Skill– Thesis Development and Historical Thinking Skills of Periodization and Continuity/Change

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Period 3 FRAMEWORK - 1754 - 1800

(17 days)

SKILL– Thesis Development and Historical Thinking Skills of Periodization and Continuity/Change

  1. 5 minute Long Essay Drill - Evaluate the extent to which the colonists’ development of a sense of their identity and unity as Americans contributed to maintaining continuity as well as fostering change in colonial America by the eve of the American Revolution.

  2. 15 minute DBQ Drill - DBQ 2004 – In what ways did the French and Indian War (1754-63) alter the political, economic and ideological relations between Great Britain and its American colonies?

  3. 15 minute DBQ Drill - DBQ 2005 - To what extent did the American Revolution fundamentally change American society? In your answer, be sure to address the political, social and economic effects of the Revolution in the period from 1775 to 1800.

  4. Long Essay – Evaluate the extent to which the Declaration of Independence marked a turning point in American history, analyzing what changed and what same from the period immediately before the declaration to the period

immediately following it.


  1. Frames: (10)

    1. Struggle for Empire

    2. Road to American Revolution

    3. Debate Over Independence

    4. American Revolution

    5. Road to the Constitution

    6. Search for National Government

    7. Washington - Creating a Republic

    8. Washington - The Rise of Political Parties and the 1st Party System

    9. Adams - Rise of Political Parties

    10. Jefferson -Rise of Political Parties

  1. CTJ

  2. Homework Journal

  3. Multiple Choice test

  4. Debate: Jeffersonian vs. Hamiltonians

  5. Long Essay and 2005 DBQ Essay


Period 3 #1 Homework Journal - 24

Lecture 11 – Alienation through Legislation (6)

Lecture 12 – British Antagonism and American Resistance (7)

Lecture 13 – The American Revolution (5)

Lecture 14 – The War for Independence (6)

Period 3 #2 Homework Journal - 26

Lecture 15 – Republicanism (6)

Lecture 16 – The Opening of the Federalist Age (8)

Lecture 17 – Federalist Domination (6)

Lecture 18 – The Federalist Presidencies (6)


