Society: The Basics Culture



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Society: The Basics

Culture

1) ___________distinguish between right and wrong.

a. Mores

b. Folkways

c. Norms

d. Values

e. Symbols
Answer: a
2) Sociologists define a symbol as:

a. cultural patterns that cause culture shock.

b. any aspect of material culture.

c. any gesture that conveys insult to others.

d. anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture.

e. traits that are part of every known culture.


Answer: d

Page Reference: 39


3) Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called:

a. folkways.

b. norms.

c. mores.

d. taboos.

e. values.


Answer: e

Page Reference: 42


4) ________ distinguish between polite and rude.

a. Folkways

b. Taboos

c. Mores


d. Norms

e. Symbols


Answer: a

Page Reference: 44


5) In hunting and gathering societies:

a. men and women do almost entirely the same tasks.

b. men hunt animals, while women gather vegetation.

c. men and women work together as hunters.

d. women hunt animals, while men gather vegetation.

e. women and men hunt, while children gather vegetation.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 44


6) The spread of virtual culture means that culture is now more likely to be:

a. passed from one generation to the next.

b. unintentionally created.

c. based on made-up heroes.

d. based on historical figures.

e. based on wealthy individuals.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 46


7) The term subculture refers to:

a. the culture of the majority.

b. the culture of the elite.

c. cultures of persons living in previous historical times.

d. cultural patterns that set apart a segment of a society's population.

e. cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population.


Answer: d

Page Reference: 46


8) Eurocentrism refers to:

a. judging another culture as better than one's own.

b. the dominance of European cultural patterns.

c. taking pride in one's ethnicity.

d. judging another culture by its own standards.

e. being aware of cultural perspectives.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 48


9) The fact that Coca-Cola has become popular around the world illustrates the process of social change called:

a. discovery.

b. invention.

c. cultural lag.

d. infusion.

e. diffusion.


Answer: e

Page Reference: 50


10) The structural-functional approach emphasizes the importance of:

a. micro-analysis.

b. subjective meaning.

c. cultural universals.

d. cultural differences.

e. cultural conflict.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 53

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
11) What is the sociological lesson to be learned from Ernst & Young's business strategy?

a. Canadian companies need to pay more attention to cultural diversity.

b. Canadian companies need to pay more attention to the new Canadian culture.

c. Some cultural forms are short-lived.

d. Most cultural differences are unimportant and small.

e. Travel to other countries should be limited to prevent diffusion.


Answer: a

Page Reference: 36

Topic: Introduction
12) Different ideas among human beings around the world about what is polite and rude, beautiful and ugly, pleasant and repulsive are expressions of:

a. styles of governing.

b. religious difference.

c. human culture.

d. differences in physical environment.

e. human nature.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 36

Topic: Introduction
13) ___________ is beliefs, values, behaviour, and material objects that, together, form a people's way of life.

a. Culture

b. Social system

c. Social structure

d. Society

e. Social facts


Answer: a

Page Reference: 36


14) Symbolic human creations are referred to as:

a. high culture.

b. material culture.

c. human culture.

d. nonmaterial culture.

e. invisible culture.


Answer: d

Page Reference: 36


15) Religion is an example of:

a. "cultural commodity."

b. nonmaterial culture.

c. material culture.

d. culture shock.

e. norms.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 36


16) Physical creations of a society are known as:

a. high culture.

b. material culture.

c. nonmaterial culture.

d. human culture.

e. high culture.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 36


17) Weapons are an example of:

a. a cultural anachronism.

b. a latent culture.

c. high culture.

d. nonmaterial culture.

e. material culture.


Answer: e

Page Reference: 36


18) ________ refers to a shared way of life or social heritage.

a. Anomie

b. High culture

c. Low culture

d. Human culture

e. Culture


Answer: e

Page Reference: 36


19) The personal disorientation that accompanies exposure to an unfamiliar way of life is termed:

a. acculturation.

b. anomie.

c. socialization.

d. culture shock.

e. cooperation.


Answer: d

Page Reference: 36


20) ________ refers to people who interact in a defined territory and share a way of life.

a. Culture

b. Low culture

c. High culture

d. Human culture

e. Society


Answer: e

Page Reference: 36


21) According to the text, which of the following is "natural" to the human species?

a. the need for sexual relations

b. the need to defend ourselves against aggression

c. the capacity to create culture

d. the maternal instinct

e. the paternal instinct


Answer: c

Page Reference: 37


22) Which of the following is NOT shaped by our nature?

a. our goals in life

b. our innermost personal feelings

c. our sense of justice

d. the way our dogs and cats behave

e. the way we dress


Answer: d

Page Reference: 37


23) Homo sapiens is a Latin term that means:

a. brother.

b. to walk upright.

c. thinking person.

d. to evolve.

e. biological programming.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 39


24) A key value of Canadian culture is:

a. a commitment to the use of war to solve global problems.

b. that everyone fits in and follows the same cultural values.

c. settling differences decisively and unilaterally.

d. an attachment to using our natural resources to make money.

e. equality and fairness in a democratic society.


