So 345 culture & society

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SO 345

Trent University

Department of Sociology

(Fall/Winter 2007/2008)
Course Outline

Professor: Deborah White Secretary: Cynthia Budgell

Office: OC 167 Office: OC 154

Phone: 748-1011 ext. 7865 Phone: 748-1011 ext.1537

Email: Email:

Office Hours (appointments are suggested):

Tuesday: 3pm – 4pm; Wednesday: 11am –1pm

Lecture: Tuesday: 5pm - 5:50pm (ECC 201)

Seminar: Tuesday: 6pm – 6:50; 7pm – 7:50pm (ECC 202)

Prerequisites: A full-credit second-year sociology course.

This course is designed to offer a critical examination of culture in contemporary capitalist society. Focussing on the connections between cultural activity and larger social relations and structures, we will explore the social contexts of cultural production, especially of the consumption of symbolic expressions, artefacts, and meanings. While studies of culture have often been perceived as marginal to sociology, in recent years there has developed a vast and fascinating body of work that recognizes the complexity of the cultural in social life. Tapping into this literature, while remaining grounded in the sociological tradition, we will conceptualize culture across a variety of dimensions, particularly as it is mediated by capital. Although key themes and concepts (e.g., power, commodification, hegemony, the struggle over meanings, the transformation of nature) will be woven throughout the content of "Culture & Society", this full-year course has been structured around five independent, but related "units". They are as follows: 1) Cultural Theory 2) Culture, Consumption & Everyday Life 3) The State & Cultural Policy 4) The Culture of Science & Technology 5) Power, Resistance & Cultural Change. Within each unit a number of associated topics will be covered, all of which I hope can shed light on both your academic and personal experiences and insights.

REQUIRED READINGS (available from Trent University Bookstore)

  1. SO 345 Culture & Society Coursepack, edited by Deborah Parnis. Toronto: CSPI, 2007.

2) Glass Paper Beans: Revelations on the Nature and Value of Ordinary Things Leah Hager Cohen. New York: Doubleday, 1997 [Winter Term].

I may, from time to time, give you a ‘hand-out’ reading if I come across one that seems especially useful for the subject matter we are discussing.

Take-Home Test ...........................................................................10%
Handed out on Oct. 16, to be submitted Oct. 30

Mid-Year Test ...............................................................................25%
Scheduled Holiday examination period (Dec. 8 - 20)

Essay .............................................................................................20%
Based on Glass Paper Beans, the topic selections will be given to you at the end of the first term. You are to submit an essay proposal/outline by Jan. 29. The essay is due on Feb. 26.
Final Examination ...................................................................…..30%
Scheduled final examination period (Apr. 9 - 24)

Active Seminar Participation*.....................................................15%
*Please Note: Seminar participation is a very important part of this course. To help digest and interpret the materials that will be used I expect you to come to class having completed the weekly readings which are listed on the Course Schedule below the weekly lecture title. Occasionally I will ask you to make a brief written submission. Your contributions during these discussions will be a valuable part of exploring ideas, issues and debates in a smaller group setting. At minimum, I anticipate that you will listen attentively. However, more active participation implies some form of contribution such as asking questions, challenging ideas and/or responding to others’ thoughts in ways that might help us all better understand the course materials.

1) All assignments are due on the dates indicated. While extensions may be granted on medical/compassion grounds (with appropriate documentation), work that is late without just cause (ie. due to poor time management) will be penalized as follows:
1 - 3 calendar days late = 5% of assigned grade

4 - 5 calendar days late = 10% of assigned grade

6 - 7 calendar days late = 15% of assigned grade

*Assignments more than 7 days late will be not accepted

Be careful not to make travel plans or other commitments that might coincide with exam dates – University policy dictates that you must write your exams at the scheduled time.

2) Always keep a copy of any work handed in. Any work you submit must be original. Plagiarism on assignments, and cheating on tests or examinations are very serious academic offenses and carry penalties ranging from failure on a test to debarment from the University. In September 2003, Trent University instituted an “Academic Dishonesty Policy” which is printed in the Calendar Supplement. Please read this to familiarize yourself with the expectations of the University with respect to academic integrity.

