[Prior to 9/7/88, see Public Instruction Department Ch 12]
PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY
281—41.1(256B,34CFR300) Purposes. The purposes of this chapter are as follows:
1. To ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment, and independent living;
2. To ensure that the rights of children with disabilities and their parents are protected;
3. To assist local educational agencies, area education agencies, and state agencies to provide for the education of all children with disabilities and to allocate responsibilities among those agencies; and
4. To assess and ensure the effectiveness of efforts to educate children with disabilities.
281—41.2(256B,34CFR300) Applicability of this chapter. The provisions of this chapter are binding on each public agency in the state that provides special education and related services to children with disabilities, regardless of whether that agency is receiving funds under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Act).
41.2(1)General. The provisions of this chapter apply to all political subdivisions of the state that are involved in the education of children with disabilities, including:
a. The state educational agency (SEA).
b. Local educational agencies (LEAs), area education agencies (AEAs), and public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or educational service agencies (ESAs) and are not a school of an LEA or ESA.
c. Other state agencies and schools, including but not limited to the departments of human services and public health and state schools and programs for children with deafness or children with blindness.
d. State and local juvenile and adult correctional facilities.
41.2(2)Private schools and facilities. Each public agency in the state is responsible for ensuring that the rights and protections under Part B of the Act are given to children with disabilities referred to or placed in private schools and facilities by that public agency; or placed in private schools by their parents under the provisions of rule 281—41.148(256B,34CFR300).
41.2(3)Age. This chapter applies to all children requiring special education between birth and the twenty-first birthday and to a maximum allowable age under Iowa Code section 256B.8.
281—41.3(256B,34CFR300) Act. “Act” means the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act as amended through August 14, 2006.
281—41.4(256B,273) Area education agency. “Area education agency” or “AEA” is a political subdivision of the state organized pursuant to Iowa Code chapter 273. An area education agency, depending on context, may be a local educational agency, as defined in rule 41.28(256B,34CFR300), an educational service agency, as defined in rule 281—41.12(256B,34CFR300), or both simultaneously.
281—41.5(256B,34CFR300) Assistive technology device. “Assistive technology device” means any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability. The term does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted or the replacement of such device.
281—41.6(256B,34CFR300) Assistive technology service. “Assistive technology service” means any service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device. The term includes the following:
1. The evaluation of the needs of a child with a disability, including a functional evaluation of the child in the child’s customary environment;
2. Purchasing, leasing, or otherwise providing for the acquisition of assistive technology devices by children with disabilities;
4. Coordinating and using other therapies, interventions, or services with assistive technology devices, such as those associated with existing education and rehabilitation plans and programs;
5. Training or technical assistance for a child with a disability or, if appropriate, that child’s family; and
6. Training or technical assistance for professionals (including individuals providing education or rehabilitation services), employers, or other individuals who provide services to, employ, or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions of that child.
281—41.7(256B,34CFR300) Charter school. “Charter school” has the meaning given the term in Section 5210(1) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 as amended through August 14, 2006, 20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq. (ESEA).
281—41.8(256B,34CFR300) Child with a disability. “Child with a disability” refers to a person under 21 years of age, including a child under 5 years of age, who has a disability in obtaining an education. The term includes an individual who is over 6 and under 16 years of age who, pursuant to the statutes of this state, is required to receive a public education; an individual under 6 or over 16 years of age who, pursuant to the statutes of this state, is entitled to receive a public education; and an individual between the ages of 21 and 24 who, pursuant to the statutes of this state, is entitled to receive special education and related services. In federal usage, this refers to infants, toddlers, children and young adults. In these rules, this term is synonymous with “child requiring special education” and “eligible individual.” “Disability in obtaining an education” refers to a condition, identified in accordance with this chapter, which, by reason thereof, causes a child to require special education and support and related services.
[ARC 8387B, IAB 12/16/09, effective 1/20/10]
41.9(1)Obtaining consent. “Consent” is obtained when all of the following conditions are satisfied:
a. The parent has been fully informed of all information relevant to the activity for which consent is sought, in his or her native language, or through another mode of communication;
b. The parent understands and agrees in writing to the carrying out of the activity for which parental consent is sought, and the consent describes that activity and lists the records (if any) that will be released and to whom; and
c. The parent understands that the granting of consent is voluntary on the part of the parent and may be revoked at any time.
