Short Answer Question answers period 1 Question 1 is based on the map below



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AP European History Short Answer Question ANSWERS Period 1



Question 1 is based on the map below.




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  1. The map above shows the major participants and the major battles of the Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648. Using the map and your knowledge of European history, answer parts A, B, and C of the question below.

A) Briefly explain ONE way in which the Thirty Years’ War became an international struggle.

B) Use at least ONE historical example to support your explanation.

C) Briefly explain ONE consequence of the Thirty Years’ War.



Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

OS-3 Explain how political revolution and war from the 17th century on altered the role of the church in political and intellectual life and the response of religious authorities and intellectuals to such challenges.


Historical Causation

Appropriate use of Relevant Historical Evidence

Interpretation


1.3.III.C


Answer

A/B) Explanations and examples of ways in which the Thirty Years’ War became an international struggle may include the following:



  • Multiple European monarchs and nobles attempted to use a shifting balance of power away from the Habsburg monarchies as their opportunity to aggrandize themselves.

    • The assumption of the Bohemian throne by Frederick, the Elector of the Palatinate, was an attempt to expand his dynasty’s power and influence in Europe.

    • The French monarchy sought to use the fighting in the Holy Roman Empire as a means to weaken its Habsburg rivals in both the Empire and Spain.

    • The Swedish king, Gustavus Adolphus, sought to use the conflict as a means to gain a dominant position in northern Germany and gain a position of prominence in European affairs for himself and his country.

    • Many Protestant German princes used the Emperor’s attack upon Bohemia as a pretext to assert their own independence from his power.



  • Religious conviction motivated various rulers and subjects to intervene on behalf of their denominational compatriots and pursue the defeat of their religious rivals in the name of what each viewed as the “true” Christian faith.

    • The King of Spain, partly motivated by religious ideals, sought to aid his Austrian cousins in suppressing the Protestant religion in the Holy Roman Empire.

    • The Kings of Denmark and Sweden attempted to assume a role as champion of Lutheranism by coming to the aid of the Lutheran princes of northern Germany.

    • Although the initial conflict was over the throne of Bohemia, the Emperor Ferdinand II attempted to use the opportunity to impose his will upon all of Germany and mandate a return to Catholicism, as seen in the Edict of Restitution (1629) ordering all Protestant lands to be returned to Catholicism.

C) Analysis of the consequences of the Thirty Years’ War may include ONE of the following:

  • The German population was decimated by the conflict, with estimates of up to 30% of the population lost through combat, rapine, disease, and famine.

  • The German economy was ravaged by the excesses and needs of the various armies that traversed the countryside during the war. The damage to the farms and towns of Germany would take decades to repair.

  • The aftermath of the fighting saw attempts to establish a “balance of power” among the competing nations of Europe in the hope that it would prevent future conflicts.

  • The conflict bankrupted the Spanish monarchy, and Spain’s military and territorial losses from the war signaled the decline of the Spanish from their once preeminent position in European politics.

  • The conflict severely strained the finances of the various European monarchies. France, England, Sweden, and the Austrian Habsburgs all ran into conflict with their own citizens over the financing of the wars.

  • The Peace of Westphalia, ending the Thirty Years’ War, enshrined the concept of the freedom to practice one’s religion openly--albeit not universally recognized or enforced.

  • The Thirty Years’ War proved to be the last major conflict motivated largely by religion. Thenceforward, European rulers realized the costliness of attempting to enforce religious unity and the difficulty in achieving it.

  • The turmoil and settlements from the Thirty Years War ensured that Germany and the Holy Roman Empire would remain fragmented and stubbornly protective of individual state independence.

  • The Thirty Years’ War saw a shift from the small armies of Europe’s feudal past to the mass armies that would be the future for European conflicts with all the expense and danger these armies would entail.


