Sociology 602 Office Hours: tth 11: 30-1: 00 Contemporary Theory Stone 307



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Sociology 602 Office Hours: TTH 11:30-1:00

Contemporary Theory Stone 307



Spring 2015, Rich Hogan hoganr@purdue.edu
This course offers a general survey of contemporary sociological theory. The approach is historical, with a view toward continuities with Marx, Weber, and Durkheim, but the course is focused primarily on twentieth century sociology in the USA. Specifically, Urban Ecology, Functionalism and Functional Conflict Theory, Exchange Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, Ethnomethodology, Marxist and Weberian Theories of political economy, including feminist theory, will be covered. These theoretical traditions will be considered more or less chronologically (in the order in which they developed as major perspectives in sociology in the USA). To the extent that it is possible, I will develop something of a history of sociology that picks up where classical theory (SOC 600) ended.
This is very much a work a progress, which my successor might wish to undertake in tandem with the excellent work being done by Andy Abbott and others on the Chicago School and by Craig Calhoun and others on ASA and Sociology in the USA, more generally. We might also have occasion to talk about the history of sociology here at Purdue, where we recently celebrated 60 years (since 1953) as a department.
Reading
Readings should be completed before the class meeting in which they will be discussed (as indicated in the schedule below). The discussion questions (listed for each section) should be considered in the course of your reading, and you should be prepared to discuss these questions in our class meetings. The first class will be devoted to general orientation; the last class will be devoted to summary and conclusion, so there is no assigned reading for these class meetings.
Most of the readings are contained in books that are available for purchase at Vons. These books, two classic readers and five solo-authored sociological classics, should be part of your library. One of these books (Bottomore and Nisbet) is out of print, but students were ab le to find copies last year. We will not read every chapter of Bottomore and Nisbet’s excellent (classic) history, which combines the editorial and essay efforts of a Marxist and a Durkheimian who secured the contributions of many outstanding sociologists who lived the history that they were reporting. Now that many of the contributors are dead and buried we should consider this a collector’s item. If you can find it you should buy it now before it disappears forever. The chapters that we omit are certainly worth reading, including the early chapters that review what we have covered in classical theory (SOC 600).
We will read and (hopefully) discuss every other required reading. You should start reading Mills right away, followed by Merton, then Blau, then Blumer, then Garfinkle. By then you should be thoroughly confused and ready for the Giddens and Held (classic) reader, which will allow us to limit the amount of time that we spend on the various flavors of Marxist and feminist and critical and even not so critical theories of political economy. It is one of my great regrets that we no longer have any faculty or courses in political economy here at Purdue, but Bob Perrucci and I (who saw political economy come and go here) are still available for those interested in learning oral history. Alternatively, I have added Rhonda Levine’s edited volume from 2005 as a recommended reading that we might want to consider as an exercise in looking back and thinking forward toward a more radical sociology.
We will not be reading or discussing postmodern, post-colonial, transsexual, intersectional, socio-biological, neo-functional or any of the other passing fancies that may or may not survive as theories or theory groups. For our purposes, network theory (for example) is simply another example of something that might be a theory, or a method, or a substantive area, or simply a network of sociologists who read and cite each other. For our purposes, citations do not a theory make. The interested student might want to see how Hogan (2005) uses the citation index to sample bean counter and ontological and epistemological purist critiques of Wright and Perrone (1977), a classic by any measure. The latest French or German fad (Bourdieu and whoever is going to follow Habermas, who is still among the living as I write these words) might be mentioned in passing. My continuing relations with theorists and Marxists and other sectionalized ASA or SSHA fellow travelers might help those of you who are looking for more guidance to the 21st century literature. My position is that it is much too early to decide what is worth reading.
Other 20th century readings, particularly the journal articles and some of the book chapters, should be available online through the library. Some of these I hope to make available in links to PDF files downloaded from the library, but there may be copyright issues involved.
As noted above, this course is very much a work in progress. It will be my last version of this course, which will combine some of the highlights of SOC 602 courses that I have taught, 1984-2014. Although I have taught this course many times it has been twenty years or more since we have attempted to teach all of sociological theory in two courses. The addition (or, more accurately, reinstallation) of social psychological theories has made it necessary to limit the treatment of contemporary macro theory. Even micro theory is treated very briefly. There, however, you will have the opportunity to take SOC 603 (when and if it is offered), which can now build on the foundation offered here. Perhaps we will someday develop a SOC 604 to offer macro theory in the depth that it deserves.
Meanwhile, this is a course in which books are used to build your library. If you are really interested in sociological theory you should probably buy all of the recommended and required books, but even assembling an appropriate list would require more time and money than we have available right now. Let us instead consider this syllabus, with its limited bibliography of recommended books and articles, a first attempt to cover the field. Over the next several weeks and the next few years we might continue this effort.