3)You are responsible for all materials presented in this course, including

assigned readings, lectures and any videos/films that are shown in class.

4) If you are having any difficulty understanding course material and/or assignments please come and see me before the problem gets out of hand. I am more than happy and willing to work through any questions you may have and to help you with interpreting any readings that you may not understand (assuming that you have read them thoroughly and have been attending classes). Please always feel free to come to talk with me in person, or email me concerning any difficulties or problems you may have. Remember also the very valuable services provided by the Academic Skills Centre and Student Counseling.
5) Access to Instruction It is Trent University’s intent to create an inclusive learning environment. If a student has a disability and/or health consideration and feels that he/she may need accommodations to succeed in this course, the student should contact the Disability Services Office (BL Suite 109, 748-1281, as soon as possible. Complete text can be found under Access to Instruction in the Academic Calendar

SO 345


This first unit is designed to familiarize you with some of the key theorists and debates within the sociological study of culture. Focusing on the ways in which culture and society are distinct yet inter-related, we will explore the works of classical sociological theorists, as well as some of the more recent contributions that have been made towards an understanding of the cultural dimensions of our society. Further, in looking at the different forms that culture takes as it is mediated by capital, we will probe the constructed differences between 'popular culture' and 'art culture', and how cultural forms have shifted in the postmodern context.
*All of the readings listed below are from the SO 345 Coursepack. Please note that [O] means that a reading is optional - it is not required, but is there for your interest.

Sept 11

Welcome” & Introduction to the Course (no seminars this week)

Sept 18

Conceptualizing 'Culture': A Sociological Perspective (no seminars this week)

  • Culture: A Sociological View (Howard Becker)

  • Towards a Sociology of Culture [excerpt] (Raymond Williams)

  • How Culture Works (Michael Schudson)

Sept 25

'Culture' in The Classical Tradition (Durkheim, Weber, Marx) (seminars begin)

  • Culture (Raymond Williams)

  • Touching Greatness: The Central Midwest Barry Manilow Fan Club

(Thomas O’Guinn)

  • Material Activity, Consciousness and Ideology (Karl Marx) [O]

Oct 2
Situating 'Culture': Modernity & Postmodernism

  • Postmodernism (Dominic Strinati)

  • Moral Boundaries, Leisure Activities and Justifying Fun (Gary Alan Fine)

Oct 9

Art, Aesthetics & The Relative Autonomy of Culture

  • Art as Collective Action (Howard Becker)

  • The Picture Frame: An Aesthetic Study (Georg Simmel)

  • Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (Walter Benjamin) [O]

Oct 16

Popular Cultural Industries & The Commodification of Creativity
Take-home test to be handed out

  • Gramsci’s Concept of Hegemony [excerpt] (Dominic Strinati)

  • Teen Idle (Wall Street Journal/Classroom Edition)

  • High Culture vs. Popular Culture Revisited (Diana Crane)

  • Culture and Ideological Hegemony (Antonio Gramsci) [O]

  • The Promotional Condition of Contemporary Culture (Andrew Wernick) [O]

Video to be shown during the workshop: “Advertising & the End of the World”

Oct 23 (Reading Week – no class)


Unit 2 moves our study towards the practices of "everyday life". Here we will focus on consumption and its place in the cultural circuit wherein artifacts, as commodities, become integrated into ordinary experiences. Starting with Marx and the “fetishism of commodities”, we will move to look at the historically intrinsic role of advertising and popular culture in facilitating mass consumption since the rise of industrialization. In terms of this Unit's emphasis on everyday life, the 'culture of consumption' will be examined with respect to leisure and lifestyle issues (along with how cultural objects actively promote/reinforce stratification), for which we will turn to the writings of Max Weber, Thorstein Veblen and Pierre Bourdieu. In keeping with the theme of culture in relation to nature, we will also look at the commodification of environments, beginning with the private sphere of the ‘home’, and then 'traveling' to an analysis of the built environments that we encounter through the cultural phenomenon of tourism.