Answer: e

Page Reference: 42


25) Commitment to recognizing the diversity and differences of different people is an example of which value of Canadian culture?

a. equality and fairness in a democratic society

b. consultation and dialogue

c. compassion and generosity

d. importance of accommodation and tolerance

e. support for diversity


Answer: e

Page Reference: 42


26) Which of the following did the study by anthropologist Chagnon demonstrate?

a. The Yanomamo despise drug usage.

b. The Yanomamo are not open to cultural change.

c. Rituals are universal.

d. The Yanomamo use violence to solve problems.

e. Nonmaterial and material cultures around the world vary enormously.


Answer: e

Page Reference: 38


27) According to Ferguson, Chagnon's "take" on the Yanomamo that the Yanomamo are violent and competitive is:

a. accurate.

b. consistent with other research of this culture.

c. due to the effect of his presence on their reactions.

d. due to his failure to observe females in the culture.

e. ignoring the role of biology in determining aggression.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 38


28) Which of the following is a common component of culture?

a. psychic culture

b. murder taboo

c. material culture

d. symbols

e. social organization


Answer: d

Page Reference: 39


29) A symbol is:

a. anything that carries a particular meaning that is recognized by people who share a culture.

b. any word or phrase that carries meaning to a "receiver."

c. any gesture that carries meaning to a "receiver."

d. any word or phrase that carries meaning to a "sender."

e. a verbal representation of the material or nonmaterial culture.


Answer: a

Page Reference: 39


30) Symbols:

a. carry universal meanings.

b. carry the same meaning across cultures.

c. are culturally dependent.

d. are nonverbal gestures.

e. represent the taboos of a culture.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 39


31) The short word forms and abbreviations used to text message are an example of:

a. dialect.

b. a new language of symbols.

c. culture.

d. cultural artifact.

e. cultural transmission.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 40


32) A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another is a:

a. dialect.

b. language.

c. culture.

d. cultural artifact.

e. cultural transmission.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 41


33) What is the term for the process by which one generation passes culture to the next generation?

a. cultural transmission

b. language

c. oral tradition

d. writing

e. singing


Answer: a

Page Reference: 41


34) Which of the following is a statement based on the Sapir-Whorf thesis?

a. Language is the attaching of labels to the real world.

b. People perceive the world through the cultural lens of language.

c. A single idea feels the same even if spoken in a different language.

d. Colours do not have different meanings in different languages.

e. Each word has its counterpart in all other languages.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 41


35) ________ are particular matters people hold to be true or false.

a. Tastes

b. Norms (attitudes)

c. Mores


d. Values

e. Beliefs


Answer: e

Page Reference: 42


36) Culturally defined standards that people use to assess desirability, goodness, and beauty are referred to as:

a. mores.

b. norms.

c. taste.

d. attitudes.

e. values.


Answer: e

Page Reference: 42


37) The dominant values of a culture:

a. tend to be inconsistent with how people view themselves.

b. can be contradictory.

c. are a composite of majority and minority opinions.

d. are clearly reflected in all behaviours.

e. are consistent across situations and time.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 42


38) Cultural values in Canada are:

a. uniformly individualistic.

b. uniformly collectivist.

c. often at odds with one another.

d. impossible to identify.

e. clearly defined in an agreed upon hierarchy.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 42


39) Rules and expectations by which a society guides behaviours of its members are called:

a. values.

b. subscriptions.

c. prescriptions.

d. norms.

e. taboos.


Answer: d

Page Reference: 43


40) Mark Twain's statement that people "are the only animals that blush ... or need to" illustrates that:

a. Mark Twain had a twisted sense of humour.

b. other animals' circulatory systems don't allow blood to rush to the face.

c. human language teaches us to be embarrassed.

d. other animals have their own form of culture.

e. only cultural creatures can experience shame and guilt.


Answer: e

Page Reference: 44


41) You have opened the supermarket door for an elderly man. Your behaviour illustrates:

a. mores.

b. folkways.

c. taboos.

d. base attitudes.

e. core values.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 44


42) Social patterns mandated by cultural values and norms are which of the following?

a. ideal culture

b. prescriptive culture

c. subversive culture

d. real culture

e. sensate culture


Answer: a

Page Reference: 44


43) Actual social patterns that approximate cultural expectations are described as:

a. ideal culture.

b. prescriptive culture.

c. subversive culture.

d. real culture.

e. sensate culture.