Writing Assignments
Three short (1250-1500 word) papers will be required and graded. Each of these “major” papers should deal with one or more of the theoretical perspectives that we are discussing.
There are at least three possibilities for paper topics. First, you might analyze the development of one or more theories in light of its relation to classical theory and the socio-historical context in which it developed. Second, you might compare and contrast two or more theories or review major debates within or between theoretical traditions. Third, you might attempt to apply one or more theoretical perspectives to a problem of interest to you.
This last option might be particularly appropriate for a student preparing to undertake an analytic project or a prelim exam. It is, essentially, what students are asked to do in SOC 600. You might choose a particular topic (intellectual property law, Protestantism in China, eldercare, ethics and morality in the postmodern world, sects/cults and churches, the rise of HMOs, religious fundamentalism, capital flight, the changes occurring in Eastern Europe, changing fertility and household composition in the USA, etc.) and write your first paper as a functionalist or conflict or ecological perspective on your problem, followed (in your second paper) by a social psychological approach or a political economy approach, and concluded (in your last paper) by a consideration of your theoretical perspective, as informed by the debates and the theories covered in class.
There will be no exams. Grades will be based on the papers and on participation in class discussions. You will be encouraged to write short (200-500 word) essays every week and turn these in—not for grades but for comments. In fact, as graduate students, you should get in the habit of reading, thinking, then writing, every day. This course will be an excellent opportunity for you to develop those skills.
Every time you turn in a major essay (three times during the semester) you should include everything that you have turned in previously for comments—the original, with my comments. This will help me to assign grades for effort and for improvement, which will be taken into account as a fudge factor. Even an exceptionally prolific writer who talks incessantly and never misses a class will be expected to achieve a basic level of competence, generally indicated in the three major essays, in order to pass the class. The difference between a B- and a B+ or and A- an A+ might well depend on effort and improvement, as best as I can evaluate these components of your final product.

Schedule of Readings and Discussion Topics
Section I: The Early Day: From Columbia to Chicago

- Required Readings for Second Class Meeting

- Lewis Coser, "American Trends," in Bottomore and Nisbet, chapter 8, pp. 287-320

- Albion Small, “The Era of Sociology.” American Journal of Sociology (AJS), 1, 1 (July 1895):1-15 (reprinted and made available through Purdue HSSE Library)

- begin reading C. Wright Mills, The Sociological Imagination

- Recommended Readings

- Martin Bulmer, The Chicago School of Sociology (University of Chicago Press, 1986)

- W.I. Thomas and Dorothy Thomas, The Child in America: Behavior Problems and Programs (NY: Knopf, 1928)

- Kenneth Bock, "Theories of Progress, Development, and Evolution," in Bottomore and Nisbet, chapter 2, pp. 39-79.

- Arthur Stinchcombe, chapters one and two in Stinchcombe, pp. 3-56.

- Discussion Questions

- What is sociological theory?

- How should we distinguish one theoretical tradition from another?

- How have the classical theories influenced the development of contemporary theory?

- How has the socio-historical context influenced the development of sociological theory?

- Is American sociology a product of American culture?

- How is it related to other American institutions—Protestantism, Republicanism, Capitalism?
Section II: Urban Ecology

- Required Readings (third class meeting)

- Louis Wirth, “Urbanism As a Way of Life” AJS 44, 1 (July 1938), pp. 1-24.

- W. Parker Frisbie and John D Kasarda, "Spatial Processes," chapter 19 in Smelser, pp. 629-666

- David Harvey, "Labor, Capital, and Class Struggle Around the Built Environment, chapter 26 in Giddens and Held, pp. 545-561

- Harvey Molotch, "The City as a Growth Machine: Toward a Political Economy of Place," AJS 82, 2 (September 1976), pp. 309-332

- John Logan, "Growth, Politics, and the Stratification of Places," AJS 84, 2 (September 1978) pp. 404-416

- M. Gottdiener (1983), "Understanding Metropolitan Deconcentration," Social Science Quarterly, 64, pp. 227-246

- continue reading Mills

- Recommended Readings (interested students should take SOC 531)

- Robert Park and Ernest Burgess, Introduction to the Science of Sociology (Chicago: University Chicago, 1921)

- Arthur Stinchcombe, "Demographic Explanations of Social Phenomena," chapter 2, section I in Stinchcombe, pp. 60-79

- Amos Hawley and Frederick Wirt (eds), The Search for Community Power

- Michael P. Smith (ed.), The City and Social Theory.