41.9(2)When revocation of consent is effective. If a parent revokes consent, that revocation is not retroactive (i.e., it does not negate an action that occurred after the consent was given and before the consent was revoked).
41.9(3)Special rule. If a parent of a child revokes consent, in writing, for the child’s receipt of special education services after the child is initially provided special education and related services, the public agency is not required to amend the child’s education records to remove any references to the child’s receipt of special education and related services because of the revocation of consent.
[ARC 8387B, IAB 12/16/09, effective 1/20/10]
281—41.10(256B,34CFR300) Core academic subjects. “Core academic subjects” means English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography.
281—41.11(256B,34CFR300) Day; business day; school day. “Day” means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day.
1. “Business day” means Monday through Friday, except for federal and state holidays, unless holidays are specifically included in the designation of business day, as in 41.148(4)“b.”
2. “School day” means any day, including a partial day, when children are in attendance at school for instructional purposes. School day has the same meaning for all children in school, including children with and without disabilities. The length of the school day for an eligible individual shall be the same as that determined by the local educational agency’s board of directors for all other individuals, unless a shorter day or longer day is prescribed in the eligible individual’s individualized education program.
281—41.12(256B,34CFR300) Educational service agency. “Educational service agency” means a regional public multiservice agency that is authorized by state law to develop, manage, and provide services or programs to LEAs; and is recognized as an administrative agency for purposes of the provision of special education and related services provided within public elementary schools and secondary schools of the state. “Educational service agency” includes any other public institution or agency that has administrative control and direction over a public elementary school or secondary school and includes entities that meet the definition of intermediate educational unit in Section 602(23) of the Act as in effect prior to June 4, 1997.
281—41.13(256B,34CFR300) Elementary school. “Elementary school” means a nonprofit institutional day or residential school, including a public elementary charter school, that provides elementary education, as determined under state law.
281—41.14(256B,34CFR300) Equipment. “Equipment” means machinery, utilities, and built-in equipment and any necessary enclosures or structures to house the machinery, utilities, or equipment. “Equipment” includes other items necessary for the functioning of a particular facility as a facility for the provision of educational services, including items such as instructional equipment and necessary furniture; printed, published and audio-visual instructional materials; telecommunications, sensory, and other technological aids and devices; and books, periodicals, documents, and other related materials.
281—41.15(256B,34CFR300) Evaluation. “Evaluation” means procedures used in accordance with rules 281—41.304(256B,34CFR300) to 281—41.311(256B,34CFR300) to determine whether a child has a disability and the nature and extent of the special education and related services that the child needs.
281—41.16(256B,34CFR300) Excess costs. “Excess costs” means those costs that are in excess of the average annual per-student expenditure in an LEA during the preceding school year for an elementary school or secondary school student, as may be appropriate, and that must be computed after deducting the following:
41.16(1)Certain federal funds. Amounts received under Part B of the Act; under Part A of Title I of the ESEA; and under Parts A and B of Title III of the ESEA; and
41.16(2)Certain state or local funds. Any state or local funds expended for programs that would qualify for assistance under subrule 41.16(1), but excluding any amounts for capital outlay or debt service.
281—41.17(256B,34CFR300) Free appropriate public education. “Free appropriate public education” or “FAPE” means special education and related services that are provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, and without charge; that meet the standards of the SEA, including the requirements of this chapter; that include an appropriate preschool, elementary school, or secondary school education; and that are provided in conformity with an individualized education program (IEP) that meets the requirements of rules 281—41.320(256B,34CFR300) to 281—41.324(256B,34CFR300).
281—41.18(256B,34CFR300) Highly qualified special education teachers.
41.18(1)Requirements for special education teachers teaching core academic subjects. For any public elementary or secondary school special education teacher teaching core academic subjects, the term “highly qualified” has the meaning given the term in Section 9101 of the ESEA and 34 CFR 200.56, except that the requirements for “highly qualified” also include the following:
a. The requirements described in subrule 41.18(2); and
b. The option for teachers to meet the requirements of Section 9101 of the ESEA by meeting the requirements of subrules 41.18(3) and 41.18(4).