Oct 30
(Take-home test to be handed in)

Consumer Society & The Fetishism of Commodities

  • Meaning Manufacture & Movement in the World of Goods (Grant McCracken)

  • Blue Jeans (Fred Davis)

  • The Fetishism of the Commodity and its Secret (Karl Marx) [O]

Nov 6

Advertising: Making the Link Between Production & Consumption

  • Selling Good(s): On the Genealogy of Modern Advertising (Pasi Falk)

  • Advertising in the Age of Accelerated Meaning (Goldman/Papson)

  • What’s In A Package (Thomas Hines) [O]

  • I Hate Myself and Want to Buy (Heath/Potter)

Nov 13
The Culture of Lifestyle & 'Taste': From Weber to Veblen to Bourdieu

  • Class, Status, Party [excerpt] (Max Weber)

  • The Uses of Things (Don Slater)

  • From Status-Seeking to Coolhunting (Heath/Potter)

  • Conspicuous Consumption (Thorstein Veblen) [O]

  • Artistic Taste and Cultural Capital (Pierre Bourdieu) [O]

Video to be shown during the Workshop: “Lawn & Order”

Nov 20
Personal Spaces & The Culture of "Home"

  • The Semiotics of Home Decor (Joan Kron)

  • Reading the Shopping Mall City (Nancy Backes)

Nov 27

Leaving the Private Sphere: Tourism & the Manipulation of Environments

  • The View From the Road: Recreation & Tourism (Alex Wilson)

  • Disney World: Public Use/Private State (Susan Willis)

  • SUVs & the Exploitation of the American Myth (David Goewey)

  • Aboriginal Cultural Tourism in Canada (Valda Blundell) [O]

Dec 4
Term review and preparation for mid-year exam during seminar period

During this class I will hand out the essay assignment that is due next term to those who would prefer to start reading Glass Paper Beans over the holidays

*Mid-Year Exam (To be scheduled during the Holiday examination period Dec 8 - 20)


Unit 3 shifts our emphasis away from the practices of everyday life to the structures and activities of the state. We will study cultural policy with respect to the ways in which the state delimits ‘official’ and non-official cultural sectors, as well as how it defines the Canadian 'public' as both citizens and a consuming audience. The concept of 'cultural nationalism' will be examined first at the theoretical level, and then more substantively in terms of the notions of representation, ‘Canadian identity’ and creation of a national consciousness through state regulation. Finally, in this Unit we will explore the concept of 'property' and the ways in which the state defines and manages intellectual and cultural property in the interests of capital. In doing this, we will be asking; who creates, who uses, who profits, and how does the state mediate these relations? This topic is timely in light of the changes emerging from the rapidly expanding computer-based distributions of cultural symbols and expressions. This increased commodification of information is presenting a significant challenge to the more traditional practices of copyright and ownership.

Jan 8

Citizenry, The Public Sphere & ‘Official Culture’

  • Ritual Space in the Canadian Museum of Civilization: Consuming Canadian Identity

(Jill Delaney)

  • Raptor Morality & Black Public Masculinity in Canada (Gamal Abdel-Shehid)

  • What Makes a Canadian (Bruce Wallace) [O]

Jan 15

Cultural Nationalism: Geographic Boundaries, Imagined Communities & Virtual Neighbourhoods

  • Culture and the Integration of National Societies (Michael Schudson)

  • Virtual Communities as Commuties: Net Surfers, Don’t Ride Alone

(Barry Wellman & Milena Gulnia)

Jan 22
Cancon”: Competing Identities & the Struggles for Representation in The Canadian Context

  • Dilemmas of Definition (Will Straw)

  • As Canadian As Possible…Regional Myths, Images of Place & National Identity in Canadian Country Music (John Lehr)

  • Rap, Black Atlantic Identities and the Problem of Nation (Rinaldo Walcott)

Video to be shown during Lecture period: “Canada, Eh?”