- Robert Perrucci, "Embedded Corporatism."

- Richard Hogan, “Do Citizen Initiatives Affect Growth?” and The Failure of Planning

- Mike Davis, City of Quartz.

- John Walton, Storied Land.

- DuBois, W.E.B. The Philadelphia Negro

- Discussion Questions

- What is ecological theory, and how does it relate to classical theory and to America in the early twentieth century?

- How can we explain the regularities in urban growth and in the organization of urban space?

- Are users of space in competition? Are there conflicting interests in land-use and development?

- What is the role of local and national government in urban development and redevelopment?

- What is the future of urban development?
Section III: Structural Functionalism

- Required Readings (week 4)

- Talcott Parsons, “Age and Sex in the Social Structure of the United States,” American Sociological Review (ASR) 7, 5 (October 1942), pp. 604-616.

- Wilbert E. Moore, "Functionalism," chapter 9 in Bottomore and Nisbet, pp. 321-361.

- start reading Robert Merton

- Recommended Readings

- Talcott Parsons, et. al., "Some Fundamental Categories of the Theory of Action: A General Statement," chapter 1 in Parsons and Shils, pp. 3-29.

- Alan Dawe, “Theories of Social Action,” chapter 10, in Bottomore and Nisbet, pp. 362-417.

- Arthur Stinchcombe, "Functional Causal Imagery," chapter 2, section II in Stinchcombe, pp. 80-100.

- Robert Nisbet, "Conservatism," chapter 3 in Bottomore and Nisbet, pp. 80-117.


- Discussion Questions

- What is Structural Functionalism?

- Is it necessarily conservative?

- How was it influenced by classical theories?

- How was it influenced by Post-World-War-II America?

- How might we apply structural functionalism to address questions of interest to you?


Section IV: Mertonian and Conflict Functionalism

- Required Readings (week 5)

- keep reading Merton

- Lewis Coser, "Social Conflict and the Theory of Social Change," British Journal of Sociology 8, 3 (September 1957), pp. 197-207.

- Ralf Dahrendort, “Out of Utopia,” AJS 64, 2 (September 1958), pp. 115-127.

- Ralf Dahrendorf, "Toward A Theory of Social Conflict," Journal of Conflict Resolution 2, 2, (June 1958), pp. 170-183.

- Recommended Readings

- Lewis Coser, "The Functions of Social Conflict," in Coser and Rosenberg, pp. 205-209.

- C. Wright Mills, The Power Elite

- Michael Useem, "The Social Organization of the American Business Elite and Participation of Corporation Directors in the Governance of American Institutions," ASR 44, 4 (August 1979), pp. 553-572.


- Discussion Questions

- How has Merton succeeded or failed in "revamping" Structural Functionalism?

- Is it still functionalism?

- Has conflict theory succeeded or failed in displacing or complementing functionalism?

- Is conflict theory a form of functionalism?

- How is conflict theory related to Mertonian functionalism?


Section Five: Functional and Conflict Theories of Social Inequality

- Required readings (week 6)

- finish Merton

- Frank Parkin, "Social Stratification," chapter 15 in Bottomore and Nisbet, pp. 599-632

- Kingsley Davis and Wilbert E. Moore, “Some Principles of Stratification,” ASR 10, 2 (April 1925), pp. 242-249.

- Melvin M. Tumin, “Some Principles of Stratification: A Critical Analysis,” ASR 18, 4 (August 1953), pp. 387-394.

- Kingsley Davis, “Some Principles of Stratification: A Critical Analysis: Reply,” ASR 18, 4 (August 1953), pp. 394-397.

- Wilbert E. Moore, “Some Principles of Stratification: A Critical Analysis: Comment,” ASR 18, 4 (August 1953), pp. 397

- Patrick M. Horan, "Is Status Attainment Research Atheoretical?" pp. 534-541

- Steve Rytina, "Life Chances and Continuity of Rank," pp. 910-928


- Recommended Readings (interested students might take SOC 611)

- Arthur L. Stinchcombe, “Some Empirical Consequences,” ASR 28, 5 (October 1963), pp. 805-808.


