilors into dressing as (*) orangutans, then burns them to death. Another of his stories features a character whose family coat of arms reads “Nemo me impune lacessit”. In that story, the expertise of Luchesi is mocked by a man who gets drunk, then shackled and bricked up in a cellar alcove, by Montresor. For 10 points, name this American author of “Hop-Frog” and “The Cask of Amontillado”.
ANSWER: Edgar Allan Poe
Minnesota Undergraduate Tournament 2015:My Torah Portion was an Archie Comic
Questions by Rob Carson, Mike Cheyne, Andrew Hart, Gautam Kandlikar, Shan Kothari, Bernadette Spencer, Cody Voight, and special guest Ike Jose
Packet 01: Bonuses 1. Elaine Sturtevant was an artist whose technique was simply to copy other artists. For 10 points each:
 Sturtevant produced some Flowers prints using the original silkscreens of this Pop artist; Sturtevant also copied this man’s Marilyn Monroe prints.
ANSWER: Andy Warhol [or Andrew Warhola]
 Sturtevant copied Man Ray by posing nude with this artist for Adam and Eve. When a Jasper Johns painting was stolen from the original, this man asked Sturtevant to paint a copy to be included in one of this man’s combines.
ANSWER: Robert Rauschenberg  Sturtevant copied Robert Gober’s artwork in this medium, which shows repetitive patterns of penises and vaginas in white on a black background. In Victorian England, William Morris of the Arts and Crafts movement designed patterns for artworks in this medium for Jeffrey & Co.
ANSWER: wallpaper 2. NOTE TO MODERATOR: DO NOT MENTION “BAVARIA” AFTER READING THE FIRST PART.
This man sided with Austria in the Seven Weeks War, and was deposed after being deemed insane in 1886. For 10 points each:
 Identify this “mad king” who is perhaps best known for his patronage of Richard Wagner.
ANSWER: Ludwig II of Bavaria [or Louis II]
 Ludwig II ruled this German kingdom. In 1923, Adolf Hitler attempted to seize power in this state via the Beer Hall Putsch, which was staged in its capital Munich.
ANSWER: Bavaria [or Bayern]
 Among the various construction projects that Ludwig undertook was this castle, which is located close to the Hohenschwangau Castle where Ludwig grew up. Ludwig was inspired by the Singers’ Hall of Wartburg Castle when cooking up his plans for this castle.
ANSWER: Neuschwanstein Castle
3. The determinant is defined for this type of matrix and determines whether one is invertible, or not. For 10 points each:
 Name this type of matrix with the same number of rows and columns.
ANSWER: square matrix
 The inverse of a square matrix A can be found by augmenting A with this matrix and using Gauss-Jordan elimination. It is an invertible, idempotent matrix of full rank.
ANSWER: identity matrix [or I]
 A linear transformation for an n-dimensional vector space has this property if there exists a collection of n linearly independent eigenvectors for the transformation. A matrix A has this property if there exists an invertible matrix P such that the inverse of P times A times P equals a matrix with this property.
ANSWER: diagonalizable [or diagonalizability; or word forms]
4. Characters in this novel include several students of the archery teacher Zhou Tong, who are part of a group led by the “Protector of Righteousness”. For 10 points each:
 Name this Shi Nai’an novel in which the corrupt government officials Cai Jing and Gao Qiu oppose the Stars of Destiny.
ANSWER: Outlaws of the Marsh [or Water Margin; or Men of the Marshes; or All Men are Brothers; or Shui Hu Zhuan]
 An episode from Outlaws of the Marsh in which Wu Song kills Pan Linjian served as the basis for this Ming Dynasty-era erotic novel about the sexual exploits of Ximen Qing (shee-men ching).
ANSWER: Jin Ping Mei [or The Plum in the Golden Vase; or The Golden Lotus]
 Outlaws of the Marsh was incompetently translated into English under the title All Men are Brothers by this dubious Nobel Prize winner, the American author of The Good Earth.
ANSWER: Pearl S. Buck [or Pearl Sydenstricker Buck; or Sai Zhenzhu]
5. This philosopher claimed that all objects of reason are either relations of ideas or matters of fact, and he explained the appearance of necessary connections as a force of habit in his critique of causation. For 10 points each:
 Name this Scottish empiricist philosopher, whose “missing shade of blue” was a potential counterexample to the correspondence between simple ideas and simple impressions advocated in his Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.
