South and East Asia- study Guide 2



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Question

Answer

Which Asian countries have the highest literacy rates?

Japan, North Korea, and South Korea

Which Asian country has the lowest literacy rate?

India

Which Asian countries have the highest national wealth as determined by GDP?

Japan and South Korea

Which Asian countries have the lowest national wealth?

Bangladesh and North Korea

What generalization can you make about the relationship between national wealth and literacy?

Higher national wealth is not always necessary in order to have high literacy rates.

Why do some very poor countries in Asia still have high literacy rates?

If governments decide education should be a national goal, the literacy rates can improve even if the countries are poor.

In a unitary government system, most of the power is in the hands of the ____________

central government

In a confederation government system, most of the power is in the hands of the ___________

local governments.

Which organization could be considered an example of a confederation form of government?

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations

How is government power handled in a federal form of government?

Power is shared among different levels of government

Who makes most of the important governmental decisions in an autocracy?

the ruler

Which Asian country could be described as an autocracy?

North Korea

Who makes most of the important governmental decisions in an oligarchy?

small group of powerful leaders

Which Asian country could be described as an oligarchy?

China

Why do the individual voters have more power in a democracy than they do in an autocracy or an oligarchy?

The voters get to choose the people who make the laws.

Which Asian countries have democratic systems of government?

India and Japan

Which branch of government is responsible for making and carrying out the laws in a parliamentary system of government?

legislature

The leader of a parliamentary system is often called the

prime minister

The leader of a parliamentary system is chosen by ________________

The political party with the most representatives in the legislature.

Which branch of government makes the laws in a presidential system of government?

legislature

In a presidential system of government, a president is chosen

In a separate vote from the one that chooses the legislature.

What is the role of the president regarding the laws passed by the legislature? A

The president is supposed to enforce those laws.

What is one main difference between a president and a prime minister?

A president is in a separate branch of government while a prime minister is a part of the legislature.

What is the purpose of the chart?

To explain how power is divided in the government of Japan

Which parts of the government lead the legislative branch?

The Diet

Which best describes the Japanese government? B. theocracy

Theocracy

The Japanese parliament is called the _______

The Diet

What role do religions leaders play in the Indian government?

The country has a secular government in order to avoid seeming to favor one group over another.

Who is allowed to vote in Indian elections?

All citizens who are 16 years of age or older

What sort of government is the People's Republic of China?

communist government

What is the name of the elected Chinese legislative assembly?

National People's Congress

Who can vote in national elections in China?

all citizens who are over the age of 18

How often are elections for the national government held in India?

Elections for national office are held every five years.

Which country is the world's largest democracy?

India

Who was Indira Gandhi?

First woman prime minister in India

What role do the people play in a government like that of Japan?

The people have the real power in Japan.

What was the position of the Japanese emperor before World War II?

He was believed to be a god descended from the sun.

What group makes most of the important decisions in the government of the People's Republic of China today?

The Chinese Communist party

Who chooses the president and vice-president of the National People's Congress in China? B

The members of the National People's Congress choose them.

The premier of the National People's Congress in China is chosen by the ________________

president.

Who was the first leader of the People's Republic of China?

Mao Tse-Tung

In a traditional economy, how are economic decisions made?

custom and habit

Which would be a problem for a country with a traditional economy?

people need things and are unable to barter to obtain them

In a command economy, how are economic decisions made?

government planners

In a market economy, how are economic decisions made?

individuals

Who takes on the financial risk in starting a new business in a market economy?

individual business people

Why do most economies in the world today operate somewhere in between a market economy and a command economy?

Most economies have found they need a mix of free market and some government control to be successful and protect consumers.

The economy of China can best be described as

mixed.

In the years after the communist revolution, the Chinese government organized farmers into

collective farms.

The Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution were examples of China's attempt to

Improve the economy.

The purpose of China creating Special Economic Zones was to

Increase trade with foreign countries.

In the 1970s, China tried to improve the country's economy by announcing which of the following programs?

Four Modernizations

Today at least half of China's workers are still involved in

Agriculture.

The economy of India can best be described as

Mixed.

The Green Revolution was India's attempt to improve

Agriculture.

One of the problems resulting from the Green Revolution was

Water pollution.

One of the most successful parts of India's economy today is

Technology and electronics.

The economy of Japan can best be described as

Mixed.

Japan's economy could be classified as

One of the most technologically advanced in the world.