Section VI. Social Exchange theory

- Required Readings (week 7)

- Blau


- Recommended Reading

- George Homans, “Social Behavior as Exchange.” American Journal of Sociology LXII (May 1958), PP. 597-606.

- Roger Finke and Rodney Stark, "Religious Economies and Sacred Canopies," pp. 41-49

- James S. Coleman, "The Rational Reconstruction of Society," pp. 1-15.


- Discussion Questions

- What has Exchange Theory added to behavioral psychology and micro-economic theory?

- What is social about exchange theory?

- Is this really a sociological theory?

- What were Homans and Parsons arguing about?

- Was Blau an exchange theorist or a functionalist?

- Why does exchange theory seem to disappear only to return with a new name?

Section Six: The Retreat from Structuralism and Functionalism

- Required Reading (week 8)

- read Blumer (week 8)

- Required Reading (week 9)

- read Garfinkle

- Recommended Reading

- Herbert Blumer, “Sociological Analysis and the “Variable.”



American Sociological Review, 21, 6 (Dec. 1956), pp. 683-690.

- Dennis H. Wrong, “The Oversocialized Conception of Man in Modern Sociology.” American Sociological Review 26, 2 (Apr., 1961), pp. 183-193

- Tom Bottomore and Robert Nisbet, “Structuralism,” chapter 14, in Bottomore and Nisbet, pp. 557-598.

- Anthony Giddens, “Positivism and Its Critics,” chapter 7, in Bottomore and Nisbet, pp. 237-286

- Kurt H. Wolff, “Phenomenology and Sociology,” chapter 13, in Bottomore and Nisbet, pp. 499-556.

- M. Gottdiener (1985), "Hegemony and Mass Culture: A Semiotic Approach," pp. 979-1001

- Jurgen Habermas (1971), "Human Knowledge and Human Interest," Appendix, pp. 301-349

- Jurgen Habermas (1979), "Conservativism and Capitalist Crisis," pp. 73-84

- David Harvey (1989), The Condition of Postmodernity.

- Discussion Questions

- What is structuralism, and what alternatives do its critics offer?

- What is positivism, and what alternatives do its critics offer?

- What are the prospects for a non-positivist or nonstructural social science?

- How might a positivist, structuralist respond to the critiques?

- How might a positivist, structuralist gain insights from the critics?
Section Seven: Weberian and Marxist Theories

- Required Readings (week 10)

- Thomas Bottomore, "Marxism and Sociology," chapter 4 in Bottomore and Nisbet, pp. 118-148

- Introduction to Section II in Giddens and Held, pp. 93-100

- Nicos Poulantzas, On Social Classes," chapter 4 in Giddens and Held, pp. 101-111

- Erik Olin Wright, Class Boundaries and Contradictory Locations," chapter 5 in Giddens and Held, pp. 112-129

- R.W. Connell, "A Critique of the Althusserian Approach to Class," chapter 6 in Giddens and Held, pp. 130-147

- Harry Braverman, "Capitalism and the Division of Labor," chapter 7 in Giddens and Held, pp. 148-156

- Anthony Giddens, "Class Structuration and Class Consciousness," chapter 8 in Giddens and Held, pp. 157-174

- Frank Parkin, "Social Closure and Class Formation," chapter 9 in Giddens and Held, pp. 175-184

- Required Reading (week 11)

- Introduction to Section III, Giddens and Held, pp. 189-195

- Maurice Zeitlin, Corporate Ownership and Control, chapter 10 in Giddens and Held, pp. 196-223.

- Goran Therborn, What Does the Ruling Class Do When it Rules? chapter 11 in Giddens and Held, pp. 224-248.

- Claus Offe and Volker Ronge, Theses on the Theory of the State, chapter 12 in Giddens and Held, pp. 249-256.

- Boris Frankel, On the State of the State: Marxist Theories of the State After Leninism, chapter 13 in Giddens and Held, pp. 257-274.

- Introduction to Section IV, Giddens and Held, pp. 279-284

- Stephen A. Marglin, What Do the Bosses Do? chapter 14, in Giddens and Held, pp. 285-298.

- E. P. Thompson, Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism, chapter 15 in Giddens and Held, pp. 299-309.

- David Stark, Class Struggle and the Transformation of the Labour Process, chapter 16, in Giddens and Held, pp. 310-329.

- Jill Rubery, Structured Labour Markets, Worker Organisation, and Low Pay, chapter 17, in Giddens and Held, pp. 330-348.