Answer: d

Page Reference: 44


44) The fact that almost 22 percent of married men and 14 percent of married women are sexually unfaithful to their spouses is an example of the ________ culture

a. material

b. ideal

c. ideational

d. real

e. sensate


Answer: d

Page Reference: 44


45) In contrast to some of their true behaviours, most Canadian adults say they cherish "equality." Equality is an example of the ________ culture.

a. sensate

b. ideal

c. ideational

d. real

e. prescriptive


Answer: b

Page Reference: 44


46) Sociologists refer to physical human creations as:

a. nonmaterial culture.

b. technology.

c. artifacts.

d. material culture.

e. values.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 44


47) What is the term for people's use of cultural knowledge to make a way of life in their surroundings?

a. real culture

b. science

c. ideal culture

d. technology

e. nature


Answer: d

Page Reference: 44


48) Which of the following is the key concept in Gerhard Lenski's sociological approach?

a. technology

b. human ideas

c. social conflict

d. social solidarity

e. social interaction


Answer: a

Page Reference: 44


49) Which of the following items would Gerhard Lenski especially focus upon as a major social force that changes society?

a. the telephone

b. society's production of goods

c. the spirit of capitalism

d. the ways people bond together and share values

e. subculture


Answer: a

Page Reference: 44


50) What is the term Lenski used in referring to the changes that occur as a society acquires new technology?

a. cultural transfer

b. cultural diffusion

c. cultural innovation

d. social transfer

e. sociocultural evolution


Answer: e

Page Reference: 44


51) You have adopted the theoretical framework of Lenski, and as a result, you believe that technological advance:

a. decreases diversity.

b. leads to better societies.

c. spurs population growth.

d. reduces the pace of social growth.

e. decreases social inequality.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 44


52) The Aborigines of Australia are an example of which societal type?

a. pastoral

b. agrarian

c. horticultural

d. industrial

e. hunting and gathering


Answer: e

Page Reference: 44


53) The form of society called ________________ uses simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation.

a. hunting and gathering

b. agrarian

c. horticultural

d. industrial

e. pastoral


Answer: a

Page Reference: 44


54) Which of the following characterizes the hunting and gathering society?

a. nomadic existence, large population, large amounts of land

b. small population, sedentary existence, small land tracts

c. inefficient food production, small population, nomadic existence

d. small amounts of land, small population, nomadic existence

e. inefficient food production, large population, nomadic existence


Answer: c

Page Reference: 44


55) Which of the following characterizes the hunting and gathering society?

a. gathering of vegetation by women, inequality between males and females, complex organization

b. gathering of vegetation by women, inequality between males and females, warlike predisposition

c. family organization, inequality between males and females, long life

d. few formal leaders, equality between males and females, simple organization

e. many formal leaders, equality between males and females, complex organization


Answer: d

Page Reference: 44


56) ________ involves using hand tools to raise crops.

a. Gathering

b. Horticulture

c. Industrialism

d. Agriculture

e. Pastoralism


Answer: b

Page Reference: 45


57) Which of the following refers to the domestication of animals?

a. agrarianism

b. horticulture

c. industrialism

d. agriculture

e. pastoralism


Answer: e

Page Reference: 45


58) A horticultural society is one:

a. that is nomadic.

b. whose members hunt animals and gather vegetables.

c. whose members' livelihood is based on the domestication of animals.

d. whose members use large-scale cultivation methods.

e. that uses hand tools to raise crops.


Answer: e

Page Reference: 45


59) Suppose that your only source of food is vegetables and that the only tool you have to cultivate them is a hoe. In which societal type would you be living?

a. hunting and gathering

b. horticultural

c. agricultural

d. pastoral

e. industrial


Answer: b

Page Reference: 45


60) For the first time, a society has generated a food surplus. What will this ensure?

a. a religious revival

b. more specialization in social roles

c. equality in incomes

d. a movement from slavery

e. less gender inequality


Answer: b

Page Reference: 45


61) Societal surplus:

a. increases the division of labour.

b. reduces inequality.

c. decreases the division of labour.

d. increases, but then decreases as societies evolve.

e. increases belief in spirits.


Answer: a

Page Reference: 45


62) Presume you are an advocate of the Lenski's evolutionary approach to society and are also a feminist concerned about the first stages of male dominance. What society should you focus your research upon?

a. hunting and gathering societies

b. horticultural societies

c. agricultural societies

d. technological societies

e. collectivist societies


Answer: b

Page Reference: 45


63) What type of society engages in large-scale farming based on the use of plows drawn by animals or powered by more powerful energy sources?

a. hunting and gathering

b. pastoral

c. horticultural

d. agrarian

e. technological


Answer: d

Page Reference: 45


64) Large-scale cultivation:

a. was invented by peoples of the Far East.

b. spread from the Middle East to transform most of the world.

c. produced a decrease in individualism.

d. began in North America and spread both East and West, around the world.

e. produced an increase in social equality.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 45


65) If you were Lenski, how would you characterize the progress of society toward the use of more complicated forms of technology?

a. a blessing

b. a disaster

c. a blessing in disguise

d. a disaster waiting to happen

e. a mixed blessing


Answer: e

Page Reference: 44


66) According to Lenski, cities, greater specialization, and money as the standard of exchange appear in the ________ stage of sociocultural evolution.

a. hunting and gathering

b. horticultural

c. pastoral

d. agrarian

e. industrial


Answer: d

Page Reference: 45


67) Consider Lenski’s evolutionary approach to society. What type of society should you study if you wished to examine the first stages of socio-cultural evolution, in which the social power of elites is greatly expanded?