The Japanese economy has to make up for the country's lack of

Natural resources.

Japanese farmers were able to increase the amount of land they had for farming by doing which of the following?

Digging terraces in the hillsides

What is the job of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (The MITI)?

Helping companies decide what products will sell in the global market

The economy of North Korea could best be described as mostly

Command.

Poor decisions made about how to organize farming in North Korea have resulted in many years of

Starvation.

Most major economic decisions in North Korea are made by

Premier Kim Jong-il

Premier Kim Jong-il has spent a great deal of North Korea's money on

The military.

What is the definition of "economic specialization"?

producing those goods a country can make most easily so they can trade them for goods made by others that cannot be produced locally

Why does economic specialization make trade between countries easier?

Countries can produce those things they make best and trade with others for what they need.

What is the definition of a tariff?

a tax placed on goods coming into one country from another

What is a quota?

a limit to the number off origin-produced goods that are allowed into the country

What is an embargo?

a halt to trade with a particular country for economic or political reasons

If a shirt costs 415 Rupees in India, how much would it cost in US dollars?

$10.00

If a gallon of gas cost $4.00 in the United States, what would it cost in China?

30.44 Yuan

Why is it important for nations to have a system to convert from one currency to another?

Converting currency makes it possible to buy and sell goods between nations with different types of money.

What is the definition of human capital?

skills and education the workers have

What is the definition of gross domestic product (GDP)?

The total value of goods and services a country produces in a year

If a country does not invest in its human capital, how can it affect the country's gross domestic product (GDP)?

GDP may go down because poorly trained workers will not be able to do their jobs as well.

What percentage of India's population work in agriculture?

over 50 percent

Which best describes the majority of the farms in India?

small, family-owned farms

How much of India's GDP comes from farming?

25 percent

How was the Green Revolution an example of investment in human capital in India?

Farmers were given training and new technology.

How does India rank in the world in terms of industrial production?

India is one of the world's leading industrial countries.

What role does the Chinese government play in decisions made about investing in human capital?

The government involvement is important because China is still very much a command economy.

How did the Four Modernizations affect Chinese agriculture?

The farmers were given better seed and equipment.

How did the Four Modernizations affect Chinese industry?

Many factories began to increase the production of consumer goods that were easier to sell.

What was the purpose of China's setting up the four Special Economic Zones?

to act as trade centers for global trade

What is one of the most important ways Japan has invested in human capital?

education

How do Japanese companies invest in human capital in dealing with their workers?

Companies provide benefits like health care and recreation facilities.

The Japanese government promotes the country's industrial growth and development by

working with industry to be sure they are keeping up with world markets and trends.

Which is the source of nearly all of Japan's GDP?

industry and services.

What are capital goods?

goods and services that are produced for a country's economy

Why is investment in capital goods important for a country like Japan?

Japan's economy depends heavily on industry and must be modem to be competitive.

India must invest in capital goods to help overcome which problems?

overpopulation and poverty

Investment in capital goods has helped China do well in which world markets?

consumer goods

Which is an example of a natural resource?

deposit of coal

Which is an entrepreneur?

someone who is willing to take a risk to begin a new business investors will make a profit if they support his project

What has been the role of entrepreneurship in India?

The country has all sorts of entrepreneurs, both wealthy and those with modest incomes.

Who has benefited from the micro-credit industry in India?

rural village men and women who wish to set up small businesses to help their families

How has China's attitude toward entrepreneurship changed in the past several decades?

The government has become more open to the idea of allowing some free enterprise.

What is the attitude of the Japanese toward entrepreneurship?

A Japan's economic development depends on the creative ideas of the country's entrepreneurs.

What is nationalism?

Loyalty to a group with whom one shares a common history, culture, and/or religion

Indian nationalism in the 1800s began as a reaction to

British rule.

Which was one of the early goals of the Indian National Congress?

Greater independence from British control

Indians helped the British in World War I because they believed it would

Encourage the British to grant India greater freedom after the war.

People in India were angry about the Rowlatt Act passed by the British in 1919 because it

Allowed the government to send Indians to jail without giving them a trial.

Which was an effect of the massacre at Amritsar?

Most people were so angry about the killings they became more united against the British.

What was Mohandas Gandhi's plan of civil disobedience?

People should refuse to obey a law they felt was unfair

Why did the Indians turn down dominion status when it was offered to them in the 1930s?