- Required Reading (week 12)

- Introduction, Secti1on V, Giddens and Held, pp. 353-358

- David Lockwood, Sources of Variation in Working-Class Images of Society, chapter 18, in Giddens and Held, pp. 359-372.

- Michael Mann, The Social Cohesion of Liberal Democracy, chapter 19, in Giddens and Held, pp. 373-395.

- Nicholas Abercrombie and Bryan S. Turner: The Dominant Ideology Thesis, chapter 20, in Giddens and Held, pp. 396-414.

- Introduction, Section VI, Giddens and Held, pp. 419-424

- Elizabeth Garnsey: Women's Work and Theories of Class and Stratification, chapter 21, in Giddens and Held, pp. 425-445.

- Heidi Hartmann: Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex, chapter 22, in Giddens and Held, pp. 446-469.

- Jane Humphries: Class Struggle and the Persistence of the Working-Class Family, chapter 23, in Giddens and Held, pp. 470-490.

- Dorothy Smith, "Women's Experience as a Radical Critique of Sociology," in Faraganis, pp. 323-331.

- Required Reading (week 13)

- Introduction, Section VII, Giddens and Held, pp. 495-500

- Robert Blauner: Colonised and Immigrant Minorities, chapter 24, in Giddens and Held, pp. 501-519

- Erik Olin Wright: Race, Class, and Income Inequality, chapter 25, in Giddens and Held, pp. 520-544.

- Introduction, Section VIII, Giddens and Held, pp. 567-573

- Frank Parkin: System Contradiction and Political Transformation, chapter 27, in Giddens and Held, pp. 574-587.

- Alec Nove: Is There A Ruling Class in the USSR? chapter 28, in Giddens and Held, pp. 588-604.

- Murray Yanowitch: Work Hierarchy and Management "Participation" in the Soviet Union, in chapter 29, in Giddens and Held, pp. 605-628.

- Elizabeth Garnsey: Growth Strategy, Competing Interests, and the Soviet Occupational System, in chapter 30, in Giddens and Held, pp. 629-642.

- Recommended Readings

- Thomas Bottomore, "Classes in Industrial Society," chapter III in Bottomore (1966), pp. 36-75

- Michael Burawoy, "Introduction: The Resurgence of Marxism in American Sociology," in Burawoy and Skocpol, pp. S1-S30

- Michael Burawoy, "Between the Labor Process and the State: The Changing Face of Factory Regimes Under Advanced Capitalism," pp. 587-605

- Thomas Hall, "Incorporation into the World System," pp. 390-402

- Richard Hogan, "The Frontier As Social Control," pp. 35-51

- Richard Hogan, "Carnival and Caucus," pp. 139-167

- Richard Hogan, “Class, Race and Gender Inequality”

- Richard Hogan, “Was Wright Wrong?”

- Rhonda F. Levine (editor), Enriching the Sociological Imagination

- Discussion Questions

- What is (are) NeoMarxist and NeoWeberian theory (theories)?

- What are the major strains (or schools) of NeoMarxist and NeoWeberian theory?

- How are these distinguished?

- What distinguishes these theories from functional and conflict theories?

- What is a class?

- What is the relationship between class circumstance, consciousness, and struggle?

- What is the relationship, if any, between class relations and gender or race relations?

- How might you apply a NeoMarxist of NeoWeberian theory to a research question of interest to you?
Section Ten: Toward A Theory of Sociological Theory

- No readings required for last class meeting (week 14)

- Recommended Readings

- Tom Bottomore and Robert Nisbet, "Introduction," in Bottomore and Nisbet, pp. vii-xvi

- Nicholas Mullins, "Theories and Theory Groups Revisited," in Collins, pp. 319-337

- Discussion Questions

- What is sociological theory?

- What are the major perspectives or traditions in sociological theory?

- What are the major theoretical debates?

- What are the prospects for a generally accepted single sociological perspective?

- What perspective do you find most useful and most compatible with your philosophy of life?

Toward a Bibliography
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Alexander, Jeffrey C., and Steven Seidman (eds).

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Bendix, Reinhard and Seymour M. Lipset (eds)

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*Blau, Peter M.

1986 Exchange and Power in Social Life. Transaction Publishers


Block, Fred

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*Blumer, Herbert

1986 Symbolic Interactionism. Berkeley: University California Press


Bottomore, Thomas B.

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*Bottomore, Thomas B., and Robert Nisbet (eds)

1978 A History of Sociological Analysis. NY: Basic Books.


Bratlinger, Patrick

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Bulmer, Martin

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Burawoy, Michael

1983 "Between the Labor Process and the State: The Changing Face of Factory Regimes Under Advanced Capitalism," American Sociological Review, 48: 587-605.


