Space Mil Disad 1nc 2 uq / link 4



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DDW 2011

1

Space Mil Disad 1NC 2

***UQ / LINK*** 4

No Space Mil Now 5

Brink Ev 6

China Cooperative Now 7

No China Mil Now 8

No Russia Mil Now 9

Space Exploration --> Space Mil 10

Development --> Militarization 11

Generic Space Link 12

Investment Link 13

Dual-Use Links 14

Misperception Link 15

Russian Misperception Link 16

SPS Link 17

SBL Link 19

Satellite Link 20

AT: ‘Peaceful Purposes’ 21

Int’l Community Dislikes 22

***IMPACTS*** 23

US Space Mil --> China Space Mil 24

US Space Mil --> China Space Mil 25

China Space Mil Bad – Nuclear Deterrent / Space Arms Race 26

China Space Mil --> Pre-emptive Strikes 29

China – Threat in Space 30

US Space Mil --> Space Arms Race 35

Space Mil --> Prolif 37

Space Mil Turns Space Debris 38

Space Mil Hurts Russia/China Relations 39

Space Heg Hurts Constitution 41

AT: Space Mil Inev 42

***AFF*** 43

US-China Arms Race Now 44

Militarization Now 47

Link D / Turns 48



Space Mil Disad 1NC

US is not weaponizing space now

de Selding 2-20-09, Peter B.: Space News Staff Writer [“Pentagon Official: U.S. Is Not Developing Space Weapons,” http://www.space.com/news/090220-pentagon-space-weapons.html]

 

STRASBOURG, France - The United States is not developing space weapons and could not afford to do so even if it wanted to, an official with the Pentagon's National Security Space Office said Thursday.  Pete Hays, a senior policy analyst at the space office who is also associate director of the Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies, said U.S. policy on space weaponry has remained pretty much the same over the last 30 years despite the occasionally heated debate on the subject during the administration of former U.S. President George W. Bush.  "There has not been one minute spent on this issue as far as I know," Hays said of U.S. Defense Department policy on using weapons in space. "There are no space weaponization programs. It's an issue that academics like to flog now and then, but in terms of funded programs, there aren't any. I can tell you that categorically." Hays made his remarks during a space security conference organized by the International Space University here. He said that even if the United States decided to embark on a space-based weapon system, it could not pay for it given its current military program commitments.  Hays said the U.S. policy of refusing to sign a treaty banning space-based weapons has not changed since the 1970s. Despite occasional efforts, no administration, Democrat or Republican, has been able to craft an acceptable treaty.  Hays said he cannot explain why a policy statement from the new administration of President Barack Obama appears to highlight a priority of seeking a worldwide ban on weapons that would interfere with satellites. "This will be an extremely difficult policy to adopt" for the same reasons that other administrations have fallen short, Hays said. "It is not for lack of trying that the United States and others have been unable" to produce a treaty.


Space exploration leads to militarization

Duvall & Havercroft '6 – *Professor of Political Science @ Univ. of Minnesota and Associate Director of the Interdisciplinary Center for the Study of Global Change AND **Assistant Professor in the Political Science Department at the University of Oklahoma (Raymond and Johnathan, March 2006, "Taking Sovereignty Out of This World: Space Weaponization and the Production of Late-Modern Political Subjects," Ebsco, RG)
The weaponization of space the act of placing weapons in outer space has an intimate relationship to space exploration, in that the history of the former is embedded in the latter, while the impetus for space exploration, in turn, is embedded in histories of military development. Since the launch of Sputnik, states that have ability to accessand hence to exploreouter space have sought ways in which that access could improve their military capabilities. Consequently, militaries in general and the U.S. military inparticular have had a strong interest in the military uses of space forthe last half century. Early on, the military interest in space had two direct expressions: enhancingsurveillance; and developing rocketry technologies that could be put to use for earth-based weapons, such as missiles. Militaries also have a vested interest in the “dual-use” technologies that are often developed in space exploration missions. While NASA goes to great lengths in itspublic relations to stress the benefits to science and the (American) public of its space explorations, it is noteworthy that many of the technologies developed for those missions also have potential military use. The multiple interests that tie together space exploration andspace weaponization have been vigorously pursued and now are beginning to be substantially realized by a very small number of militaries, most notably that of the United States. For example, since the 1990 Persian Gulf War, the U.S. military has increasingly reliedon assets in space to increase its C3I (Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence) functions. Most of these functions are nowrouted through satellites in orbit. In addition, new precision weapons, such as JDAM bombs, and unmanned drones, such as the Predator,rely on Global Positioning System satellites to help direct them to their targets, and often these weapons communicate with headquartersthrough satellite uplinks. For another instance, NASA’s recently completed Deep Impact mission, which entailed smashing part of aprobe into a comet to gather information about the content of comet nuclei, directly served the U.S. military in developing the technologyand the logistical capabilities to intercept small objects moving at very fast speeds (approximately 23,000 miles per hour) (NASA, 2005).As such, the technologies can be adapted for programs such as missile defense, where a similar problem of intercepting an object movingat a very high speed is confronted