a. hunting and gathering society

b. horticultural society

c. agrarian society

d. industrial society

e. post-industrial society


Answer: c

Page Reference: 46


68) The ________ society uses large machinery powered by advanced sources of energy to produce material goods.

a. hunting and gathering

b. agrarian

c. horticultural

d. pastoral

e. industrial


Answer: e

Page Reference: 45


69) Which of the following characterizes the industrial society?

a. Most people work in or near the home.

b. Standards of living are higher than in earlier societies.

c. Life expectancy is lower than in earlier societies.

d. Religion is important.

e. Collectivism is heightened.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 45


70) A fact that makes it easy to view industrial societies as more "advanced" is:

a. we don't have the hunting skills demonstrated by the Yanomamo.

b. current life expectancy in Canada is about twice that of the Yanomamo.

c. immigration to Canada is still very high.

d. community ties are stronger in industrial societies.

e. industry has generated greater respect for the natural environment.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 46


71) ________ societies are characterized by technology that supports an information-based economy.

a. Horticultural

b. Pastoral

c. Industrial

d. Agrarian

e. Post-industrial


Answer: e

Page Reference: 46


72) Which of the following characterizes post-industrial as opposed to industrial societies?

a. Post-industrial production focuses on computers and other electronic devices.

b. Members of post-industrial societies concentrate on learning mechanical skills.

c. A post-industrial society utilizes more and more of its labour force for industrial production.

d. Industrial societies have the capacity to generate symbolic culture on an unprecedented scale.

e. A post-industrial society produces devices that create and apply ideas and information.


Answer: a

Page Reference: 46


73) What is one important trend that is associated with the "information revolution"?

a. Cultural symbols that frame our lives are transmitted from generation to generation.

b. Cultural symbols that frame our lives will be intentionally created.

c. The historical roots of cultural symbols will be emphasized.

d. Fewer cultural symbols will exist solely for commercial gain.

e. Cultural symbols will cease to exist.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 46


74) Compared to other countries, Canada is one of the most ______ societies.

a. technologically advanced

b. pluralistic

c. multicultural

d. monocultural

e. multinational


Answer: c

Page Reference: 47


75) Early in the twentieth century, most of those who immigrated to Canada came from which continent?

a. Asia


b. Australia

c. Latin America

d. Europe

e. Africa


Answer: d

Page Reference: 47


76) Cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite are referred to as:

a. elite culture.

b. high culture.

c. popular culture.

d. affluent culture.

e. subculture.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 46


77) You are attending a New York City Ballet performance. You are taking part in:

a. popular culture.

b. acculturation.

c. high culture.

d. subordinate culture.

e. marginal culture.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 46


78) Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population are referred to as:

a. high culture.

b. elite culture.

c. popular culture.

d. affluent culture.

e. subculture.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 46


79) You are attending a football game. You are taking part in:

a. popular culture.

b. acculturation.

c. high culture.

d. subordinate culture.

e. marginal culture.


Answer: a

Page Reference: 46


80) What is the term for cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population?

a. culture

b. counterculture

c. high culture

d. subculture

e. deviant culture


Answer: d

Page Reference: 46


81) Campus poets, computer nerds, and wilderness campers all examples of:

a. deviance

b. dominant cultures

c. cultural residual

d. high culture

e. subcultures


Answer: e

Page Reference: 46


82) Which former nation's recent experience most exemplifies the fact that subcultures can be a source of tension and outright violence?

a. the USSR

b. Rhodesia

c. East Germany

d. Yugoslavia

e. West Germany


Answer: d

Page Reference: 47


83) John Porter argues that Canada is best characterized as a "vertical mosaic," in which

a. linguistic and cultural divisions are virtually nonexistent.

b. few nationalities make up the Canadian cultural identity.

c. there are few marginalized groups.

d. a privileged male elite consists overwhelmingly of people of British origin.

e. people have few commitments to any cultural groups.


Answer: d

Page Reference: 47


84) Which of the following groups is considered a subculture?

a. rich skiers in Whistler

b. high school dropouts

c. baseball players

d. accountants

e. cosmetic surgery patients


Answer: b

Page Reference: 46


85) What is the term that recognizes the cultural diversity in Canadian society and promotes the equality of all cultural traditions?

a. pluralism

b. cultural relativity

c. multiculturalism

d. ethnocentrism

e. "melting pot"


Answer: c

Page Reference: 47


86) The dominance of European (especially British) cultural patterns is known as:

a. heliocentrism.

b. Eurocentrism.

c. Anglocentrism.

d. multiculturalism.

e. Asiocentrism.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 48


87) A white American citizen is more likely than an African-American citizen to be accused of being:

a. heliocentric.

b. Afrocentric.

c. Eurocentric.

d. Asiocentric.

e. multicultural.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 48


88) In terms of language, Canada:

a. is officially trilingual.

b. has an Official Languages Act that made both French and English official languages.

c. is consistent in its official policy on language.

d. is officially unilingual.

e. is officially bilingual.


