Sigmund Freud & The Origins of Psychoanalysis



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1Sigmund Freud &

The Origins of Psychoanalysis


  1. Sigmund Freud:

1856-1939

      1. Freud's family and educational background

    1. Freud's family and educational background.

      1. Unusual family arrangement

      2. Brilliant student; powerful intellect

    2. Medical school and Ernst Brucke.

      1. Freud heavily influenced by Helmholtz-influenced researchers, stressing physicalism and reductionism.

  1. Sigmund Freud: The Student

    1. Internship (Vienna Hospital) with Theodore Meynert.

          1. Meynert's research on ‘neurons' deeply impressed Freud.

          2. Conducted research on "association areas" in the brain.

          3. Discouraged Freud's research on hysteria.

    2. Freud and Charcot.

      1. Ideas can cause illness and symptoms.

      2. With a brief visit to Nancy, Freud took up hypnotism in the treatment of hysteria.

  2. Sigmund Freud

      1. Origins of Psychoanalysis

    1. Freud and Breuer (1895)

        1. "Studies on Hysteria" (1895): Based on Anna O. Developed the "cathartic method" or "talking cure" to treat "conversion hysteria."

        2. Disagreed over nature of hysteria (defence vs. hypnoid)

    2. "Project for a Scientific Psychology" (1895): Freud's early attempt to construct a neurological theory of the mind.

  3. Sigmund Freud

      1. “Studies on Hysteria” and “The Project...”

    1. Both of these works are important in that:

      1. they foreshadow many of Freud's later ideas;

      2. the Project illustrates Freud's scientific background

      3. shows that psychological phenomena were originally understood in neurological terms.

    2. Clinically, Freud’s methods are evolving; he uses:

      1. 1) hypnosis, then recalling his experience with Bernheim,

      2. 2) the pressure technique, and then

      3. 3) free association to recall and express the memory or idea and remove the symptom.

  4. Freud’s Turn Towards Narrative

    1. Around 1897-98, Freud abandoned the Project and concluded that he "will stay on psychological ground."

    2. This is the result of:

      1. his findings in human sexuality and the abandonment of the "seduction theory";

      2. his own self-analysis;

      3. the broadened meaning of sexuality;

      4. the failure of the Project and the feeling that the answers he sought were not neurological.

    3. In essence, Freud concluded that narrative truth took precedence over historical truth.

  5. Freud’s Metapsychology

    1. Two core aspects of psychoanalysis: the metapsychology and the clinical theory.

      1. Both aspects involved the central concepts of: the pleasure principle, libido, and the instincts.

    2. Freud developed 3 metapsychological theories of the mind:

      1. a "neurological" one in the Project (1895),

      2. the "systematic" or "topograhic" view (1900), and

      3. the final structural model (1923).

      4. Freud's approach moved from a basic science (experimental emphasis) to a clinical/process view, then to a dynamic metaphoric view.

  6. Freud’s Models of the Mind




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