Jan 29
Cultural 'Property': Capital Interests & State Regulation
Glass Paper Beans essay proposal to be submitted

  • This is a Sampling Sport: Digital Sampling, Rap Music & the Law in Cultural Production (Thomas G. Schumacher)

  • What is an Author? (Michel Foucault) [O]

This Unit looks at how science and technology have shaped, and been shaped by our culture and the demands of a capitalist social formation. We will start theoretically with the insightful works of Max Weber on rationalism and religion. The tenuous co-existence of these cultural patterns/structures will provide the analytical framework from which we will move to examine how 'the cult of rationality' has become integrated into the power structures of our society both ideologically and in terms of productive and consumptive practices. Two issues will be key in this section. First, we will look critically at the phenomenon of the new 'Information Age' which, it is prophesied, is now upon us. Are we living through an 'information revolution'? Whose interests are being served in the expansion of communications technologies? What are some of the social and personal implications of recent technological changes? Then we will finish this Unit with a critical consideration of biotechnology and the human attempts to manipulate, control and commodify the last and most minute dimension of physical life, DNA. The commercialization of human genes raises fundamental questions about our culture in general, as well as our morals, values, attitudes towards nature and concepts of 'value'.

Feb 5
Rationality, Religion & the Value of Scientific "Truth"

  • The Iron Cage of Modern Rationalism (Ralph Schroeder)

  • Science in an Old Testament Style (Christopher Toumey)

Feb 12

Science as Power: Experts, Corporations & the Ideology of

Technological Determinism

  • The Egg & The Sperm: How Science has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles (Emily Martin)

  • Science, Technology & Risk Coverage of a Community Conflict (Cynthia-Lou Coleman)

Feb 19
Reading Week (no class)

Feb 26
Information Technology: Myths & Realities of The New 'Information Society'

Glass Paper Beans essay to be handed in.

  • The Computer as Sacred and Profane (Jeffrey Alexander)

  • Information and the Idea of an Information Society (Frank Webster)

  • Computers & Capitalism: Tragic Misuse of Technology (Nicholas Baran) [O]

Video to be shown during Lecture period: “Selling the Future”

Mar 4

Biotechnology & the Commodification of Nature

  • Genes For Sale (Ruth Hubbard & Elijah Wald)

  • Invasion of the Data Snatchers (Bret Dawson) [O]

Mar 11

Film on biotechnology to be shown during class (no readings assigned)

Unit 5 is the final unit in this course. Here we will tie together many of the conceptual threads that have run through the material to this point, drawing them into an analysis of the meanings and possibilities of resistance and change. How is cultural change possible, and from which sites is it most likely to arise? In a society marked and mediated by the 'electronic', how do we escape cultural alienation to create truly satisfying human relations? How do we reconstitute self-identities grounded in, and representative of our everyday local experiences in an increasingly global and diversified context? Do we have the imagination necessary to conceive of, and consciously pursue alternatives to the cultural representations of hegemony, especially as they become more and more fragmented and complex? What vision can we present to illustrate shared imaginations and collective action? In exploring these questions we will look at examples of sub-cultures, protest movements and some of the more recent sites of resistance that are appearing through new social groupings, identities and modes of interaction.
Mar 18
Sub-cultures, Counter-cultures and Resistance

  • Benetton’s World Without Borders (Henry A. Giroux)

  • Marketing After a Tragedy (Wall Street Journal/Classroom Edition)

  • Sad is Too Mild a Word: Press Coverage of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (Patrick Daley)

  • Rebel Girl, You are the Queen of my World: Feminism, ‘Subculture’, & Grrl Power

(Marion Leonard) [O]

Mar 25
Agency, Fantasy and the Collective Imagination: Recipe for Change?

  • Power Play & Party Politics: The Significance of Raving (Daniel Martin)

  • Nature’s Body and the Metaphors of Food (Joseph Gusfield)

  • Towards a New Politics of Consumption [O]

Apr 1

Course & Term Review (no seminar)

*Final Examination to be held during scheduled exam period (April 9 - 24, 2008)