Answer: e

Page Reference: 48


89) Which of the following is an argument put forward by proponents of multiculturalism?

a. Multiculturalism enables students to better grasp Canada's diversity.

b. Multiculturalism weakens the academic achievement of Aboriginal Canadians.

c. Multiculturalism teaches local connectedness.

d. Multiculturalism encourages unity.

e. Multiculturalism is an ineffective strategy for presenting an accurate picture of the past.


Answer: a

Page Reference: 48


90) Which of the following is a criticism of multiculturalism?

a. It encourages us to identify with the nation as a whole, rather than with "our own" category.

b. Common humanity dissolves into a "Chinese experience," "European experience," etc.

c. Multiculturalism benefits only minority groups.

d. Multiculturalism under-emphasizes global connectedness.

e. Multiculturalism fails to adequately acknowledge cultural diversity.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 48


91) Cultural patterns that strongly oppose the widely accepted cultural patterns of a society are referred to as a/an:

a. deviant subculture.

b. opposition culture.

c. subculture.

d. counterculture.

e. conflict culture.


Answer: d

Page Reference: 48


92) Which of the following is an example of a counterculture?

a. adolescents

b. government leaders

c. all members of the working class

d. advocates of women's liberation

e. members of al Qaeda


Answer: e

Page Reference: 48


93) What does the linkage between women's rising employment outside the home and the expansion of Canadian daycare facilities demonstrate?

a. cultural lag

b. cultural integration

c. institutional change

d. cultural discontinuity

e. cultural seclusion


Answer: b

Page Reference: 50


94) Disruption in a cultural system can result from the unequal rates at which different cultural elements change. William Ogburn referred to this as:

a. cultural lag.

b. uneven cultural development.

c. cultural transition.

d. social disorganization.

e. cultural transposition.


Answer: d

Page Reference: 50


95) Cultural change is caused in the following three general ways:

a. invention, discovery, and infusion.

b. invasion, experiment, and diffusion.

c. war, trading, and cultural communication.

d. adaptation, integration, and pattern maintenance.

e. invention, discovery, and diffusion.


Answer: e

Page Reference: 50


96) ________ involves recognizing and better understanding something already in existence.

a. Invention

b. Integration

c. Discovery

d. Diffusion

e. Ethnocentrism


Answer: c

Page Reference: 50


97) Ethnocentrism is:

a. taking pride in one's ethnicity.

b. judging another culture unfairly.

c. judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture.

d. judging any culture by its own standards.

e. taking pride in someone else's ethnicity.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 51


98) A person who criticizes the Amish farmer (who tills his fields with horses) as uneducated and backwards is exhibiting:

a. ethnocentrism.

b. absolutism.

c. cultural relativism.

d. other identification.

e. multiculturalism.


Answer: a

Page Reference: 51


99) The practice of persons from one culture judging any other culture by its own standards is called:

a. ethnocentrism.

b. cultural relativism.

c. cultural evaluation.

d. absolutism.

e. cultural irrelevancy.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 51


100) According to the global culture thesis, global links are making the cultures of the world more alike. Which of the following is true regarding these changes?

a. All communities around the world have been equally affected by global links.

b. All cultures now attach the same meaning to cultural traits.

c. Everyone can now afford various new goods and services.

d. Differences among cultures no longer exist.

e. A small group of nations influences the rest of the world more than the other way around.


Answer: e

Page Reference: 53


101) If you believe that cultural values are the core of a culture, give meaning to life, and bind people together, with which philosophical doctrine are you identifying?

a. deism

b. Hegelianism

c. idealism

d. animism

e. social constructionism
Answer: c

Page Reference: 53

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
102) If you believed that the very stability of Canada as a nation depends on its citizens sharing common, core values, then what type of sociology would you be espousing?

a. sociobiology

b. social-conflict theory

c. Marxism

d. microsociology

e. structural-functionalism


Answer: e

Page Reference: 53

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
103) Traits that are part of every known culture of the world are referred to as:

a. cultural ideals.

b. globalization

c. culture.

d. cultural universals.

e. cultural capital.


Answer: d

Page Reference: 53

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
104) A structural-functional analysis of culture has been criticized for:

a. failing to show how culture operates to meet human needs.

b. overemphasizing cultural diversity.

c. underemphasizing the tendency of subcultures to subjugate dominant members.

d. overemphasizing the importance of social change.

e. underemphasizing cultural diversity


Answer: e

Page Reference: 53

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture

105) The ideas of ________ are the best illustration of a materialist.

a. Talcott Parsons

b. George Murdock

c. Karl Marx

d. Max Weber

e. George Herbert Mead
Answer: c

Page Reference: 54

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
106) Social-conflict analysis holds that competitive and individualistic values reflect:

a. the values of the "founding fathers."

b. our capitalist economy.

c. our Western European history.

d. our Western heritage.

e. the values of the clergy.