ANSWER: David Hume  In Book Two of his Treatise of Human Nature, Hume wrote that “reason is, and ought only to be the slave of” these entities. Hume considered them a kind of reflective impression and divided them into indirect and direct types.
 This posthumously published Hume work takes the form of a conversation between the philosophers Cleanthes, Demea, and Philo, who rejects Cleanthes’s a posteriori argument for God’s existence based on design.
ANSWER: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion 6. Horst Loeffler narrowly avoids becoming a victim of the 9/11 attacks in this novel, whose other characters include the venture capitalist Rocky Slagiatt and Conkling Speedwell, who has a superhuman sense of smell. For 10 points each:
 Identify this Thomas Pynchon novel in which Maxine Tarnow investigates the mysterious dealings of Gabriel Ice, the billionaire CEO of the computer security firm hashslingrz.
ANSWER: Bleeding Edge  The Pulitzer board refused to give its award to this 1973 Pynchon novel, in which Tyrone Slothrop’s sexual encounters predict V-2 rocket strikes, because of a single passage involving coprophilia.
ANSWER: Gravity’s Rainbow  This novel, Pynchon’s first, introduced the Yoyodyne corporation and is split between chapters about Benny Profane and the Whole Sick Crew and chapters about Herbert Stencil’s search for the mysterious title entity.
ANSWER: V. 7. James Coleman was a badass American sociologist. Name some things he worked on, for 10 points each.
 The 1966 Coleman report showed that the achievements of these entities are not so much correlated with funding as they are with the socioeconomic background of their students.
ANSWER: primary schools
 Coleman spent most of his career at this university, which established the first Sociology department in the US. Ernest Burgess, an earlier researcher at this university, developed the concentric zone model of urban activity.
ANSWER: University of Chicago  Coleman also made important contributions in extending this paradigm, which seeks to explain how people evaluate costs and benefits of their decisions, into sociological research.
ANSWER: rational choice theory [prompt on partials like “rationality”]
8. In mainstream Christianity, this trait is often explained as God being both transcendent and immanent, while another religion often represents this concept with the Ik Onkar symbol. For 10 points each:
 Name this characteristic of God in Sikhism and the Abrahamic religions ,that essentially means God is always everywhere and in all things.
ANSWER: omnipresence [accept word forms like omnipresent]
 This is the most common term Sikhs use to refer to the one, omnipresent God. It means “venerable teacher”, and is often recited as part of the Naam Japo.
ANSWER: Waheguru  The “three pillars” of Sikhism include Naam Japo and Vand Chhako, or community generosity, the latter of which often involves supporting these institutions, kitchens sponsored by gurdwaras that provide free meals.
ANSWER: langar 9. In the Ullmann condensation, a phenol and an aryl halide combine to form a diaryl molecule of this type. For 10 points each:
 Name this class of organic compounds, consisting of a central oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl or aryl groups. The “diethyl” compound of this type is a common anesthetic.
 This British chemist names an ether synthesis in which an an alkoxide ion attacks an organohalide via an SN2 mechanism.
ANSWER: Alexander [William] Williamson [accept Williamson [ether] synthesis]
 Ethers containing an atom of this element bonded to an alkoxy group, such as TBDPS or TBDMS, are often used as protecting groups for alcohols in organic synthesis reactions.
ANSWER: silicon [or Si; prompt on “silyl (ethers)”]
10. In response to this bill, a congressional delegation met at the home of Senator Robert Hayne to discuss how to respond. For 10 points each:
 Name this controversial bill intended to protect northern industries. It was staunchly opposed by a man who wrote the South Carolina Exposition and Protest against it.
ANSWER: Tariff of Abominations [or Tariff of 1828]
 The Tariff of Abominations was passed in the presidency of this man, the son of a former President, who would soon lose the presidency to rival Andrew Jackson.
ANSWER: John Quincy Adams [do not accept or prompt on "John Adams"]
 John C. Calhoun would later become Secretary of State in the John Tyler administration, after former Secretary of State Abel Upshur and Secretary of the Navy Thomas Gilmer had their careers end due to this 1843 disaster.