Supplementary (Selected) Bibliography for Culture & Society
Below is a list of materials that I have put together for you. They are not required for this course but are intended for your own interest (if you choose to further pursue some subject area introduced in this course), or to use for essay research for this or any other course you may take now or in the future.
Alexander, Jeffrey and Steven Seidman, ed. Culture and Society: Contemporary Debates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. See especially “The Computer as Sacred and Profane” and “AIDs and the Discursive Construction of Homosexuality”.
Anderson, Patricia. The Printed Image and The Transformation of Popular Culture, 1790-1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Anderson, Walter. Reality Isn’t What It Used To Be: Theatrical Politics, Ready-to-Wear Religion, Global Myths, Primitive Chic and Other Wonders of The Postmodern World. San Francisco: Harper, 1990.
Annesley, James. Blank Fictions: Consumerism, Culture and The Contemporary American Novel. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
Appadurai, A. The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Appadurai, Arjun. “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy”, Public Culture 2:1-24, 1990.
Atali, Jaques. Noise: The Political Economy of Sound. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985.
Avery, Robert K. and David Eason. Critical Perspectives on Media and Society. New York: Guilford Press, 1991.
Balme, Christopher. “Staging the Pacific: Framing Authenticity in Performances for Tourists at the Polynesian Cultural Center”, Theatre Journal, Vol. 50 No. 1, 1998.
Bardsley, Jan. “Purchasing Power in Japanese Popular Culture A, Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 31 No. 2, 1997.
Bartter, Martha Taylor. Symbol to Scenario: The Atomic Bomb in American Science Fiction, 1930-1960. Rochester: University of Rochester, 1986.
Bauman, Z. “Industrialism, Consumerism and Power”, Theory, Culture and Society 1:3, 1983.
Benjamin, W. “The Work of Art in the Mechanical Age of Reproduction” in Illuminations, H. Arendt (ed), trans. By H. Zohn. New York: Schoken, 1969.
Berger, Peter L. and Thomas Luckmann. The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Doubleday, 1966.

Berndt, Caroline M. “Popular Culture as Political Protest: Writing the Reality of Sexual Slavery”, Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 31 No. 2, 1997.
Bernstein, Mary. “Celebration and Suppression: The Strategic Uses of Identity by the Lesbian and Gay Movement”, American Journal of Sociology 103:531-65, 1997.
Bijker, Wiebe E. Of Bicycles, Bakelites and Bulbs: Toward a Theory of Sociotechnical Change, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995.
Bird, S. Elizabeth, ed. Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1996.
Blair, Elizabeth. “Commercialization of the Rap Music Youth Subculture”, Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 27 No. 3, Winter 1993.
Boorstin, Daniel. The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America. New York: Atheneum, 1971.
Bourdieu, Pierre. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste, trans. Richard Nice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984.
Bourdieu, Pierre. The Field of Cultural Production. NY: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Brewer, J. and R. Porter, eds. Consumption and the World of Goods. New York: Routledge, 1993.
Buckingham, David. “News Media, Political Socialization and Popular Citizenship: Towards a New Agenda”, Critical Studies in Mass Communication, Vol. 14 No. 4, 1997.
Cable, Sherry and Charles Cable. Environmental Problems, Grassroots Solutions. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
Calhoun, Craig “Introduction: Social Issues in the Study of Culture”, Comparative Social Research 11(1989).
Cerulo, Karen A. “Identity Construction: New Issues, New Direction”, Annual Review of Sociology 23:385-409, 1997.
Cerulo, Karen. Identity Designs: The Sights and Sounds of a Nation. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

Chomsky, Noam, ed. James Peck. The Chomsky Reader. New York: Pantheon, 1987.

Chomsky, Noam. Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda. New York: Seven Stories Press, 1991.
Clark, Lynn Schofield and Stewart M. Hoover. “Controversy and Cultural Symbolism: Press Relations and the Formation of Public Discourse in the Case of the Re-Imagining Event”, Critical Studies in Mass Communication, Vol. 14 No. 4, 1997.

