Sigmund Freud & The Origins of Psychoanalysis



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The Interpretation of Dreams and the Topographic model:

  1. Systems of Unconscious, Preconscious, Conscious

  • The structural model and The Ego and the ID:

    1. Id, Ego, Superego.

  • Freud’s Structural Model

  • Psychoanalysis as Psychotherapy

    1. Clinical theory: 4 cornerstones.

      1. Interpretation of dreams

      2. Free association

      3. Analysis of transference

      4. Analysis of resistance

  • Comments, criticisms, and evaluation

      1. Freud’s uneasy connection to Psychology

    1. Historically, Freud represents a number of firsts:

      1. first form of psychotherapy; recognized transference

      2. first comprehensive general psychological theory of the mind and behavior.

      3. One of the first to emphasize the importance of early childhood experience, sex, the unconscious, and dreams.

    2. Demonstrated how physical and physiological disturbances can have psychological origins.

    3. Demonstrated the importance of anxiety to psychological disorders

  • Comments, criticisms, and evaluation

    1. Psychological conflict is 'normal'; same processes that cause normal behavior cause 'abnormal' behavior

    2. Revealed "defence mechanisms" and their connection to pathology and everyday life.

    3. The ‘discovery’ of unconscious processes

    4. His emphasis on childhood influences on adult behavior, and a comprehensive theory of dreams

    5. Since Freud, the clinical theory as been much more successful than the metapsychology.

      1. Recent psychoanalytic thought has developed the clinical theory along the lines of object relations, self psychology, and narrative theory.

  • Comments, criticisms, and evaluation

      1. Historical judgement and Science

    1. Freud raised some important questions, such as the nature of psychological explanation and its relationship to its biological foundations (e.g., reductionism).

    2. He also raises some important historical questions: what are we to make of his views of women? How does one manage both historical and moral judgments?

    3. Unlike any other theory in psychology, psychoanalysis understands behavior as symbolic, conduct as metaphorical, and ‘life' itself as a narrative.

  • Sigmund Freud

      1. Freud in Psychology today...

    1. Public perception of Psychology vs. Professional/disciplinary perception

    2. Is psychoanalysis a science? How does one ask this question?



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