  1. Fur trade

  2. Jesuits

  3. Seigneuries

  4. Algonquians and Hurons

  5. Coureurs de Bois

  6. Detroit, Niagara, Kaskaskia, New Orleans

  7. Ohio River Valley

  8. Treaty of Paris 1763

  9. Albany Plan

  10. Benjamin Franklin

  11. Boston Massacre

  12. Boston Tea Party

  13. Charles Townshend

  14. Coercive Acts

  15. Committees of correspondence

  16. Creoles

  17. Currency Act

  18. Daughters of Liberty

  19. First Continental Congress

  20. George Grenville

  21. Impressment

  22. Iroquois Confederation

  23. Intolerable Acts

  24. John Locke

  25. March of the Paxton Boys

  26. Pontiac’s Rebellion

  27. Lord North

  28. Mutiny Act

  29. Patrick Henry

  30. Proclamation of 1763

  31. Quebec Act

  32. Samuel Adams

  33. Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty

  34. Boston Massacre

  35. British East India Co.

  36. Stamp Act

  37. Internal v. external taxes

  38. Virtual v. Actual Representation

  39. Stamp Act Congress

  40. Sugar Act

  41. Tea Act

  42. Townshend Duties

  43. William Pitt

  44. Declaration of Rights and Grievances

  45. Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms

  46. Olive Branch Petition

  47. American Patriots v. Loyalists (Tories)

  48. Articles of Confederation

  49. Daniel Shays

  50. George Washington

  51. Joseph and Mary Brant

  52. Abigail Adams

  53. Saratoga

  54. Second Continental Congress

  55. Thomas Jefferson

  56. Thomas Paine (Common Sense)

  57. Yorktown

  58. Treaty of Parish 1783

  59. Republican Ideology

  60. Shays Rebellion

  61. Liberty Treaty

  62. Ordinance of 1784, 1785

  63. Northwest Ordinance of 1787

  64. Annapolis Convention

  65. Alexander Hamilton

  66. Alien and Sedition Acts

  67. Antifederalists

  68. Bill of Rights

  69. Checks and balances

  70. Citizen Genet affair

  71. Federalists

  72. Federal structure

  73. Great Compromise

  74. Fugitive Slave Laws

  75. James Madison

  76. John Adams

  77. Virginia Plan v. New Jersey Plan

  78. Battle of Fallen Timber

  79. Little Turtle of the Miami

  80. General Mad Anthony Wayne

  81. Treaty of Greenville

  82. Slave codes and manumission

  83. VA Statute of Religious Freedom

  84. Republican Motherhood

  85. Camp Followers

  86. Molly Pitcher

  87. Hamilton’s Financial Plan

  88. tariffs

  89. Jay’s Treaty

  90. Pinckney’s Treaty

  91. Quasi war

  92. Democratic-Republicans

  93. Revolution of 1800

  94. Separation of powers

  95. Sovereignty

  96. The Federalist Papers (Publius v. Brutus)

  97. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

  98. Whiskey Rebellion

  99. 1st Party System

  100. French Revolution

  101. Neutrality Act

  102. Revolution of 1800

  103. XYZ Affair

  104. Aaron Burr

  105. Treaty of San Ildefonso

  106. Louisiana Purchase

  107. Impressment

  108. John Marshall

  109. Judith Sargent Murray

  110. Marbury v. Madison

  111. Mercy Otis Warren

  112. Toussaint L’Ouverture


Key Concept 3.1: British attempts to assert tighter control over its North American colonies and the colonial resolve to pursue self-government led to a colonial independence movement and the Revolutionary War.

I. The competition among the British, French, and American Indians for economic and political advantage in North America culminated in the Seven years’ War (the French and Indian War), in which Britain defeated France and allied American Indians.

A. Colonial rivalry intensified between Britain and France in the mid-18th century, as the growing population of the British colonies expanded into the interior of North America, threatening French–Indian trade networks and American Indian autonomy. Examples: French-Huron alliance, British-Iroquois alliance, French and Indian War, Albany Plan of Union, Treaty of Paris

B. Britain achieved a major expansion of its territorial holdings by defeating the French, but at tremendous expense, setting the stage for imperial efforts to raise revenue and consolidate control over the colonies. Examples: End of salutary neglect, writs of assistance, use of admiralty courts to try smugglers, virtual representation of Parliament

C. After the British victory, imperial officials’ attempts to prevent colonists from moving westward generated colonial opposition, while native groups sought to both continue trading with Europeans and resist the encroachments of colonists on tribal lands. Examples: Pontiac’s War, Proclamation of 1763, Iroquois Confederacy, Chief Little Turtle and the Western Confederacy (1793-1795)

II. The desire of many colonists to assert ideals of self-government in the face of renewed British imperial efforts led to a colonial independence movement and war with Britain

A. The imperial struggles of the mid-18th century, as well as new British efforts to collect taxes without direct colonial representation or consent and to assert imperial authority in the colonies, began to unite the colonists against perceived and real constraints on their economic activities and political rights. Examples: Sugar Act (1764), Stamp Act (1765), Quartering Act (1765), Declaratory Act (1766), Townshend Acts (1767), Tea Act (1773), Intolerable Acts (1774), Quebec Act (1774)

B. Colonial leaders based their calls for resistance to Britain on arguments about the rights of British subjects, the rights of the individual, local traditions of self-rule, and the ideas of the Enlightenment. Examples: Taxation without representation, consent of the governed, republicanism, bicameral colonial legislatures, natural rights

C. The effort for American independence was energized by colonial leaders such as Benjamin Franklin, as well as by popular movements that included the political activism of laborers, artisans, and women. Examples: Otis Warren, Paul Revere, Mercy Otis Warren, John Hancock, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Sons of Liberty, Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania (John Dickinson), Stamp Act Congress (1765), Boston Tea Party, committees of correspondence, First and Second Continental Congress

D. In the face of economic shortages and the British military occupation of some regions, men and women mobilized in large numbers to provide financial and material support to the Patriot movement. Examples: Committees of Correspondence, Minutemen of Massachusetts

E. Despite considerable loyalist opposition, as well as Great Britain’s apparently overwhelming military and financial advantages, the Patriot cause succeeded because of the actions of colonial militias and the Continental Army, George Washington’s military leadership, the colonists’ ideological commitment and resilience, and assistance sent by European allies. Examples: Battle of Trenton, Battle of Saratoga, French Alliance, Battle of Yorktown

Key Concept 3.2:The American Revolution’s democratic and republican ideas inspired new experiments with different forms of government.

  1. The ideals that inspired the revolutionary cause reflected new beliefs about politics, religion, and society that had been developing over the course of the

18th century.

