Socomun XXIV



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SOCOMUN XXIVmunlogomunlogo

Historic Security Council 1979

Iranian Hostage Crisis and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan


Hello Delegates! My name is Alex Estrada, and I will be your chair for The Historical Security Council 1979 for SOCOMUN 2015. I am a senior at Santa Margarita Catholic High School, and this will be my fourth year in Model United Nations. I have attended dozens of conferences in my high school career. This past year I attended Yale MUN in Connecticut and I will be going to Panama for a conference this October. MUN has truly prepared me for my future. MUN has helped my public speaking and has helped me with critical thinking. While being an active student in MUN, I am also involved in volleyball, Eagles for CHOC, International Baccalaureate, and many other extracurricular activities. In my free time I like to hang out with friends, listen to music, and watch movies.

Hello delegates! My name is Bella Murdy, and I will be you legal at SOCOMUN 2015. I am a junior at SMCHS, and I have been in MUN for two years. I went to UCSB GauchoMUN conference my sophomore year and will be traveling to a London conference next year. I swim on my high school team and sail outside of school. Through MUN, I have learned to speak with great quality and have an aura of professionalism. My fear of public speaking has been diminished, through the research papers and preparing needed for an MUN conference I have learned how to be confident when speaking. MUN gives me the opportunity to explore worldwide and current conflicts and become better educated on international topics. Through MUN I have had the opportunity to meet kind, intelligent, and driven individuals whom I would not have met if I was not involved. MUN has set me apart from my peers and has provided me with skills I believe will stay with me for a lifetime.

During committee, we will be discussing the topics of the Iranian hostage crisis as well as the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan during the year of 1979. This is an advanced committee, and we expect delegates to provide detailed solutions to these issues during the year of 1979. To ensure a high level of debate throughout the conference, we will focus on the Iranian Hostage Crisis and we will use the topic of the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan as the emergency topic if we have extra time. If you have any questions about the conference or procedure, please contact socomunhsc@gmail.com. I can’t wait to see you in committee!
Iranian Hostage Crisis
Background
The Iranian Hostage Crisis began on November 4th, 1979 when a group of Iranian students stormed the U.S. Embassy in Iran. This purpose for this action can be traced to the CIA’s operation Ajax a half century before. Ajax was the codename that the CIA used for the plan of impeaching the current Prime Minister of Iran, Mohammed Mossadegh, for a more Western-oriented politician, Mohammad Pahlavi, who the U.S. favored and named Shah. The U.S. believed by doing this, they would be able to receive an endless amount of oil which was very important to the Carter Administration. The Shah, although he improved the Iranian economy, made large promises to the people which never came true. Most of the wealth he promised to create never reached the common people. Over time, the Shah became unfavorable and people wanted a new leader. They turned to Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini who was liked by the people for his belief of breaking away from Western influence and looking for a new traditional future. These protest became violent when the Shah entered the United States for cancer treatment. The people of Iran thought that the U.S. was taking the Shah hostage, and therefore the students took over the Embassy and held 66 people hostage. The students were willing to give back the hostages in exchange for the Shah. The International community does not know how to approach this crisis.
Possible Solutions

Delegates, it is in your hands to evaluate the crisis and determine the best solutions. Because this topic has already taken place and that the United Nations has already taken action on this crisis, we encourage every delegate to develop new, creative, innovated, and unique solutions. Our committee will take place starting on November 4th, 1979 which is the day that the U.S. Embassy in Tehran was taken over by protesters. Multiple countries have different stances on this crisis and it is your job to research your country’s position on the crisis. Remember, research your country’s policy during the year of 1979 not 2015. Depending on the stance of each country, a possible solution is to use police force to liberate the hostages. This might contradict other countries who believe that a better and more feasible solution to have peace talks. Keep in mind that the situation in Iran is a growing proxy war – a conflict in which no direct confrontation is involved, but there are chosen sides in which nations support indirectly – between the United States and the Soviet Union, so consider their involvement in the crisis You may also want to look at the real solution of this issue and add other concepts to the solution in order to resolve this crisis in the shortest amount of time. There is no need for solutions on funding because the UN completely funds the Security Council’s solutions.


Questions to Consider
While researching this crisis, some questions that you should keep in mind are:

  1. What is the best solution that will reduce the amount of time the hostages are kept?

  2. How can developing countries take part in the solutions presented?

  3. Are there any specific committees or organizations that will be useful to work in union with to find solutions to this crisis?