41.18(2)Requirements for special education teachers in general.
a. When used with respect to any public elementary school or secondary school special education teacher, “highly qualified” requires that:
(1) The teacher has obtained full state certification as a special education teacher, including certification obtained through alternative routes to certification, or has passed the state special education teacher licensing examination and holds a license to teach in the state as a special education teacher, except that when used with respect to a teacher teaching in a public charter school, “highly qualified” means that the teacher meets the certification or licensing requirements, if any, set forth in the state’s public charter school law;
(2) The teacher has not had special education certification or licensure requirements waived on an emergency, temporary, or provisional basis; and
(3) The teacher holds at least a bachelor’s degree.
b. A teacher will be considered to meet the standard in 41.18(2)“a”(1) if that teacher is participating in an alternative route to special education certification program as follows:
(1) The teacher meets the following requirements:
1. Receives high-quality professional development that is sustained, intensive, and classroom-focused in order to have a positive and lasting impact on classroom instruction, before and while teaching;
2. Participates in a program of intensive supervision that consists of structured guidance and regular ongoing support for teachers or a teacher mentoring program;
3. Assumes functions as a teacher only for a specified period of time not to exceed three years; and
4. Demonstrates satisfactory progress toward full certification as prescribed by the state; and
(2) The state ensures, through its certification and licensure process, that the provisions in 41.18(2)“b”(1) are met.
c. Any public elementary school or secondary school special education teacher who is not teaching a core academic subject is “highly qualified” if the teacher meets the requirements in 41.18(2)“a” or the requirements in 41.18(2)“a”(3) and 41.18(2)“b.”
41.18(3)Requirements for special education teachers teaching to alternate academic achievement standards. When used with respect to a special education teacher who teaches core academic subjects exclusively to children who are assessed against alternate academic achievement standards established under 34 CFR 200.1(d), “highly qualified” means the teacher, whether new or not new to the profession, may either:
a. Meet the applicable requirements of Section 9101 of the ESEA and 34 CFR 200.56 for any elementary, middle, or secondary school teacher who is new or not new to the profession; or
b. Meet the requirements of paragraph (B) or (C) of Section 9101(23) of the ESEA as applied to an elementary school teacher, or, in the case of instruction above the elementary level, meet the requirements of paragraph (B) or (C) of Section 9101(23) of the ESEA as applied to an elementary school teacher and have subject matter knowledge appropriate to the level of instruction being provided and needed to effectively teach to those standards, as determined by the state.
41.18(4)Requirements for special education teachers teaching multiple subjects. When used with respect to a special education teacher who teaches two or more core academic subjects exclusively to children with disabilities, “highly qualified” means that the teacher may either:
a. Meet the applicable requirements of Section 9101 of the ESEA and 34 CFR 200.56(b) or (c);
b. In the case of a teacher who is not new to the profession, demonstrate competence in all the core academic subjects in which the teacher teaches in the same manner as is required for an elementary, middle, or secondary school teacher who is not new to the profession under 34 CFR 200.56(c); or
c. In the case of a new special education teacher who teaches multiple subjects and who is “highly qualified” in mathematics, language arts, or science, demonstrate, not later than two years after the date of employment, competence in the other core academic subjects in which the teacher teaches in the same manner as is required for an elementary, middle, or secondary school teacher under 34 CFR 200.56(c).
41.18(6)Rule of construction. Notwithstanding any other individual right of action that a parent or student may maintain under Part B of the Act or this chapter, nothing in Part B of the Act or this chapter shall be construed to create a right of action on behalf of an individual student or class of students for the failure of a particular SEA or LEA employee to be “highly qualified,” or to prevent a parent from filing a complaint under rules 281—41.151(256B,34CFR300) to 281—41.153(256B,34CFR300) about staff qualifications with the SEA as provided for under this chapter.
41.18(7)Applicability of definition to ESEA; clarification of new special education teacher.
a. A teacher who is “highly qualified” under this rule is considered “highly qualified” for purposes of the ESEA.
b. For purposes of 41.18(4)“c,” a fully certified regular education teacher who subsequently becomes fully certified or licensed as a special education teacher is a new special education teacher when first hired as a special education teacher.
41.18(8)Private school teachers not covered. The requirements in this rule do not apply to teachers hired by private elementary schools and secondary schools including private school teachers hired or contracted by LEAs to provide equitable services to parentally placed private school children with disabilities under rule 281—41.138(256,256B,34CFR300).
[ARC 8387B, IAB 12/16/09, effective 1/20/10]
281—41.19(256B,34CFR300) Homeless children. “Homeless children” has the meaning given the term “homeless children and youths” in Section 725 (42 U.S.C. 11434a) of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act as amended through August 14, 2006, 42 U.S.C. 11431 et seq.