Answer: b

Page Reference: 54

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
107) One criticism of the social-conflict view of culture is that it:

a. underemphasizes cultural diversity.

b. ignores the inequities in society.

c. underemphasizes pressure toward social change.

d. understates ways in which cultural patterns integrate members of a society.

e. ignores the divisiveness of culture.


Answer: d

Page Reference: 54

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
108) The theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects the creation of culture is known as:

a. structural-functionalism.

b. bio-culturalism.

c. sociobiology.

d. cultural biology.

e. bio-functionalism.


Answer: c

Page Reference: 55

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
109) Males reproduce their genes most effectively through sexual promiscuity. What sociological paradigm would be most likely to make this claim?

a. social-conflict theory

b. structural-functionalism

c. sociobiology

d. symbolic-interactionism

e. ethnomethodology


Answer: c

Page Reference: 55

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
110) Cultural values between Canada and the United States differ with respect to:

a. multiculturalism

b. support of a social welfare system

c. athletics

d. capitalism

e. individualism


Answer: e

Page Reference: 59

Topic: Culture and Human Freedom
111) Canada is among the most multicultural of all the world's nations.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 36

Topic: Introduction
112) Culture and society are the same in meaning.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 36


113) Some cultural elements are "natural" in human beings.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 37


114) Only humans rely on culture rather than instinct to ensure survival.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 38


115) Human culture represents the triumph of mental power over instincts.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 38


116) Culture shock is only experienced by travellers when they encounter people whose way of life is different from their own.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 36


117) Most hand gestures, such as the thumbs-up sign, have the same meaning around the world.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 39


118) Symbols allow people to make sense of their lives.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 39


119) Symbolic meanings are the same within a single society.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 39


120) Language sets humans apart as the only mammals who are self-conscious.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 41


121) Cultural transmission involves the exchange of cultures between societies, not across generations.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 41


122) Different languages have distinctive symbols, but it is agreed that the reality they convey to their speakers is the same.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 41


123) Consistent with the Sapir-Whorf thesis, evidence supports the notion that language determines reality.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 41


124) The idea that people should be honest with other people is an example of a value.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 42


125) Values are broad principles that underlie beliefs.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 42


126) Canadian cultural values are consistent.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 42


127) Mores are norms that have great moral and social significance.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 43


128) Mores apply differently to different segments of a population.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 43


129) Folkways are less significant than mores.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 44


130) Guilt is an emotion that reflects our understanding of social norms.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 44


131) Social patterns mandated by cultural values and norms are part of real culture.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 44


132) Gerhard Lenski views technology as unimportant in shaping cultural patterns.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 44


133) Food production in a hunting and gathering society is efficient.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 44


134) Hunting and gathering societies are very populous.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 44


135) Hunting and gathering societies are nomadic.

a. True

Correct: Correct

b. False

Incorrect: Incorrect


Answer: a

Page Reference: 44


136) Technologically simple societies are influenced by their natural surroundings.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 44


137) Pastoral societies are nomadic.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 45


138) Hunting and gathering societies are more specialized and complex than horticultural and pastoral societies.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 44-45


139) Hunting and gathering societies are more productive than horticultural and pastoral societies.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 44-45


140) The technological capacity to produce a food surplus results in social inequality in horticultural and pastoral societies.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 45


141) Agrarian societies produce a dramatic increase in social inequality.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 45


142) A decline in the social position of women occurred in the hunting and gathering stage of sociocultural evolution.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 44


143) Canada's focus on information as a form of economic activity makes it a post-industrial society.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 46


144) Canada is a monocultural society.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 47


145) Canada has a popular, but not a "high," culture.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 46


146) People participate in numerous subcultures without becoming very committed to any of them.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 46


147) Those who alter their bodies through cosmetic surgery are as likely to be referred to as a "subculture" as are those who tattoo themselves.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 47


148) In early Canadian history, the many cultures coming into Canada did not melt together; rather, they formed a hierarchical cultural mosaic.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 47


149) Multiculturalists argued that European immigrants to the so-called "New World" exploited the various Aboriginal cultures during various points of contact.

a. True

Correct: Correct

b. False

Incorrect: Incorrect


Answer: a

Page Reference: 47


150) After the colonialization of Canada, people of British origin occupied the top political positions in the country, viewing those of other backgrounds as being of "lower stock."