They wanted total freedom from Great Britain

What did Gandhi urge Indians to do during World War ll?

Gandhi did not want Indians to take sides during the war.

When independence finally came in 1947, what was it about the decision that made many Indians unhappy?

The country was divided along religious lines.

Which new countries were created in addition to independent India?

East and West Pakistan

What European power was the colonial ruler of Vietnam in the 1800s and early 1900s?

France

What was Vietnam called in the years before World War II?

Indochina

The leader of the nationalist movement in Vietnam was

Ho Chi Minh.

What was Ho Chi Minh's political party?

Communist Party

The goal of Ho Chi Minh's Vietminh League was

Independence for Vietnam.

Why did the French finally decide to leave Vietnam in 1954?

They could never get military control of the country.

What decision was made about Vietnam at the 1954 Geneva Conference?

The country was temporarily divided until elections could be held.

What country took over temporary control of the southern part of Vietnam ?

United States

Why did the United States finally leave Vietnam in 1975?

It became clear that the Vietnamese wanted to control their own country without foreign advisers or military.

When did the United States send marines to Vietnam?

1965

About how many years passed from the passage of the Tonkin Resolution to the surrender of South Vietnam?

11

Which is supported by information on the time line?

The Vietnamese fought for independence for nearly 20 years.

What was Gandhi's plan to refuse to obey unjust British laws?

Disarmament

One of Gandhi's main strategies in dealing with the British was to insist his followers use

Non-violence

Which product did Gandhi boycott?

Salt

When India became independent, what factor determined where people would live in the new states that were created?

Religion

Which is the BEST meaning of this quote by Gandhi?

People must act in a way that causes change to improve the world.

What V.S. General was given the job of rebuilding Japan after the end of World War II?

Douglas MacArthur

What type of government was created for Japan in the years following the war?

Constitutional monarchy

What was the role of the Japanese emperor in the new government?

His role was mainly ceremonial.

What is the name of the Japanese parliament?

The Diet

Which requirement is written into the Japanese constitution?

To never declare war on another country

Who led the Chinese communists during most of the 20th century?

Mao Zedong

When the Nationalist Republic of China was formed in 1929, what happened to Mao's communist supporters?

They were attacked and many were killed.

When did Mao and the communists take control of China?

Right after World War II

Why was the Great Leap Forward unsuccessful?

People wanted to be able to work for themselves and make a profit.

What was the period of time called when Mao tried to eliminate anyone that criticized the government?

The Cultural Revolution



What was the name of the new army of young people Mao used to enforce his policies in the 1960s?

The Red Guard

Which jobs did Mao think would lead China to become most prosperous?

Farmers and workers

After Mao's death in 1976, who became leader of China?

Den Xiaoping

What happened to students in 1989 that were protesting for greater political freedom in Tiananmen Square in Beijing?

They were attacked by Chinese troops and many were killed or arrested.

The Tiananmen demonstrators had a statue, Goddess of Democracy, that was modeled after which figure?

The Statue of Liberty

At the end of World War II, one of Russia's main goals was to

Be sure a Western European country would never attack them again.

What did the leaders of the Soviet Union feel would provide the most protection for their country?

Having friendly, pro-communist countries along all their borders

What was the name given to the disagreements between the United States and the Soviet Union at the end of World War II?

The Cold War

How was the country of Korea divided at the end of World War II?

Soviet control in the north; United States control in the south.

What was the fear of the United States about both Korea and Vietnam at the end of World War II?

They feared the two countries would become communist.

What was the meaning of the Domino Theory?

If one country in a region became communist, others would quickly follow.

What has become of the political division of Korea made in 1954?

Korea is still divided between a communist north and a democratic south.

What were the objections the United States had to Ho Chi Minh's leadership on Vietnam? C

He was a communist and a threat to the United States interests.

What became of United States efforts to prevent Ho Chi Minh from taking over the country of Vietnam and reuniting it as one country? D

American efforts ended in 1975 and Vietnam was united under the government designed by Ho Chi Minh,

What is the approximate distance (in miles) from Ho Chi Minh City to Hanoi?

700

Which country is located at 17°N, 103°E?

Thailand

In which direction does the Mekong River generally flow?

North to south

Which geographic feature is east of Vinh?

Gulf of Tonkin.

Which month is usually the driest in Tokyo, Japan?

December

Which is TRUE about the climate in Tokyo, Japan?

Late summer is the hottest and among the wettest times of year.



 




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