Sigmund Freud & The Origins of Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud &
Origins of Psychoanalysis
Freud's family and educational background
Freud's family and educational background.
Unusual family arrangement
Medical school and Ernst Brucke.
Freud heavily influenced by Helmholtz-influenced researchers, stressing physicalism and reductionism.
Sigmund Freud: The Student
Internship (Vienna Hospital) with Theodore Meynert.
Meynert's research on ‘neurons' deeply impressed Freud.
Conducted research on "association areas" in the brain.
Discouraged Freud's research on hysteria.
Freud and Charcot.
Ideas can cause illness and symptoms.
a brief visit to Nancy
, Freud took up hypnotism in the treatment of hysteria.
Origins of Psychoanalysis
Freud and Breuer (1895)
"Studies on Hysteria" (1895): Based on Anna O. Developed the "cathartic method" or "talking cure" to treat "conversion hysteria."
Disagreed over nature of hysteria (defence vs. hypnoid)
"Project for a Scientific Psychology" (1895): Freud's early attempt to construct a neurological theory of the mind.
“Studies on Hysteria” and “The Project...”
Both of these works are important in that:
they foreshadow many of Freud's later ideas;
the Project illustrates Freud's
shows that psychological phenomena were originally understood in neurological terms.
Clinically, Freud’s methods are evolving; he uses:
1) hypnosis, then recalling
his experience with Bernheim
2) the pressure technique, and then
3) free association to recall and express the memory or idea and remove the symptom.
Turn Towards Narrative
Around 1897-98, Freud abandoned the Project and concluded that he "will stay on psychological ground."
This is the result of:
his findings in human sexuality and the abandonment of the "seduction theory";
his own self-analysis;
the broadened meaning of sexuality;
the failure of the Project and the feeling that the answers he sought were not neurological.
Freud concluded that
narrative truth took precedence over historical truth
Two core aspects of psychoanalysis: the metapsychology and the clinical theory.
Both aspects involved the central concepts of:
the pleasure principle
, libido, and the instincts.
Freud developed 3 metapsychological theories of the mind:
a "neurological" one in the Project (1895),
the "systematic" or "topograhic" view (1900), and
the final structural model (1923).
Freud's approach moved from a basic science (experimental emphasis) to a clinical/process view, then to a dynamic metaphoric view.
Freud’s Models of the Mind
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