Question 2 is based on the passage below.
“15. In order to bring peace into the holy Roman Empire of the German Nation between the Roman Imperial Majesty and the Electors, Princes and Estates, let neither his Imperial Majesty nor the Electors, Princes, etc., do any violence or harm to any estate of the empire on the account of the Augsburg Confession, but let them enjoy their religious belief, liturgy and ceremonies as well as their estates and other rights and privileges in peace; and complete religious peace shall be obtained only by Christian means of amity, or under threat of punishment of the imperial ban.
16. Likewise the Estates espousing the Augsburg Confession shall let all the Estates and Princes who cling to the old religion live in absolute peace and in the enjoyment of all their estates, rights and privileges.”
The Peace of Augsburg, 1555

2. Use the passage above and your knowledge of European history to answer parts A, B, and C.


A) Select ONE of the groups below and briefly explain the significance of the Peace of Augsburg.

  • Lutherans (adherents of the Augsburg Confession)

  • Catholics

  • The Habsburg Emperors

  • German princes

B) Briefly evaluate the extent to which the Peace of Augsburg was a source of continuity for the group you selected in A) above.


C) Briefly explain why ONE group from that period would have been dissatisfied with the terms of the Peace of Augsburg.



Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

SP-3 Trace the changing relationship between states and ecclesiastical authority and the emergence of the principle of religious toleration.

SP-11 Analyze how religious and secular institutions and groups attempted to limit monarchical power by articulating theories of resistance to absolutism, and by taking political action.


Historical Causation

Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time



Interpretation


1.3.II.A


Answer

  1. Explanations of the significance of the Peace of Augsburg to ONE group may include the following:

Lutherans

  • The Peace of Augsburg officially recognized Lutheranism as an accepted religion within the Holy Roman Empire.

  • Lutheran princes/nobles were granted the right to establish their faith as the official religion within their territories.

  • Lutherans were free to move from a territory that professed Catholicism as the official religion.

  • The Peace of Augsburg provided at least a temporary respite from the conflict between Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire.

Catholics

  • Catholics were forced to accept the nominal equality of Lutherans as a religious group within the Empire.

  • Catholics were free to move from a territory that professed Lutheranism as the official religion.

  • The Peace of Augsburg provided at least a temporary respite from the conflict between Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire.

The Habsburg Emperors

  • The Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperors of this era, no longer could assert that they could dictate the religion of the Empire.

  • The Peace of Augsburg signified a victory for the rights of nobles over the prerogative of the Emperor.

  • The Peace of Augsburg provided at least a temporary respite from the conflict between the Protestant princes and the Catholic supporters of the Holy Roman Emperor.

German princes

  • The Peace of Augsburg guaranteed the rights of nobles against the centralizing aims of the Emperors.

  • The princes gained the right to dictate the official religion in their territories.

  • The Peace of Augsburg provided at least a temporary respite from the conflict between the Protestant princes and the Catholic supporters of the Holy Roman Emperor.

B) Analysis of the Peace of Augsburg as a source of continuity may include the following.

Lutherans

  • Lutherans were able to continue the practice and growth of their religion following the Peace of Augsburg.

  • Lutheran princes/nobles were granted the right to establish their faith as the official religion within their territories.

Catholics

  • Catholics continued to be the largest religion group within the Empire.

  • The Empire continued to be ruled by the Catholic, Habsburg dynasty.

The Habsburg Emperors

  • The Habsburg Holy Roman Emperors of this era continued to be faced by powerful nobles opposed to an expansion of the Emperor’s power.

  • The Habsburg dynasty continued to rule a vast, decentralized empire.

German princes

  • The Peace of Augsburg guaranteed the traditional rights of nobles against the centralizing aims of the Emperors.

  • The German princes continued to be the dominant force in imperial politics and maintained their rights to control their territories independently.

C) Explanations of dissatisfaction with the Peace of Augsburg may include the following.

  • Some hard-line Lutherans were not content with simply achieving recognition of their religion, but sought greater independence and freedom for their states to develop in their own direction.

  • Many Catholics, including the Emperor and Pope, were displeased with the formal split within Christianity that the Peace of Augsburg confirmed.

  • Many people of both religions despised the fact that it was the rulers that dictated the religion of their region. Thus, they were forced to either convert to the prescribed religion or leave their homes.

  • Calvinists, despite being the largest Protestant denomination at that point, were left out of the agreement, giving them no legal standing within the Empire and nowhere that they could officially reside.



Question 3 is based on the passage below.