281—41.20(256B,34CFR300) Include. “Include” means that the items named are not all of the possible items that are covered, whether like or unlike the ones named.
281—41.21(256B,34CFR300) Indian and Indian tribe. “Indian” means an individual who is a member of an Indian tribe. “Indian tribe” means any federal or state Indian tribe, settlement, band, rancheria, pueblo, colony, or community, including any Alaska native village or regional village corporation as defined in or established under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, 43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.
281—41.22(256B,34CFR300) Individualized education program. “Individualized education program” or “IEP” means a written statement for a child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised in accordance with rules 281—41.320(256B,34CFR300) to 281—41.324(256B,34CFR300). A single IEP for each eligible individual, which specifies all the special education and related services the eligible individual is to receive, is required.
281—41.23(256B,34CFR300) Individualized education program team. “Individualized education program team” or “IEP team” means a group of individuals described in rule 281—41.321(256B,34CFR300) that is responsible for developing, reviewing, or revising an IEP for a child with a disability.
281—41.24(256B,34CFR300) Individualized family service plan. “Individualized family service plan” or “IFSP” has the meaning given the term in Section 636 of the Act.
281—41.25(256B,34CFR300) Infant or toddler with a disability. “Infant or toddler with a disability” means an individual under three years of age who needs early intervention services either because the individual has a condition, based on informed clinical opinion, known to have a high probability of resulting in later delays in growth and development if early intervention services are not provided; or the individual has a developmental delay, which is a 25 percent delay as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures, based on informed clinical opinion, in one or more of the following developmental areas: cognitive development, physical development including vision and hearing, communication development, social or emotional development, or adaptive development.
281—41.26(256B,34CFR300) Institution of higher education. “Institution of higher education” has the meaning given the term in Section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 as amended through August 14, 2006, 20 U.S.C. 1021 et seq. (HEA); and also includes any community college receiving funds from the Secretary of the Interior under the Tribally Controlled Community College or University Assistance Act of 1978, 25 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.
281—41.27(256B,34CFR300) Limited English proficient. “Limited English proficient” has the meaning given the term in Section 9101(25) of the ESEA.
281—41.28(256B,34CFR300) Local educational agency.
41.28(1)General. “Local educational agency” or “LEA” means a public board of education or other public authority legally constituted within a state for either administrative control or direction of, or to perform a service function for, public elementary or secondary schools in a city, county, township, school district, or other political subdivision of a state, or for a combination of school districts or counties as are recognized in a state as an administrative agency for its public elementary schools or secondary schools.
41.28(2)Educational service agencies and other public institutions or agencies. The term includes an educational service agency, as defined in rule 281—41.12(256B,34CFR300) and any other public institution or agency having administrative control and direction of a public elementary school or secondary school, including a public nonprofit charter school that is established as an LEA under state law.
41.28(3)BIA-funded schools. The term includes an elementary school or secondary school funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and not subject to the jurisdiction of any SEA other than the Bureau of Indian Affairs, but only to the extent that the inclusion makes the school eligible for programs for which specific eligibility is not provided to the school in another provision of law and the school does not have a student population that is smaller than the student population of the LEA receiving assistance under the Act with the smallest student population.
281—41.29(256B,34CFR300) Native language.
41.29(1)General. “Native language,” when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following:
a. The language normally used by that individual or, in the case of a child, the language normally used by the parents of the child; or
b. The language normally used by the child in the home or learning environment; this language shall be considered “native language” in all direct contact with a child, including evaluation of the child.
41.29(2)Special rule. For an individual with deafness or blindness, or for an individual with no written language, the mode of communication is that normally used by the individual, such as sign language, Braille, or oral communication.
41.30(1)General. “Parent” means:
a. A biological or adoptive parent of a child;
b. A foster parent, unless state law, regulations, or contractual obligations with a state or local entity prohibit a foster parent from acting as a parent;
c. A guardian generally authorized to act as the child’s parent, or authorized to make educational decisions for the child, but not the state if the child is a ward of the state;
d. An individual acting in the place of a biological or adoptive parent including a grandparent, stepparent, or other relative with whom the child lives or an individual who is legally responsible for the child’s welfare; or
e. A surrogate parent who has been appointed in accordance with rule 281— 41.519(256B,34CFR300) or 20 U.S.C. 1439(a)(5).