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 47


151) Critics of multiculturalism argue that multiculturalism could eliminate such problems as racial segregation.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 48


152) What is defined as countercultural is the same over time.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 48


153) Cultural change results from invention, discovery, and diffusion.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 50


154) What people in one society think of as right and natural, people elsewhere might find puzzling and even immoral.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 51


155) Since many cultural traits are found throughout the world, people everywhere attach the same meanings to them.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 51


156) Although there is currently an increase in global communication and global migration, there has been a recent decrease in international trade.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 52


157) For the structural-functionalist, culture is a stable strategy for meeting human needs.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 53

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
158) Since cultures are strategies for meeting human needs, we would expect to find cultural universals.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 53

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
159) Social conflict theory is rooted in the doctrine of idealism.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 54

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
160) Karl Marx argued that a society's economic system is shaped by its value system.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 54

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
161) Sociobiologists emphasize biological factors and fail to study culture.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 55

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
162) Sociologists from major theoretical paradigms tend to agree that sociobiologists are making important contributions to the understanding of human social behaviour.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 56

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture
163) When one studies the influence of culture, one realizes that, for the most part, people are prisoners of their culture.

a. True


Incorrect: Incorrect

b. False


Correct: Correct
Answer: b

Page Reference: 58

Topic: Culture and Human Freedom
164) The more we discover about the workings of our own culture and those of other cultures, the greater our ability to use the freedom culture offers us.

a. True


Correct: Correct

b. False


Incorrect: Incorrect
Answer: a

Page Reference: 58

Topic: Culture and Human Freedom
165) Distinguish between material culture and nonmaterial culture.
Answer:

Material culture refers to physical creations of a society (e.g., armaments), whereas nonmaterial culture refers to symbolic human creations (e.g., values).


Page Reference: 36
166) Discuss the four common components of all human cultures.
Answer:

The answer should include a discussion of (1) symbols, (2) language, (3) values, and (4) norms.


Page Reference: 39-44
167) List five of the central values in Canadian culture.
Answer:

The answer should include five of the following:

(1) equality and fairness

(2) consultation and dialogue

(3) importance of accommodation and change

(4) support for diversity

(5) compassion and generosity

(6) attachment to Canada's natural beauty

(7) our world image: commitment to freedom, peace, and non-violent change
Page Reference: 42
168) Discuss the differences between norms, folkways, mores, ideal culture, and real culture.
Answer:

Norms are expected standards of behaviour.

Folkways are less serious norms whose violation is met with fewer sanctions.

Mores are serious norms that tend to involve serious sanctions when violated.

Ideal culture is the values people tell others they believe in.

Real culture is the behaviours that tell people’s true values.

Page Reference: 43-44
169) Identify and give a brief description of each of the types of society identified by Lenski.
Answer:

(1) hunting and gathering: use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation

(2) horticultural and pastoral: use of hand tools to raise crops; domestication of animals

(3) agrarian: large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources

(4) industrial: production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery

Page Reference: 44-46


170) What are the two key reasons why we should resist quick judgments about the merits of high culture (e.g., pianos and lobster) as opposed to popular culture (e.g., guitars and fish sticks)?
Answer:

1) Neither elites nor ordinary people have uniform tastes and interests; people in both categories differ in many ways.

2) Do we praise high culture because it is inherently better, or simply because its supporters have more money, power, and prestige?

Page Reference: 46


171) Describe the one factor that belies the idealistic notion that Canada has become a cultural "melting pot."
Answer:

Cultural diversity involves not just variety, but also hierarchy.


Page Reference: 47
172) Identify and describe three ways in which cultural changes are set in motion. Give a specific example for each.
Answer:

1) Invention: process of creating new cultural elements (e.g., telephone).

2) Discovery: recognizing and better understanding something already in existence (e.g., discovery of radium).

3) Diffusion: spread of objects or ideas from one society to another (e.g., Coca-Cola in Latin America)

Page Reference: 48-50
173) Define and discuss the differences between ethnocentrism and cultural relativism, providing examples of each.
Answer:

1) Ethnocentrism is the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture. Examples will vary.

2) Cultural relativism is the practice of evaluating a culture by its own standards. Examples will vary.

Page Reference: 51-52


174) Discuss the three global links that make cultures of the world more similar.
Answer:

1) the global economy: the flow of goods

2) global communications: the flow of information

3) global migration: the flow of people

Page Reference: 52
175) Discuss the three limitations to the global culture thesis.
Answer:

1)The global flow of information, goods, and people is uneven.

2) The global culture thesis assumes that people everywhere are able to afford various new goods and services.

3) Although many cultural elements have spread throughout the world, people everywhere do not attach the same meanings to them.

Page Reference: 52-53
176) Imagine you are Napoleon Chagnon and you have just met the Yanomamo. Suppose, too, that you could communicate in rudimentary English with them. Discuss how you would describe Canadian culture to the Yanomamo.
Answer:

Answers will vary but should reflect knowledge of the Yanomamo (e.g., technologically simple society, live in scattered villages along border of Venezuela and Brazil, wear little clothing, use bows and arrows for hunting and warfare, have little contact with outside world, are possibly violent and competitive people, but this is controversial).


Page Reference: 38
177) Construct a list of what you feel are the five most important values in Canadian culture. Then list five norms, five mores, and five folkways. Describe how your choice of values, norms, mores, and folkways was affected by your background and your social standing.
Answer:

A good answer will include identification of five of the following: equality and fairness in a democratic society, consultation and dialogue, importance of accommodation and tolerance, support for diversity, compassion and generosity, attachment to Canada's natural beauty, our world image (commitment to freedom, peace, and non-violent change). The list of norms, mores, and folkways will vary. Students should relate their lists to personal background variables.