Space Mil Disad 1NC
No space arms race now, but US militarization causes nuclear war with Russia

Rozoff '9 – Correspondent on Geopolitics and US Foreign Policy with the Centre for Research on Globalization (Rick, 6/19/09, "Militarization Of Space: Threat Of Nuclear War On Earth," http://dandelionsalad.wordpress.com/2009/06/18/militarization-of-space-threat-of-nuclear-war-on-earth-by-rick-rozoff/, RG)
On June 17, immediately after the historical ninth heads of state summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in Yekaterinburg, Russia on the preceding two days, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and Chinese President Hu Jintao announced that their nations were drafting a joint treaty to ban the deployment of weapons in outer space to be presented to the United Nations General Assembly.

A statement by the presidents reflected a common purpose to avoid the militarization of space and said:

Russia and China advocate peaceful uses of outer space and oppose the prospect of it being turned into a new area for deploying weapons.

The sides will actively facilitate practical work on a draft treaty on the prevention of the deployment of weapons in outer space, and of the use of force or threats to use force against space facilities, and will continue an intensive coordination of efforts to guarantee the security of activities in outer space.” [1]

The statement also addressed the question of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and its global expansion as well as an integrally related danger, the US-led drive to development a worldwide – and more than worldwide – interceptor missile system aimed at neutralizing China’s and Russia’s deterrent and retaliation capacities in the event of a first strike attack on either or both.

The section of the joint communique addressing the above stated, “Russia and China regard international security as integral and comprehensive. The security of some states cannot be ensured at the expense of others, including the expansion of military-political alliances or the creation of global or regional missile defense systems.” [2]

The two leaders’ comments assumed greater gravity and legitimacy as Medvedev and Hu had both just attended the two-day SCO summit which included heads of states and other representatives of the SCO’s six full members [China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan), its four observer states (India, Iran, Mongolia and Pakistan, with the heads of state of all but Mongolia participating, the first time for an Indian prime minister), the president of Afghanistan, Hamid Karzai, and attendees from Belarus and Sri Lanka, the latter also for the first time at an SCO summit.

The statement by the Russian and Chinese presidents also came the day after the first-ever heads of state summit of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) nations in the same Russian city.

To confirm the seriousness and urgency of Hu's and Medvedev's concerns over the expansion of the arms race and potential armed conflict into space, on the same day as their statement was released Russian Deputy Defence Minister Vladimir Popovkin addressed a press conference in Moscow and issued comments that were summarized by the local media as "Russia warns that technology failure with weapons in space may accidentally invite a massive response amounting to nuclear war."

He warned that his nation's "response to American weapons in orbit would be asymmetric but adequate." [3]


***UQ / LINK***

No Space Mil Now
Obama committed to limiting space mil

Pindhak '10 -- Jack Kent Cooke Graduate Scholar pursuing an MPIA in Security and Intelligence Studies at the University of Pittsburgh’s Graduate School of Public and International Affairs (Peter, 7/19/10, "New Prospect for Space Arms Control," http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Current-Affairs/Security-Watch/Detail/?lng=en&id=118951, RG)
Although the previous administration responded to the PPWT proposal rather unwillingly, the Obama administration’s change of negative vote to abstention for the PAROS resolution signifies a change. Obama has no interest in reviving an arms race. Indeed, arms control and disarmament are high on his agenda. Having just signed the New START Treaty that currently awaits ratification in the Senate, one may expect his genuine effort to engage in the PPWT negotiations at the Conference on Disarmament.
No space militarization now

The Economist 08 [authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science and technology, January 17, “The militarisation of space: Disharmony in the spheres”, http://www.economist.com/node/10533205?story_id=10533205]

Yet the Bush administration has stopped short of taking the fateful step of “weaponisation” in space. Perhaps it is too preoccupied with Iraq, and certainly the downfall of Mr Rumsfeld removed a powerful champion of space weapons. A year after ASAT shot, the defence budget passed by the Democrat-controlled Congress did not provide any money for a missile defence “space test-bed”.