41.30(2)Rules of construction and application. The following rules are to be used to determine whether a party qualifies as a parent:
a. Except as provided in 41.30(2)“b,” the biological or adoptive parent, when attempting to act as the parent under this chapter and when more than one party is qualified to act as a parent under this chapter, must be presumed to be the parent for purposes of this rule unless the biological or adoptive parent does not have legal authority to make educational decisions for the child.
b. If a judicial decree or order identifies a specific person or persons under paragraphs “a” to “d” of subrule 41.30(1) to act as the parent of a child or to make educational decisions on behalf of a child, then such person or persons shall be determined to be the parent for purposes of this rule.
c. “Parent” does not include a public or private agency involved in the education or care of a child or an employee or contractor with any public or private agency involved in the education or care of the child in that employee’s or contractor’s official capacity.
281—41.31(256B,34CFR300) Parent training and information center. “Parent training and information center” means a center assisted under Section 671 or 672 of the Act.
281—41.32(256B,34CFR300) Personally identifiable. “Personally identifiable” means information that contains the name of the child, the child’s parent, or other family member; the address of the child; a personal identifier, such as the child’s social security number or student number; or a list of personal characteristics or other information that would make it possible to identify the child with reasonable certainty.
281—41.33(256B,34CFR300) Public agency; nonpublic agency; agency. “Public agency” includes the SEA, LEAs, ESAs, nonprofit public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA, and any other political subdivisions of the state that are responsible for providing education to children with disabilities. “Nonpublic agency” includes any private organization of whatever form that is responsible for providing education to children with disabilities and that is not a public agency. “Agency” includes public agencies and nonpublic agencies.
281—41.34(256B,34CFR300) Related services.
41.34(1)General. “Related services” means transportation and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services as are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education. “Related services” includes speech-language pathology and audiology services; interpreting services; psychological services; physical and occupational therapy; recreation, including therapeutic recreation; early identification and assessment of disabilities in children; counseling services, including rehabilitation counseling; orientation and mobility services; and medical services for diagnostic or evaluation purposes. “Related services” also includes school health services and school nurse services, social work services in schools, and parent counseling and training.
41.34(2)Exception; services that apply to children with surgically implanted devices, including cochlear implants.
a. “Related services” does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted, the optimization of that device’s functioning (e.g., mapping), maintenance of that device, or the replacement of that device.
b. Nothing in paragraph “a” of this subrule shall:
(1) Limit the right of a child with a surgically implanted device (e.g., cochlear implant) to receive related services as listed in subrule 41.34(1) that are determined by the IEP team to be necessary for the child to receive FAPE;
(2) Limit the responsibility of a public agency to appropriately monitor and maintain medical devices that are needed to maintain the health and safety of the child, including breathing, nutrition, or operation of other bodily functions, while the child is transported to and from school or is at school; or
(3) Prevent the routine checking of an external component of a surgically implanted device to make sure it is functioning properly, as required in rule 281—41.113(256B,34CFR300).
41.34(3)Individual related services terms defined. The terms used in this definition are defined as follows:
a. “Audiology” includes:
(1) Identification of children with hearing loss;
(2) Determination of the range, nature, and degree of hearing loss, including referral for medical or other professional attention for the habilitation of hearing;
(3) Provision of habilitative activities, such as language habilitation, auditory training, speech reading (lipreading), hearing evaluation, and speech conservation;
(4) Creation and administration of programs for prevention of hearing loss;
(5) Counseling and guidance of children, parents, and teachers regarding hearing loss; and
(6) Determination of children’s needs for group and individual amplification, selecting and fitting an appropriate aid, and evaluating the effectiveness of amplification.
b. “Counseling services” means services provided by qualified social workers, psychologists, guidance counselors, or other qualified personnel.
c. “Early identification and assessment of disabilities in children” means the implementation of a formal plan for identifying a disability as early as possible in a child’s life.
d. “Interpreting services” includes the following:
(1) For children who are deaf or hard of hearing, oral transliteration services, cued language transliteration services, sign language transliteration and interpreting services, and transcription services, such as communication access real-time translation (CART), C-Print, and TypeWell; and
(2) For children who are deaf-blind, special interpreting services.