Cloud, Dana L. “Hegemony or Concordance?: The Rhetoric of Tokenism in >Oprah’ Winfrey’s Rags-to-Riches”, Critical Studies in Mass Communication, Vol. 13 No. 2, June 1996.
Corse, Sarah. Nationalism and Literature: The Politics of Culture in Canada and the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Crane, Diana ed. The Sociology of Culture. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1994.
Cross, Gary. Time And Money: The Making of Consumer Culture. London: Routledge, 1993.
Croteau, David and William Hoynes. Media/Society: Industries, Images and Audiences. Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press, 1997.
Davis, Fred. Fashion, Culture and Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Davis, Robert Murray. Playing Cowboys: Low Culture and High Art in The Western. University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.
Dawson, Mike. The Mounties: From Dime Novel to Disney. Toronto: Between the Lines, 1998.
Dean, Jodi. “Introduction: Virtually Regulated: New Technologies and Social Control”, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, Summer 1999 V. 24 No. 4, p. 1067.
DeChaine, D. Robert. “Mapping Subversion: Queercore Music’s Playful Discourse of Resistance”, Popular Music and Society 21:1 1997.
DiMaggio, Paul. “Classification in Art”, American Sociological Review 52, August 1987.
Dinkelacker, Horst. “The Renaissance of the German Garden Gnome”, Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 30 No. 3, Winter 1996.
Donaldson, Laura E. “On Medicine Women and Shame-ans: New Age Native Americanism and Commodity Fetishism as Pop Cultural Feminism”, Signs: Journal of Women In Culture and Society, Spring 1999 V. 24 No 3., p.677
Douglas, M. and B. Isherwood. The World of Goods: Towards an Anthropology of Consumption. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979.
Dowd, Mary-Ellen. “Popular Conventions”. Film Quarterly, Vol. 22 No. 3, 1969.
du Gay, Paul, Stuart Hall, Linda Janes, Hugh Mackay and Keith Negus. Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman. London: Sage Publications, 1997.
Dubinsky, Karen. The Second Greatest Disappointment: Honeymoons and Tourism at Niagara Falls. Toronto: Between the Lines/New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1999.
Durkheim, Emile. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Trans. Joseph Wrad Swan. New York: Free Press, 1965.

Eileraas, Karina. “Witches, Bitches & Fluids: Girl Bands Performing Ugliness as Resistance”, The Drama Review, Vol. 41 No. 3, Fall 1997.
Escobar, A. “Welcome to Cyberia: Notes on the Anthropology of Cyberculture”, Current Anthropology, 35:3:211-231, 1994.
Ewen, S. All Consuming Images The Politics of Style in Contemporary Culture. New York: Basic Books, 1988.
Eyerman, Ron and Andrew Jamison. Music and Social Movements. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1998.
Featherstone, Mike ed. Cultural Theory and Cultural Change. London: Sage Publications, 1992.
Featherstone, Mike. Consumer Culture and Postmodernism. London: Sage, 1991.
Fine, Gary Alan. Manufacturing Tales: Sex and Money in Contemporary Legends. Knoxville: University of Tennesee Press, 1992.
Fine, Gary Alan. “Popular Narrative and Commercial Television”, Camera Obscura, No. 23, May 1, 1990.
Fine, Gary Alan. “Small Groups and Culture Creation: The Idioculture of Little League Baseball Teams”, American Sociological Review, 44:733-45.
Flaherty, David H. and Frank E. Manning ed. The Beaver Bites Back? American Popular Culture in Canada. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1993.
Frith, Simon. Performing Rites. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996.
Gamman, Lorraine and Margaret Marshment, eds. The Female Gaze: Women as Viewers of Popular Culture. Seattle: Real Comet Press, 1989.
Gamson, William A. and Andre Modigliani. “Media Discourse and Public Opinion on Nuclear Power: A Constructionist Approach”, American Journal of Sociology 95:1-37, 1989.

Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic., 1973.

Geertz, Clifford. Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
Genosko, Gary. Contest: Sport, Culture, Politics. Winnipeg: Arbeiter Ring.
Giddens, Anthony. Modernity and Self-Identity. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991.
Gow, Joe. “Saving Souls and Selling CDs: The Mainstreaming of Christian Music Videos”, The Journal of Popular Film and Television, Vol. 25 No. 4, 1998.