Page Reference: 42-44
178) Describe the values and norms of the ideal culture of Canada versus the real culture. Identify three cases where the ideal and real cultures are dissimilar. Then give three illustrations of how any one of these differences creates ambiguity in our lives.
Answer:

A good answer will include a distinction between real culture (what actually occurs in real life) and ideal culture (values and norms that suggest how we should behave). One example might relate to sexual fidelity. Although marriage vows typically include the ideal of sexual fidelity, research indicates that almost 22 percent of males and 14 percent of females report having had an affair while married (real culture).


Page Reference: 44
179) Discuss Lenski’s model of sociocultural evolution. For each stage, summarize the key characteristics, and then discuss the links between technological advance and social change. (For instance, does technological advance lead to social change, does social change lead to technological advance, or does each influence the other?)
Answer:

Lenski’s model argues that a society's level of technology is crucial in determining what cultural ideas and artifacts emerge or are even possible.

hunting and gathering


  • use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation

  • belief in spirits

  • everyone participates in the process, resulting in an egalitarian way of life

  • limited technology results in vulnerability to forces of nature (low life expectancy)

horticulture

  • use of hand tools to raise crops

pastoralism



  • domestication of animals

These technologies allow societies to feed hundreds of members; a material surplus results in increased specialization, less equality, and belief in God as creator of the world.


agriculture

  • large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources

  • permanent settlements emerge

  • specialization increases

  • money is used for exchange

  • urban growth

  • social life becomes more individualistic and impersonal

  • dramatic increase in social inequality

industrialization



  • production of goods using advanced sources of energy

  • traditional cultural values are pushed aside

  • standards of living increase

  • life expectancy increases

  • economic inequality is reduced

  • political rights increase

Students should discuss the bidirectional relationship between technology and social change.


Page Reference: 44-46
180) Briefly describe different perspectives on multiculturalism.
Answer:

Multiculturalists support an educational program that recognizes the cultural diversity of Canada and promotes the equality of all cultural traditions. They argue that exploitation of Aboriginal cultures created a hierarchy, which resulted in the perspectives and accomplishments of Aboriginals and Canadians of African, Asian, and Latin American descent being pushed to the margins. It asks us to rethink norms and values that form the core of our culture and recommends that a more accurate picture of Canada's past be presented in schools so as to strengthen the academic achievement of Canada's Aboriginal and visible minority children. Proponents see multiculturalism as a strategy for teaching global connectedness and enabling students to grasp our country's diverse present. Critics of multiculturalism contend that multiculturalism dissolves our society into an "Aboriginal experience," "Chinese experience," and so on, thereby encouraging divisiveness rather than unity. They question whether multiculturalism actually benefits minorities in that it demands the kind of ethnic and racial segregation that Canada has struggled to eliminate. Critics also suggest that an Aboriginal-centred or Afrocentric curriculum may actually deny children important knowledge and skills by forcing them to study from a single point of view.


Page Reference: 47-48
181) Discuss the positive and negative aspects of declaring English and French as the "official" languages of Canada. Include whom you believe such a policy benefits and whom it could harm. Consider also the impact of such a policy on such areas as conducting business; voting; and, particularly, education—what would have to be done in schools with bilingual programs? Would the effect be positive or negative? For whom?
Answer:

A good answer should refer to the tensions that remain over the implementation of Canada's language policy in Quebec. Tension has arisen in the areas of the use of non-French store signs, use of English on Internet sites based in the province, and the rights of francophone parents to send their children to English schools.


Page Reference: 48
182) Discuss the differences between the structural-functional approach, the social-conflict approach, and the sociobiological approach on culture. Are these three approaches incompatible, or do they simply emphasize different aspects of culture and the causes of culture? Identify and discuss one strength and one criticism of each of these approaches.
Answer:

The structural-functional approach says culture is a strategy for meeting human needs. Values are considered to be the core of culture, directing our lives, giving meaning to what we do, and binding people together. Cultural universals are emphasized. Strength in this analysis lies in showing how culture operates to meet human needs. Criticisms of this analysis include an underemphasis on diversity and change.

The social-conflict analysis argues that cultural traits benefit some members of society at the expense of others. Culture is shaped by a society's system of economic production. Materialism, which holds that a society's system of material production has a powerful effect on culture, is at the root of social-conflict theory. A strength of this analysis is that it points out that cultural systems do not address human needs equally, which then generates pressure toward change. A criticism is that it overlooks ways in which cultural patterns integrate members of society.

The sociobiological approach explores the ways in which human biology affects how we create culture. Culture is viewed as a system of behaviour that is partly shaped by human biology. Cultural patterns are rooted in humanity's biological evolution. Although this approach provides insights into the biological roots of some cultural patterns, it remains controversial because of fears that it may revive earlier arguments of the superiority of one race or gender. It is also criticized on the basis of limited research evidence.



Page Reference: 55-57

Topic: Theoretical Analysis of Culture


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