  1. Enlightenment ideas and philosophy inspired many American political thinkers to emphasize individual talent over hereditary privilege, while religion strengthened Americans’ view of themselves as a people blessed with liberty. Examples: End of primogeniture laws, First Great Awakening, New Lights vs. Old Lights, consent of the governed, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau

  2. The colonists’ belief in the superiority of republican forms of government based on the natural rights of the people found expression in Thomas Paine’s Common Sense and the Declaration of Independence. The ideas in these documents resonated throughout American history, shaping Americans’ understanding of the ideals on which the nation was based. Examples: Common Sense, Declaration of Independence, republicanism, natural rights

  3. During and after the American Revolution, an increased awareness of inequalities in society motivated some individuals and groups to call for the abolition of slavery and greater political democracy in the new state and national governments. Examples: Quakers, Abigail Adams’ “remember the ladies”, Pennsylvania gradual emancipation law (1780), Vermont constitution abolished slavery, reduction of state property requirements to vote, abolition societies, separation of church and state, Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1786)

  4. In response to women’s participation in the American Revolution, Enlightenment ideas, and women’s appeals for expanded roles, an ideal of “republican motherhood” gained popularity. It called on women to teach republican values within the family and granted women a new importance in American political culture. Examples: Republican motherhood, improved education for women, republican virtues of liberty and natural rights

  5. The American Revolution and the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence reverberated in France, Haiti, and Latin America, inspiring future independence movements. Examples: French Revolution (1789-1799), US Neutrality Proclamation, Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)

II. After declaring independence, American political leaders created new constitutions and declarations of rights that articulated the role of the state and federal governments while protecting individual liberties and limiting both centralized power and excessive popular influence.

  1. Many new state constitutions placed power in the hands of the legislative branch and maintained property qualifications for voting and citizenship. Examples: Conventions to ratify constitutions, fundamental laws, strong state legislatures combined with weak governors and courts

  2. The Articles of Confederation unified the newly independent states, creating a central government with limited power. After the Revolution, difficulties over international trade, finances, interstate commerce, foreign relations, and internal unrest led to calls for a stronger central government. Examples: Unicameral legislature with no power to tax, draft soldiers, or regulate trade; lack of judicial or executive branch; tariff and currency disputes; Spanish restrictions on Mississippi River; British occupation of forts on US land; Shay’s Rebellion; Newburgh Conspiracy; Annapolis Convention

  3. Delegates from the states participated in a Constitutional Convention and through negotiation, collaboration, and compromise proposed a constitution that created a limited but dynamic central government embodying federalism and providing for a separation of powers between its three branches. Examples: Great (Connecticut) Compromise, checks and balances, separation of powers, Electoral College, Supreme Court, republicanism, federalism

  4. The Constitutional Convention compromised over the representation of slave states in Congress and the role of the federal government in regulating both slavery and the slave trade, allowing the prohibition of the international slave trade after 1808. Examples: Three-fifths compromise, slave trade compromise, fugitive slave clause

  5. In the debate over ratifying the Constitution, Anti-Federalists opposing ratification battled with Federalists, whose principals were articulated in the Federalist Papers (primarily written by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison). Federalists ensured the ratification of the Constitution by promising the addition of a Bill of Rights that enumerated individual rights and explicitly restricted the powers of the federal government. Examples: Federalist Papers, Bill of Rights, Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

  1. New forms of national culture and political institutions developed in the United States alongside continued regional variations and differences over economic, political, social, and foreign policy issues.

  1. During the presidential administrations of George Washington and John Adams, political leaders created institutions and precedents that put the principles of the Constitution into practice. Examples: Executive branch departments, Cabinet, Judiciary Act of 1789

  2. Political leaders in the 1790s took a variety of positions on issues such as the relationship between the national government and the states, economic policy, foreign policy, and the balance between liberty and order. This led to the formation of political parties — most significantly the Federalists, led by Alexander Hamilton, and the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Examples: Hamilton’s financial plan, creation of the Bank of the US, elastic clause, strict vs. loose interpretation of the Constitution, formation of the Federalist Party, formation of the Democratic-Republican Party, Alien and Sedition Acts, Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions by Jefferson and Madison

  3. The expansion of slavery in the deep South and adjacent western lands and rising antislavery sentiment began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution. Examples: Anti-slavery societies, limited rights of free blacks

  4. Ideas about national identity increasingly found expression in works of art, literature, and architecture. Examples: John Trumbull, Benjamin Banneker, US flag, growth of nationalism, Mercy Otis Warren’s History of the American Revolution, Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

Key Concept 3:3 Migration within North America and competition over resources, boundaries, and trade intensified conflicts among peoples and nations.