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Coser, Lewis and Bernard Rosenberg

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Dahrendorf, Ralf

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Davis, Mike

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DuBois, W.E.B.

1999 [1899] The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study. University Pennsylvania Press.


Etzioni, Amitai and Eva Etzioni-Halevy (eds)

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Farganis, James

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Finke, Roger and Rodney Stark

1988 "Religious Economies and Sacred Canopies: Religious Mobilization in American Cities, 1906," American Sociological Review, vol 53: 41-49.


Finlay, William

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*Garfinkle, Harold

1991 Studies in Ethnomethology. John Wiley & Sons.


*Giddens, Anthony and David Held (eds)

1982 Classes, Power, and Conflict. Berkeley, CA University California Press.


Gottdiener, M.

1983 "Understanding Metropolitan Deconcentration," Social Science Quarterly, 64: 227-246.


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Gouldner, Alvin

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Habermas, Jurgen

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1979 "Conservatism and Capitalist Crisis," New Left Review, 115 (May-June): 73-84
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1986 "Incorporation in the World System," American Sociological Review, 51: 390-402.


Harvey, David

1976 "Labor, Capital, and Class Struggle Around the Built Environment," Politics and Society, 6: 265-295.

1989 The Condition of Postmodernity. Cambridge: Blackwell.
Hawley, Amos, and Frederick M. Wirt (eds)

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Hogan, Richard

1985 "The Frontier As Social Control," Theory and Society, 14: 35-51.


1987 "Carnival and Caucus: A Typology for Comparative Frontier History," Social Science History, 11, 2: 139-167.
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2001 “Class, Race and Gender Inequality,” Race, Gender & Class 8, 2:61-93.

2003 The Failure of Planning: Permitting Sprawl in San Diego Suburbs, 1970-1999 (Columbus: Ohio State University Press)


2005 “Was Wright Wrong? High-Class Jobs and the Professional Earnings Advantage,” Social Science Quarterly, 86, 3 (September):645-663.

Hogan, Richard, and Carolyn C. Perrucci

1998 “Producing and Reproducing Class and Status Differences: Racial and Gender Gaps in U.S. Employment and Retirement Income.” Social Problems 45:528-549
Hogan, Richard, Carolyn Perrucci and Janet Wilmoth

2000 “Gender Inequaluty in Employment and Retirement Income: Effects of Marriage, Industrial Sector, and Self-Employment,” in M. Texler Segal and V. Demos (eds.), Advances in Gender Research 4:27-54.


Homans, George C.

1958. “Social Behavior as Exchange.” American Journal of Sociology LXII (May): 597-606.


Horan, Patrick M

1978 “Is Status Attainment Research Atheoretical?" American Sociological Review, 43: 534-541


Keat, Russell

1981 The Politics of Social Theory. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.


Jameson, Frederic

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Lenski, Gerhard

1988 "Rethinking Macrosociological Theory," American Sociological Review 53: 163-171.


Levine, Rhonda F.

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Logan, John R.

1978 "Growth, Politics, and the Stratification of Place," American Journal of Sociology 84: 404-416.


Marcuse, Herbert

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*Merton, Robert K

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Mills, C. Wright

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*1967 The Sociological Imagination. NY: Oxford University Press.
Molotch, Harvey

1976 "The City As a Growth Machine," American Journal of Sociology 82: 309-332


Mullins, Nicholas

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Orloff, Ann Shola and Theda Skocpol

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Parkin, Frank

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Parsons, Talcott and Edwin Shils

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Perrucci, Robert

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Quadagno, Jill S

1984 "Welfare Capitalism and the Social Security Act of 1935," American Sociological Review 49: 632-47.


Rytina, Steve L

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Schumpeter, Joseph A.

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Sciulli, David

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Sewart, John J.

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Skocpol, Theda

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Smelser, Neil J.

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Smith, Dorothy

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Smith, Michael

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Stinchcombe, Arthur L.

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Useem, Michael

1979 "The Social Organization of the American Business Elite," American Sociological Review 44, 4 (August 1979, pp. 53-572.


Walton, John.

2001 Storied Land: Community and Memory in Monterey. University California


Wuthnow, Robert, James Davison Hunter, Albert Bergesen and Edith Kurzweil

1985 [1984] Cultural Analysis: The Work of Peter Berger, Mary Douglas, Michel Foucault and Jurgen Habermas. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul

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