  4. Would there be any incentives that would encourage the students to release the hostages?

  5. What is your country’s policy on the crisis starting on November 4th, 1979?

  6. How do you keep the hostages safe from injury?

Works Cited


"American Experience: TV's Most-watched History Series." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2015. .
"In Pictures: The Iranian Hostage Crisis." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2015. .
"Iran Hostage Crisis Fast Facts - CNN.com." CNN. Cable News Network, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2015. .
"Iran Hostage Crisis." History Channel. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 1 May

2013.


"Iran Hostage Crisis." Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2015. .
"Iran Hostage Crisis." Iran Hostage Crisis. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2015. .
"Iran Hostage Crisis." Miller Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2015. .
"Iran Hostage Crisis." Timetoast. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2015. .
"The History Guy: Iran-U.S. Hostage Crisis (1979-1981)." The History Guy. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2015. .
"The Iranian Hostage Crisis - Short History - Department History - Office of the Historian." The Iranian Hostage Crisis - Short History - Department History - Office of the Historian. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2015. .

The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan


Background
During this time in the 1970’s, the Cold War, a battle for global influence between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, was very tense. From the Cuban missile crisis to the Space Race, there was competition between these two superpowers for global dominance of their rivaling political ideals. The rival ideas: United States was democratic while the USSR was communist. In 1979, the Soviets invaded their falling communist ally, Afghanistan, to support the newly-formed communist government which was threatened by a popular uprising. This conflict began one year before the rebellion, when the Afghan communist party overthrew the previous government. President Mohammed Daoud was forced out of office, and the communist party lead by Mohammad Nijibaullah took power. The new government imposed strict reforms such as new state religion, human rights, and land redistribution. The people of Afghanistan did not favor this new government and protests broke out. To combat this issue, the communist government imprisoned hundreds of citizens and executed thousands who opposed their policies. The protest turned violent, and the Soviet Union decided that there was no other way to preserve their government in Afghanistan than to invade the country.

In late December of 1979, The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan which led to years of brutal conflict. Muslim rebels, called the Mujahedeen, fought the Soviet forces and were supported indirectly by the US. Thus began a proxy war in Afghanistan where the US indirectly supported the Mujahedeen by selling Russian-made weapons to throw suspicion of American involvement. Despite the Soviet Union’s military superiority, the rebels use strategic guerilla warfare to cause chaos for the larger military. The Soviet-backed Afghan forces only gained about 20% of the land while 80% of it was in the hands of the Mujahedeen. Many Muslim supporters of the Mujahedeen in neighboring countries came to Afghanistan to fight. With this invasion came many refugees who sought shelter away from war zones. This has now become an international issue which needed to be addressed by the UN. The Security Council’s job is to find a peaceful end to the conflict for all nations, both indirectly and directly, involved.




Possible Solutions

Delegates, now is the time to propose solutions that will work in union with your country’s policy on the issue. The Dias would be in favor of unique solutions that might not be brought up otherwise. It is important to understand that we will begin the topic on December 27th, 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Make sure that your solution incorporates not only the war at hand but also other issue like refugees and possible US involvement. Consider how this conflict not only effects the people of Afghanistan but the international community overall, particularly the relations between the US and USSR. One direct solution is to send UN peacekeepers to this country at war to care for the refuges and to strive to keep peace. Another solution is to have a multilateral peace talk between countries who are directly involved in this crisis. Make sure you know your countries policy in 1979. You country might have changed to different governments from the time this has happened to present. Again, this is the Security Council and funding will be handled by the UN.


Questions to Consider

While researching this issue, some questions that you should keep in mind are:



  1. Has your country dealt with an issue similar to this before? If so, how did you approach the issue?

  2. Will the UN have a physical presence in Afghanistan?

  3. Which side does your country support and why?

  4. What is an effective way to end this invasion?

  5. How do you keep the refugees safe?

  6. How do you address possible US involvement?

Work Cited


"Afghanistan Profile - Timeline." BBC News. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2015. .
"Mujahideen | Islam." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2015. .
"Role Of UN In Soviet Invasion Of Afghanistan - Author - Romit Agrawal." Role Of UN

In Soviet Invasion Of Afghanistan - Author - Romit Agrawal. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2013.


Rosenberg, Matt. "USSR: Overview of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics." N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2015. .
"Russian Invasion of Afghanistan." Russian Invasion of Afghanistan. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2015. .
"Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan | 1979." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2015. .
Taylor, Alan. "The Soviet War in Afghanistan, 1979 - 1989." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 04 Aug. 2014. Web. 25 Apr. 2015. .
"The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and the U.S. Response, 1978–1980 - 1977–1980 - Milestones - Office of the Historian." The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and the U.S. Response, 1978–1980 - 1977–1980 - Milestones - Office of the Historian. The U.S. Department of State, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2015. .
"The Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2015. .
"Why Did the Soviet Union Invade Afghanistan in 1979?" EInternational Relations. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2015. .

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