e. “Medical services” means services provided by a licensed physician to determine a child’s medically related disability that results in the child’s need for special education and related services.
f. “Occupational therapy” means services provided by a qualified occupational therapist, and includes the following:
(1) Improving, developing, or restoring functions impaired or lost through illness, injury, or deprivation;
(2) Improving ability to perform tasks for independent functioning if functions are impaired or lost; and
(3) Preventing, through early intervention, initial or further impairment or loss of function.
g. “Orientation and mobility services” means services provided to blind or visually impaired children by qualified personnel to enable those students to attain systematic orientation to and safe movement within their environments in school, home, and community, and includes teaching children the following, as appropriate:
(1) Spatial and environmental concepts and use of information received by the senses (such as sound, temperature and vibrations) to establish, maintain, or regain orientation and line of travel (e.g., using sound at a traffic light to cross the street);
(2) To use the long cane or a service animal to supplement visual travel skills or as a tool for safely negotiating the environment for children with no available travel vision;
(3) To understand and use remaining vision and distance low vision aids; and
(4) Other concepts, techniques, and tools.
h. “Parent counseling and training” means assisting parents in understanding the special needs of their child; providing parents with information about child development; and helping parents to acquire the necessary skills that will allow them to support the implementation of their child’s IEP or IFSP.
i. “Physical therapy” means services provided by a qualified physical therapist.
j. “Psychological services” includes the following:
(1) Administering psychological and educational tests, and other assessment procedures;
(2) Interpreting assessment results;
(3) Obtaining, integrating, and interpreting information about child behavior and conditions relating to learning;
(4) Consulting with other staff members in planning school programs to meet the special educational needs of children as indicated by psychological tests, interviews, direct observation, and behavioral evaluations;
(5) Planning and managing a program of psychological services, including psychological counseling for children and parents; and
(6) Assisting in developing positive behavioral intervention strategies.
k. “Recreation” includes the following:
(1) Assessment of leisure function;
(2) Therapeutic recreation services;
(3) Recreation programs in schools and community agencies; and
(4) Leisure education.
l. “Rehabilitation counseling services” means services provided by qualified personnel in individual or group sessions that focus specifically on career development, employment preparation, achieving independence, and integration in the workplace and community of a student with a disability. The term also includes vocational rehabilitation services provided to a student with a disability by vocational rehabilitation programs funded under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as amended through August 14, 2006, 29 U.S.C. 701 et seq.
m. “School health services and school nurse services” means health services that are designed to enable a child with a disability to receive FAPE as described in the child’s IEP. School nurse services are services provided by a qualified school nurse. School health services are services that may be provided by either a qualified school nurse or other qualified person.
n. “Social work services in schools” includes the following:
(1) Preparing a social or developmental history concerning a child with a disability;
(2) Group and individual counseling with the child and family;
(3) Working in partnership with parents and others on those problems in a child’s living situation (home, school, and community) that affect the child’s adjustment in school;
(4) Mobilizing school and community resources to enable the child to learn as effectively as possible in his or her educational program; and
(5) Assisting in developing positive behavioral intervention strategies.
o. “Speech-language pathology services” includes the following:
(1) Identification of children with speech or language impairments;
(2) Diagnosis and appraisal of specific speech or language impairments;
(3) Referral for medical or other professional attention necessary for the habilitation of speech or language impairments;
(4) Provision of speech and language services for the habilitation or prevention of communicative impairments; and
(5) Counseling and guidance of parents, children, and teachers regarding speech and language impairments.
p. “Transportation” includes the following:
(1) Travel to and from school and between schools;
(2) Travel in and around school buildings; and
(3) Specialized equipment, such as special or adapted buses, lifts, and ramps, if required to provide special transportation for a child with a disability.
41.34(4)Rule of construction. A particular service listed in this rule may also be considered special education under rule 281—41.39(256B,34CFR300), a supplementary aid and service under rule 281—41.42(256B,34CFR300), or a support service under rule 281—41.409(256B,34CFR300).
281—41.35(34CFR300) Scientifically based research. “Scientifically based research” has the meaning given the term in Section 9101(37) of the ESEA.
281—41.36(256B,34CFR300) Secondary school. “Secondary school” means a nonprofit institutional day or residential school, including a public secondary charter school that provides secondary education, as determined under state law, except that it does not include any education beyond grade 12.