Gramsci, Antonio. “Language, Languages and Commonsense” and “The Concept of Ideology [pp.348-51 and 375-77] in Selections from The Prison Notebooks, Quinton Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith eds. New York: International Publishers, 1971.
Gray, A. Video Playtime: The Gendering of a Leisure Technology. London: Routledge, 1992.
Griswold, Wendy. Cultures and Societies in a Changing World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 1994.
Griswold, Wendy. “The Devil’s Techniques: Cultural legitimation and Social Change” American Sociological Review 48 October 1983.
Gunkel, David J. and Ann Hetzel Gunkey. “Virtual Geographies: The New Worlds of Cyberspace”, Critical Studies in Mass Communication, Vol. 14 No. 2, June 1997.
Habermas, J. Communication and the Evolution of Society, trans. T. McCarthy. Boston: Beacon Press, 1976.
Habermas, J. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Trans. By T. Burger, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1989.
Halle, David. “The Audience for Abstract Art: Class, Culture and Power” in Michele Lamont and Marcel Fournier eds. Cultivating Difference: Symbolic Boundaries and the Making of Inequality. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Hebdige, Dick. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Routledge, 1979.
Herman, Andrew and John Sloop. “The Politics of Authenticity in Postmodern Rock culture: The Case of Negativland and the Letter U and the Numeral 2" in Critical Studies in Mass Communication, Vol. 15 No. 1, 1998.
Herrman, Gretchen. “His and Hers: Gender and Garage Sales”, Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 29 No. 1, Summer 1995.
Innis, Harold A. The Bias of Communication. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1951.
Innis, Harold A. Empire & Communications. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972.
Jarvie, Grant and Joseph Maguire. Sport and Leisure in Social Thought. New York: Routledge, 1995.
Jasper, James M. The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography and Creativity in Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Jhally, Sut. The Codes of Advertising: Fetishism and the Political Economy of Meaning in the Consumer Society. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Johnson, Hank and Bert Klandermans, eds. Social Movements and Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Keat, R. and N. Abercrombie eds. Enterprise Culture. London: Routledge, 1991.
Kennedy, Dennis. “Shakespeare and Cultural Tourism”. Theatre Journal. Vol. 50 No. 2, 1998.
Klein, Naomi. No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies. Toronto: Knopf Canada, 1999.
Kline, S. and W. Leiss. “Advertising Needs and Commodity Fetishism”, Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory 2 (1), 1978.
Lamont, Michele. Money, Morals and Manners: The Culture of the French and American Upper-Middle Class. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Lash, Scott and John Urry. Economies of Signs and Space. London: Sage Publications, 1994.
Lee, M.J. Consumer Culture Reborn: The Cultural Politics of Consumption. London: Routledge, 1992.
Leiss, William. The Limits to Satisfaction: On Needs and Commodities. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976.
Levine, Lawrence. Highbrow, Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Lewis, Justin and Sut Jhally. “The Struggle Over Media literacy”, Journal of Communication, Vol. 48 No. 1, 1998.
Lewis, Justin and Sut Jhally. “Reproducing Political Hegemony in the United States”, Critical Studies in Mass Communication, Sept, 1999, Vol 16 No. 3.
Lewis, Lisa A. Gender Politics and MTV: Voicing the Difference. Philadelphia: Temple University press, 1990.
Lewis, Lisa A. The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media. New York: Routledge, 1992.
Levine, Lawrence. “The Folklore of Industrial Society: Popular Culture and Its Audiences”, American Historical Review, December 1992.
Lipari, Lisbeth. “Polling as Ritual” Journal of Communication. Winter, 1999, Vol. 49, No. 1.
Littleton, James, ed. Clash of Identities: Essays on Media, Manipulation and Politics of the Self. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996.
Lloyd, David and Paul Thomas. Culture and the State. New York: Routledge, 1998.
Lomax, Alan. “Song Structure and Social Structure” in Milton C. Albrecht, JH Barnett and M. Griff eds. The Sociology of Art and Literature. New York: Praeger, 1970.
Long, Elisabeth. From Sociology to Cultural Studies. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1997.

Lunt, P. and S. Livingstone. Mass Consumption and Personal Identity: Everyday Economic Experience. Buckingham: Open University Press, 1992.
MacDonald, Myra. Representing Women: Myths of Femininity in the Popular Media.

New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.

Marchand, Roland. Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920-1940. Berkely: University of California Press, 1985.
Marling, Karal Ann. As Seen on TV: The Visual Culture of Everyday Life in the 1950s. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1994.
Martin, Michele. Communication and Mass Media: Culture, Domination and Opposition. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.
Martin, Richard. “Fashion in the Age of Advertising”, Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 29 No. 29, Fall 1995.
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