ANSWER: The USS Princetonexplosion
11. Answer the following about rock critic Jim DeRogatis, for 10 points each.
 DeRogatis was fired from Rolling Stone after revealing that Jann Wenner had pulled his negative review of this Darius Rucker-fronted band’s second album Fairweather Johnson. Their first album, Cracked Rear View, included the hits “Hold My Hand” and “Only Wanna Be With You”.
ANSWER: Hootie & the Blowfish  In 2000, DeRogatis published Let it Blurt, a biography of this pioneering rock critic who wrote the essay “Let Us Now Praise Famous Death Dwarves” about Lou Reed while serving as editor of the magazine Creem.
ANSWER: Lester Bangs [or Leslie Conway Bangs]
 DeRogatis was named as a witness in the 2008 child pornography trial of this “King of R&B”, whose less heinous accomplishments include “Ignition (Remix)” and the “hip-hopera” Trapped in the Closet.
ANSWER: R. Kelly [or Robert Sylvester Kelly]
12. This character’s asshole brother Robert eventually marries Lucy Steele, to whom this character had long been secretly engaged. For 10 points each:
 Name this character who is given the Delaford parsonage by Colonel Brandon after his disinheritance. At the end of the novel, he marries Elinor Dashwood.
ANSWER: EdwardFerrars [accept either underlined portion]
 Elinor and her sister Marianne represent, respectively, the two title characteristics of this novel by Jane Austen, in which they appear.
ANSWER: Sense and Sensibility  Marianne’s relationship with Willoughby ends after it is revealed that he fathered a child with Colonel Brandon’s ward, who has this first name. Another literary character with this name escapes to Canada by leaping across ice floes on the Ohio River.
ANSWER: Eliza [accept Eliza Williams]
13. An opening aria is the basis for one work by this composer in which every third variation is a canon at increasing intervals. For 10 points each:
 Name this German Baroque composer who wrote the Goldberg Variations and a collection of keyboard preludes and fugues in all 24 keys, The Well-Tempered Clavier.
ANSWER: Johann Sebastian Bach  All thirty of the Goldberg Variations are in this key or its parallel minor. Bach’s first Suite for Solo Cello is in this key, and its prelude begins with arpeggi in this key.
ANSWER: G major
 Felix Mendelssohn led the Bach revival with a performance of this Bach oratorio. This work is divided into two parts to be performed before and after the Good Friday service, and in it Jesus’s words are underlain by a halo effect.
ANSWER: St. Matthew’s Passion [or Matthäus-Passion]
14. This town was declared a “safe area” under UN protection in 1993, but Dutch peacekeepers failed to stop a massacre there under two years later. For 10 points each:
 Name this town where, in 1995, more than 8,000 Bosniaks were massacred during the Bosnian War.
ANSWER: Srebrenica (sreh-bren-EET-zuh)
 The Srebrenica massacre occurred in the sectarian violence that erupted after the fall of this former Balkan state, of which Serbia and Bosnia were once a part. Josip Broz Tito was a longtime president of this former country.
ANSWER: Yugoslavia [or Jugoslavija; or Jugoslavia]
 Tito was a leader of this Yugoslav group that resisted the Nazi occupation of the Balkans. This movement was the rival of the royalist Chetnik movement, which also opposed Nazi occupation.
ANSWER: Yugoslav Partisans [or Partizans; or National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia]
15. The Hox gene family was discovered in this model organism, whose eight Hox genes form two clusters on the third of its four chromosomes. For 10 points each:
 Name this insect model organism, a species of fruit fly, which was used to discover X-linked traits like the white-eyed genotype of this insect.
ANSWER: Drosophila melanogaster [accept Drosophila]
 This geneticist discovered X-linked traits and proved that the chromosome is the bearer of genetic material using Drosophila. Because this man also hypothesized crossing over, the unit of genetic linkage is named for him.
ANSWER: Thomas Hunt Morgan  This pathway involved in embryogenesis was discovered in Drosophila. This pathway begins with binding to Frizzled or LRP receptors, and it causes beta-catenin to migrate to the nucleus, where it activates transcription of target genes.