Brink Ev



Space militarization is on the brink now – it’s a question of if weapons are deployed and use peacefully – the US is in a peaceful commitment now

Stratfor ‘8 (2008, "United States: The Weaponization of Space", http://www.stratfor.com/analysis/united_states_weaponization_space, RG)
Since then, the military utility of space has begun to be realized. Today, it is a cornerstone of global military communications and navigation. In Iraq today, for example, the U.S. military uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) for everything from squad level maneuvers to joint direct attack munition (JDAM) delivery. Largely from facilities inside the continental United States, the Pentagon controls some unmanned aerial systems half a world away. GPS has given rise to a new degree of precision in guided weapons. Imagery from space-based surveillance platforms has become commonplace and the Defense Support Program constellation continually monitors the surface of the earth for the launch plume of a ballistic missile. It is an incredibly valuable military domain. And just as it has become more valuable, the United States has become increasingly dependent on it.

Thus, space-based assets are susceptible targets for U.S. adversaries. Were the United States to lose these assets, its military capability on the ground would be severely affected. Any symmetric enemy knows that and will act to neutralize U.S. space capability. The United States knows that this attack will take place and must therefore defend the assets. In this sense, space is already a domain of military competition and conflict. There is no escaping it. In other words, space has already been weaponized, except that the actual projectiles are not yet located in space. Beijing’s 2007 and Washington’s recent anti-satellite weapons tests only emphasize this point.


China Cooperative Now

China space policy is cooperative – fosters peace in space

Gang '11 -- staff writer for space daily (Liu, 7/7/11, "Building harmonious outer space to achieve inclusive development," http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Building_harmonious_outer_space_to_achieve_inclusive_development_999.html, RG)

Referencing Huang Huikang, director of the Dept. of Treaty and Law in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs


On the peaceful use of outer space, Huang said outer space law is an important instrument for safeguarding the harmonious development of the outer space, preventing its weaponization and realizing its sustainable development.

"All treaties, principles, and declarations established by the COPUOS have played an important role in regulating space activities, maintaining space order and promoting space cooperation, and they should guide all countries' outer space activities," Huang said.

Meanwhile, the commercialization of outer space activities and the risk of militarization of outer space require us to stipulate new space laws, improve the existing space law system so as to ensure the inclusive development of outer space, Huang said.

In the future, China will continue to uphold the notion of harmonious outer space and work with the international community to realize the inclusive development of outer space and "achieve peace, development, cooperation and rule of law in outer space."

No China Mil Now



China will not militarize – strongly opposed

Peijie 11 [Chen, Head of the Chinese delegation at the 50th Session of the Legal Subcommittee of COPUOS, March 28, “General Statement”, http://www.chinesemission-vienna.at/eng/xw/t814138.htm]

China has all along advocated the idea of harmony in outer space, abided by the basic principles of the 5 space treaties and dedicated itself to peace, development, cooperation and rule of law in outer space. China hopes that the international community will further optimize the space law regime and provide a legal basis for the orderly conduct of space activities. China is firmly opposed to space militarization and space arms race. There are gaps within existing space law instruments in this regard that give rise to the increasing escalation of the risks of space militarization and space arms race. Such a situation poses a grave threat to peaceful human space activities and serves no country's interests. Humanity has been tortured by wars throughout its history and we should not let such a menace extend to outer space. China always believes that the best option for maintaining long lasting peace and security in outer space still is to conclude a treaty to prevent space militarization and to tighten the monitoring of implementation of existing treaties.
China will not militarize – white paper and joint treaty

Honge 11 [Mo, writer for Centre for Research on Globalisation, an independent research and media organization, March 31, “China Opposes Arms Race in Outer Space: White Paper”, http://www.gov.cn/english/2011-03/31/content_1835476.htm]

The Chinese government advocates the peaceful use of outer space, and opposes any weaponization of outer space and any arms race in outer space, says a white paper on the country's national defense. "China believes that the best way for the international community to prevent any weaponization of or arms race in outer space is to negotiate and conclude a relevant international legally-binding instrument," says the white paper, issued by the Information Office of the State Council Thursday. According to the document, in February 2008, China and Russia jointly submitted to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) a draft Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space and the Threat or Use of Force against Outer Space Objects (PPWT). In August 2009, China and Russia jointly submitted their working paper responding to the questions and comments raised by the CD members on the draft treaty. China is looking forward to starting negotiations on the draft treaty at the earliest possible date, in order to conclude a new outer space treaty, says the white paper.