281—41.37(34CFR300) Services plan. “Services plan” has the meaning given the term in 34 CFR 300.37.
281—41.38(34CFR300) Secretary. “Secretary” means the Secretary of the United States Department of Education.
281—41.39(256B,34CFR300) Special education.
41.39(1)General. “Special education” means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including:
a. Instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings; and
b. Instruction in physical education.
41.39(2)Specific services included in special education. Special education includes each of the following, if the services otherwise meet the requirements of subrule 41.39(1):
a. Any service listed in this chapter, including support services, related services, and supplemental aids and services, that is specially designed instruction under subrule 41.39(1) or state standards or is required to assist an eligible individual in taking advantage of, or responding to, educational programs and opportunities;
b. Travel training; and
c. Vocational education.
41.39(3)Individual special education terms defined. The terms in this definition are defined as follows:
a. “At no cost” means that all specially designed instruction is provided without charge, but does not preclude incidental fees that are normally charged to nondisabled students or their parents as a part of the regular education program. An AEA or LEA may ask, but not require, parents of children with disabilities to use public insurance or benefits or private insurance proceeds to pay for services if they would not incur a financial cost, as described in rule 281—41.154(256B,34CFR300).
b. “Physical education” means the development of physical and motor fitness; fundamental motor skills and patterns; and skills in aquatics, dance, and individual and group games and sports, including intramural and lifetime sports; and includes special physical education, adapted physical education, movement education, and motor development.
c. “Specially designed instruction” means adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child under this chapter, the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction:
(1) To address the unique needs of the child that result from the child’s disability; and
(2) To ensure access of the child to the general curriculum, so that the child can meet the educational standards within the jurisdiction of the public agency that apply to all children.
d. “Travel training”means providing instruction, as appropriate, to children with significant cognitive disabilities, and any other children with disabilities who require this instruction, to enable them to:
(1) Develop an awareness of the environment in which they live; and
(2) Learn the skills necessary to move effectively and safely from place to place within that environment (e.g., in school, in the home, at work, and in the community).
e. “Vocational education” means organized educational programs that are directly related to the preparation of individuals for paid or unpaid employment, or for additional preparation for a career not requiring a baccalaureate or advanced degree.
281—41.40(34CFR300) State. “State” means each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and each of the outlying areas.
281—41.41(256B,34CFR300) State educational agency. “State educational agency” or “SEA” means the state board of education or other agency or officer primarily responsible for the state supervision of public elementary schools and secondary schools, or, if there is no such officer or agency, an officer or agency designated by the governor or by state law.
281—41.42(256B,34CFR300) Supplementary aids and services. “Supplementary aids and services” means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes, other education-related settings, and in extracurricular and nonacademic settings, to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate in accordance with rules 281—41.114(256B,34CFR300) to 281—41.116(256B,34CFR300).
281—41.43(256B,34CFR300) Transition services.
41.43(1)General. “Transition services” means a coordinated set of activities for a child with a disability and meets the following description:
a. Is designed to be within a results-oriented process, that is focused on improving the academic and functional achievement of the child with a disability to facilitate the child’s movement from school to postschool activities, including postsecondary education, vocational education, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living, or community participation;
b. Is based on the individual child’s needs, taking into account the child’s strengths, preferences, and interests; and includes the following:
(2) Related services;
(3) Community experiences;
(4) The development of employment and other post-school adult living objectives; and
(5) If appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills and provision of a functional vocational evaluation.
41.43(2)May be special education or a related service. Transition services for children with disabilities may be special education, if provided as specially designed instruction, or a related service if required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education.
281—41.44(34CFR300) Universal design. “Universal design” has the meaning given the term in Section 3 of the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 as amended through August 14, 2006, 29 U.S.C. 3002.
281—41.45(256B,34CFR300) Ward of the state.
41.45(1)General. Subject to subrules 41.45(2) and 41.45(3), “ward of the state” means a child who, as determined by the state where the child resides, is:
a. A foster child;
b. In the custody of a public child welfare agency; or
c. A ward of the state.
41.45(2)Exception. “Ward of the state” does not include a foster child who has a foster parent who meets the definition of a parent in rule 281—41.30(256B,34CFR300).
41.45(3)Interpretive note. “Ward of the state” is a term rarely used in Iowa law. It would be an extremely rare occurrence for a child to be a ward of the state while not being either a foster child or in the custody of a public child welfare agency.