ANSWER: Wnt signaling pathway [prompt on “wingless”]
16. This song was inspired by Cachao López’s song “Chanchullo,” and it consists of a two-line chorus interspersed with flute and brass interludes. For 10 points each:
 Name this Latin jazz song by Tito Puente which asks the listener to “Hear how my rhythm goes.” Santana’s cover of it was the second single from his album Abraxas.
ANSWER: “Oye Como Va”
 Tito Puente is called the “King of the Timbales,” which are this kind of instrument. Joe Morello played this instrument with the Dave Brubeck Quartet, and types of this instrument include the kick and snare.
 This jazz trumpeter also pioneered Latin jazz, using a clave in “Manteca,” which he co-wrote with Chano Pozo and Gil Fuller. Along with Charlie Parker, this man pioneered bebop, as shown by songs like “A Night in Tunisia.”
ANSWER: John Birks “Dizzy” Gillespie 17. Although this thought experiment involves a small object, it applies to any object in circular motion about the Earth. For 10 points each:
 Name this thought experiment in which a piece of artillery is placed on a high mountain and the path of its projectiles is determined by their speed.
ANSWER: Newton's cannonball  If one fires the cannonball above the escape velocity of Earth, then it will take a hyperbolic trajectory or trajector with this shape. This curve is the trajectory of projectiles whose only downward acceleration is due to gravity.
ANSWER: parabolic  A point source at the focus of a parabolic mirror will produce a reflection whose light rays have this distinct property.
ANSWER: they are parallel [or they are collimated]
18. This author was originally a military engineer before writing such early stories as “White Nights” and “Mr. Prokharchin.” For 10 points each:
 Name this author who was exiled after he was arrested for participating in the Petrashevsky Circle.
ANSWER: Fyodor [Mikhailovich] Dostoyevsky  In this Dostoyevsky novel, which begins on an exceptionally hot evening in St. Petersburg, a former student murders a pawnbroker and is exiled to Siberia.
ANSWER: Crime and Punishment [or Prestupleniye i nakazaniye]
 This man, the protagonist of Crime and Punishment whose name derives from the Russian word for “schism,” murders the pawnbroker Alyona.
ANSWER: Rodion [Romanovich] Raskolnikov [accept either underlined name]
19. Answer the following about the incessant syncretizations undergone by Ra, for 10 points each.
 Ra was identified with Atum as the leader and progenitor of this group of nine gods worshipped at Heliopolis.
ANSWER: the Ennead  In later Egypt, Ra’s name was combined with that of an aspect of this god that was associated with sunrise and the horizon. This falcon-headed god was the son of Isis and Osiris.
ANSWER: Horus [or (Ra- or Re-) Horakhty]
 Sometimes Ra, Atum, and this god were thought of as representing the sun during different times of the day. This god has the head of a scarab or dung beetle, and appropriately rolls the sun across the sky.
ANSWER: Khepri [or Khepera; or Kheper]
20. This organization aggressively took over holdings of monarchs who did not leave male heirs as a part of its policy called the “Doctrine of Lapse.” For 10 points each:
 Identify this organization that established trade relationships with the Mughal empire prior to becoming the de facto governing body of the Indian subcontinent.
ANSWER: British East India Company [prompt on partial; accept BEIC]
 This Governor-General of the East India Company was victorious at the Battle of Plassey, where he defeated the Nawab of Bengal in 1757.
ANSWER: Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive
 The East India Company ruled over three large Presidencies, centered in Bombay, Bengal, and this South Indian city. The first British fort in India, Fort St. George, was built in this city.
ANSWER: Madras [or Chennai]
Extra. This figure is the subject of the cartoon "The Nemesis of Neglect." For 10 points each:
 Name this figure who operated out of Whitechapel. He wrote the "Dear Boss" and "From Hell" letters.
ANSWER: Jack the Ripper [or Leather Apron, prompt on the Ripper]
 There are many suspects as to the identity of Jack the Ripper. A fanciful theory is that of Sir William Withey Gull, the physician for this English queen from 1837 to 1901.
ANSWER: Queen Victoria  Jack the Ripper sent this object to the police along with his "From Hell" letter.
ANSWER: a human left kidney