No Russia Mil Now



Russia will not militarize – joint treaty

KNSA 11 [Korea News Service Agency, state news agency of North Korea, March 5, “Russia FM Rejects Space Militarization”, http://www.kcna.co.jp/item/2011/201103/news05/20110305-10ee.html]

Pyongyang, March 5 (KCNA) -- Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, addressing the UN Disarmament Conference on Tuesday, clarified Russia's stand against the militarization of space. There has already been built in the world the potentials to deploy arms on the orbit around the earth and spoil spacecraft, he said, warning of the danger of militarization in space around the earth. He stressed the need to discuss unconditionally a draft treaty on ban to arms deployment in outer space jointly submitted by Russia and China in 2008.


Russia does not want militarization – wants to prevent destabilization

Itar-Tass 11 [Information Telegraph Agency of Russia, major news agency of Russia, March 2, “Russia reiterates danger of outer space militarization”, http://www.deccanherald.com/content/142355/russia-reiterates-danger-outer-space.html]

Russia has again warned the international community about the danger of militarization of outer space. At the conference on disarmament in Geneva, it called for an urgent review of the Russian-Chinese draft international treaty to prevent the deployment of weapons in space. The world has already accumulated the potential enabling it to deploy weapons in near Earth orbits and put spacecraft out of order. "A build-up of this potential will be increasing its destabilizing influence," Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov warned on yesterday.

Space Exploration --> Space Mil



Development of space tech leads to militarization

Pollpeter 06 [Kevin, China Project Manager for DGI's Center for Intelligence Research and Analysis, 2006, “THE CHINESE VISION OF SPACE MILITARY OPERATIONS”, www.defensegroupinc.com/cira/pdf/doctrinebook_ch9.pdfSimilar]

The development of space technology will inevitably lead to the militarization of space and space militarization will lead to confrontation in space. As the struggle over air and space control is becoming the new focal point of war, space will become the main battlefield of future wars. According to Chinese writings, recent high-technology local wars are evidence that whoever gains air and space control will seize the initiative. Consequently, air and space control will play an increasingly important role in modern war and dominating space will be the one and only principle of winning future wars. Therefore, air and space control will be the new focal point of struggle in future wars.
The more exploration the more space mil

Wolff '3 – completing a M.Sc. with the European Institute at the London School of Economics and Political Science in the United Kingdom (Johannes M., 2003, "‘Peaceful uses’ of outer space has permitted its militarization— does it also mean its weaponization?" http://www.unidir.org/pdf/articles/pdf-art1883.pdf, RG)
Despite lofty commitments, the world failed to maintain outer space for peaceful purposes. Militarization of outer space has been a fait accompli since the beginning of the space exploration age. Until now space objects have only acted as force multipliers, however we are approaching the threshold of space weaponization. We have managed to transcend the heavens, a task long seen as impossible, yet we have done little to prevent the militarization of space. We have the opportunity and responsibility to prevent its weaponization.
Development --> Militarization

Plan causes mixed perception about space development – leads to global militarization

Michelson ’10 – the Roeper School Egypt Representative, Special Political Committee, 10 (Rebecca, 2010, "Peaceful Use of Outer Space", http://www.glica.org/topics/show/78, RG)
In the years following the Cold War-inspired need for outer space domination, the United Nations continues to value outer space as an important area for development internationally. The U.S. and Russia continue to develop their space programs, but new major players in the outer space market follow them closely behind.

China, Japan, and India are all in the process of sending satellites into orbit for themselves, spurred on by motivation of national pride and fear for security based on militarization of outer space. North Korea, despite remaining extremely poor and poverty-stricken, is known to have developed long-range missiles of their own. South Korea, however, has a well-developed technology sector, and like Japan, may be motivated by fear of North Korea’s space technology, to bolster their own space program. Smaller parties like Malaysia are motivated to stir up publicity for their own national pride, affording to pay Russia to allow one of their citizens to take the trip to space.

Russia wants to be a part of this Asian space development, just as the United States wishes to continue development of space internationally, although the Americans are now reliant on Russian rocketry for some space payloads. The United Nations committee of the Office of Outer Space Affairs monitors threats to international security with the possible militarization of space, something a bit less foreboding since the collapse of the Cold War following the breakup of the Soviet Union.

The Arab Republic of Egypt has signed on for peaceful ventures in outer space with India. Once partners in developing the Marut aircraft, the two nations are newly aligned in such areas as cooperation on health, trade, and security. Egypt endorsed the United Nations Resolution 1348 on a coordination of national research programs worldwide, and the continued support of the Office for Outer Space Affairs.



Egypt is notably concerned about the use of outer space for military purposes, and the area becoming subject to an arms race. Egypt strongly feels that all development of outer space should be for peaceful purposes, and hopes to see cooperation internationally in the future toward research and development of our solar system. Egypt welcomes the opportunity to work with other nations in continuing to safeguard outer space for peaceful purposes.
Generic Space Link



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