  1. In the decades after American independence, interactions among different groups resulted in competition for resources, shifting alliances, and cultural blending.

  1. Various American Indian groups repeatedly evaluated and adjusted their alliances with Europeans, other tribes, and the U.S., seeking to limit migration of white settlers and maintain control of tribal lands and natural resources. British alliances with American Indians contributed to tensions between the U.S. and Britain. Examples: March of the Paxton Boys, Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794), Treaty of Greenville (1795)

  2. As increasing numbers of migrants from North America and other parts of the world continued to move westward, frontier cultures that had emerged in the colonial period continued to grow, fueling social, political, and ethnic tensions. Examples: Scots-Irish migration to the frontier, frontier vs. tidewater Virginia, Whiskey Rebellion, Regulator Movement

  3. As settlers moved westward during the 1780s, Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance for admitting new states; the ordinance promoted public education, the protection of private property, and a ban on slavery in the Northwest Territory. Examples: Land Ordinance of 1785, Northwest Ordinance of 1787, Section 16, equal statement, abolition of slavery in Northwest Territory

  4. An ambiguous relationship between the federal government and American Indian tribes contributed to problems regarding treaties and American Indian legal claims relating to the seizure of their lands. Examples: Battle of Fallen Timbers, Treaty of Greenville

  5. The Spanish, supported by the bonded labor of the local American Indians, expanded their mission settlements into California; these provided opportunities for social mobility among soldiers and led to new cultural blending. Examples: Expansion of Spanish missions in California, Spanish vacqueros (cowboys) of the Southwest, mestizos

II. The continued presence of European powers in North America challenged the United States to find ways to safeguard its borders, maintain neutral trading rights, and promote its economic interests.

  1. The United States government forged diplomatic initiatives aimed at dealing with the continued British and Spanish presence in North America, as U.S. settlers migrated beyond the Appalachians and sought free navigation of the Mississippi River. Examples: Spanish control of Mississippi River, British occupation of US forts, impressment of US sailors, Jay Treaty (1794), Pinckney Treaty (1795)

  2. War between France and Britain resulting from the French Revolution presented challenges to the United States over issues of free trade and foreign policy and fostered political disagreement. Examples: French Revolution, US Proclamation of Neutrality, Citizen Genet Affair, XYZ Affair (1797-1798), Quasi-war with France, Convention of 1800

  3. George Washington’s Farewell Address encouraged national unity, as he cautioned against political factions and warned about the danger of permanent foreign alliances. Examples: Political disagreements about aid to the French Revolution and the establishment of the Bank of the US, Farewell Address warned against entangling alliances and political parties

ESSAYS – additional essays for practice

  1. Long Essay (CB2015) - Evaluate the extent to which the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War, 1754–1763) marked a turning point in American relations with Great Britain, analyzing what changed and what stayed the same from the period before the war to the period after it.

  2. Long Essay – Evaluate the extent to which trans-Atlantic interactions from 1600 to 1763 contributed to maintaining continuity as well as fostering change in labor systems in the British North American colonies.

  3. DBQ 1999 - Evaluate the extent to which the colonists’ development of a sense of their identity and unity as Americans contributed to maintaining continuity as well as fostering change in colonial America by the eve of the American Revolution.

  4. DBQ 2004 – In what ways did the French and Indian War (1754-63) alter the political, economic and ideological relations between Great Britain and its American colonies?

  5. DBQ 2005 - To what extent did the American Revolution fundamentally change American society? In your answer, be sure to address the political, social and economic effects of the Revolution in the period from 1775 to 1800.

  6. Long Essay - Evaluate the extent to which the American Revolution reflected continuity in American society as well as fundamentally fostered change politically, socially and economically from 1775 to 1800.

  7. Long Essay - Some historians have argued that the American Revolution was not a revolution in nature. Support, modify, or refute this interpretation, providing specific evidence to justify your answer.

  8. Long Essay - Explain how imperial competition and the exchange of commodities across both sides of the Atlantic Ocean influenced the development of North American colonial societies in regard to political structures, economic trade, and the spread of religion. Use historical evidence to support your argument.

  9. DBQ - Analyze the motivations of ordinary Americans (including the working class, ordinary farmers, yeomen, freed blacks, and slaves), who participated in the American Revolution. Explain to what extent they were motivated by the same ideals of the established colonial elites or by different ideals.

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