“That those of Confession of Augsburg, and particularly the inhabitants of Oppenheim [Lutherans], shall be put in possession again of their Churches, and Ecclesiastical Estates, as they were in the Year 1624, as also that all others of the said Confession of Augsburg, who shall demand it, shall have the free Exercise of their Religion, as well as in publick Churches at the appointed Hours, as in private in their own Houses, or in others chose for this purpose by their Ministers, or by those of their Neighbours, preaching the Word of God.”


Article XXVIII, Treaty of Westphalia


  1. Use the passage above and your knowledge of European history to answer parts A, B, and C.

A) Explain one similarity between the Peace of Augsburg and the Treaty of Westphalia.


B) Explain one difference between the Peace of Augsburg and the Treaty of Westphalia.
C) Briefly explain how the Treaty of Westphalia illustrated a shift in religious policy by political rulers.

Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

OS-3 Explain how political revolution and war from the 17th century on altered the role of the church in political and intellectual life and the response of religious authorities and intellectuals to such challenges.

SP-1 Explain the emergence of civic humanism and new conceptions of political authority during the Renaissance, as well as subsequent theories and practices that stressed the political importance and rights of the individual.

SP-2 Explain the emergence of and theories behind the New Monarchies and absolute monarchies, and evaluate the degree to which they were able to centralize power in their states.

SP-3 Trace the changing relationship between states and ecclesiastical authority and the emergence of the principle of religious toleration.


Historical Causation

Comparison

Interpretation


1.2.I.B


Answer

A) Explanations of ONE similarity between the Peace of Augsburg and the Treaty of Westphalia may include the following:



  • Each agreement attempted to resolve the conflict between Protestants and Catholics within the Holy Roman Empire.

  • Both treaties were forced upon the Emperor after failed attempts to enforce Catholic orthodoxy within the Empire.

  • Both treaties gave the ruler the right to dictate the official religion in his territory.



  1. Explanations of ONE difference between the Peace of Augsburg and the Treaty of Westphalia may include the following:



  • The Treaty of Westphalia addressed the status of Calvinists and other reform groups that were not considered in the Peace of Augsburg.

  • The Treaty of Westphalia provided for the free practice of religion for those Christians who did not follow the religion of their ruler whereas the Peace of Augsburg left only the option to convert or leave.

  • The Treaty of Westphalia included some significant territorial settlements, including the independence of the Netherlands, whereas the Peace of Augsburg was a primarily religious settlement.

C) Explanations of the Treaty of Westphalia as an illustration of changing religious policy may include the following:

  • The Treaty of Westphalia was a first step in outlining the right to free practice of religion.

  • The tenets of the Treaty of Westphalia showed that rulers were losing interest in attempting to enforce religious orthodoxy within their territories as it proved to be an unachievable goal.

  • The Treaty of Westphalia, and the Thirty Years’ War as a whole, showed how political concerns were beginning to outweigh religious concerns in government decision-making.

Question 4 is based on the passage below.

“Now as to the popes of Rome, who pretend themselves Christ’s vicars, if they would but imitate his exemplary life, in the being employed in an unintermitted course of preaching. In the being attended with poverty, nakedness, hunger, and a contempt of this world; if they did but consider the import of the word pope, which signifies a father; or if they did but practice their surname of most holy, what order or degrees of men would be in a worse condition? . . . Though indeed the church has no enemies more bloody and tyrannical than such impious popes, who give dispensations for the not preaching of Christ; evacuate the main effect and design of our redemption by their pecuniary bribes and sales; adulterate the gospel by their forced interpretations, and undermining traditions; and lastly, by their lusts and wickedness grieve the Holy Spirit, and make their Saviour’s wounds to bleed anew.”


Desiderius Erasmus, The Praise of Folly, 1511
4. Use the passage above and your knowledge of European history to answer parts A, B, and C.
A) Explain the point of the passage in the context of religious reform.
B) Briefly explain how a supporter of the criticism in the passage could use ONE piece of evidence from the period to support the need for reform.
C) Briefly explain how an opponent of the view expressed in the passage could use ONE piece of evidence from the period to support the need for reform.


Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

OS-2 Analyze how religious reform in the 16th and 17th centuries, the expansion of printing, and the emergence of civic venues such as salons and coffeehouses challenged the control of the church over the creation and dissemination of knowledge.

OS-11 Explain how and why religion increasingly shifted from a matter of public concern to one of private belief over the course of European history.


Historical Argumentation

Appropriate Use of Relevant Historical Evidence




1.3.I.A

Answer

A) Explanations of the passage in the context of religious reform may include the following:



  • Erasmus criticized the abuses of power and the corruption of Christianity caused by the actions of the impious popes of the Renaissance period.

  • Erasmus, through his criticism of the popes, questioned the reliance of Christianity upon authority and formal Church hierarchy.

  • The impious acts of the popes led to a call for reform, or even abolition, of the papacy.



  1. Explanations of how a supporter of the criticism in the passage could use ONE piece of evidence from the period to support the need for reform may include the following:



  • The sale of Indulgences as approved by various popes of the period was a sign of placing economic gain ahead of the interests of the Church’s followers.

  • The actions of Pope Julius II in leading armies in the conquest of territories in Italy stood in stark contrast to the role of peaceful, spiritual leader that most believers expected from a pope.

  • Pope Alexander VI, through his own actions and those of his Borgia children, impugned the moral integrity of the papacy and showed a thirst for conquest and territorial expansion.

  • The building projects and focus upon the beautification of Rome by the Popes led many to believe they cared more for luxury and wealth than for religion.

C) Explanations of how an opponent of the view expressed in the passage could use ONE piece of evidence from the period to support the need for reform may include the following:

  • Indulgences and the collection of money for the benefit of the Church and papacy were long-standing traditions within the Catholic faith.

  • The turmoil of the Great Schism necessitated that the Popes reassert their temporal and political authority in Italy.

  • The financial exactions of the Church beautified and glorified Rome and God. The works of the renaissance artists, paid for by the Church, did as much or more to inspire the faithful as any sermons.


5. Using your knowledge of European history, answer parts A, B, and C.


  1. Briefly explain ONE feature of Baroque art.




  1. Briefly explain ONE additional feature of Baroque art.

C) Briefly explain how Baroque art reflected religious and political developments in seventeenth-century Europe.




Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

OS-5 Analyze how the development of Renaissance humanism, the printing press, and the scientific method contributed to the emergence of a new theory of knowledge and conception of the universe.

SP-1 Explain the emergence of civic humanism and new conceptions of political authority during the Renaissance, as well as subsequent theories and practices that stressed the political importance and rights of the individual.


Contextualization

Interpretation




1.1.III.C


Answer

A/B) Explanations of TWO features of Baroque art may include the following:



  • Baroque art attempted to inspire awe amongst its observers.

  • Baroque art attempted to engage the viewer as a sort of interactive religious experience.

  • Baroque art attempted to convey the drama of religious scenes that mirrored the drama of contemporary life.

  • The passion of saints and religious events was conveyed to inspire the same emotions in the observers of Baroque art.



  1. Explanations of how Baroque art reflected religious and political developments in seventeenth-century Europe may include the following:




  • Baroque art epitomized the contrast between Protestant and Catholic churches of the seventeenth century. The cold, sterile Protestant churches paled in comparison to the elaborately decorated Catholic churches.

  • To Catholics, the art and adornments of churches was an aid and inspiration to believers while most Protestants viewed such adornments as a distraction from the message of Christianity.

  • The arrival of Baroque art and its adaptation throughout Europe signaled and paralleled the reassertion of traditional Catholic mores throughout all facets of the Catholic experience.

  • Baroque art was part of a larger movement to inspire and awe the congregations of church services. In addition to the lively art work of the Baroque artists, this attempt included impressive music as well as rich and lavish ceremony.

6. Using your knowledge of European history, answer parts A, B, and C.


A) Briefly explain ONE reason Portugal was successful in establishing a commercial empire in the sixteenth century.
B) Briefly explain ONE reason Spain was successful in establishing a commercial empire in the sixteenth century.
C) Briefly explain ONE similarity in the acquisition of commercial empires by Portugal and Spain.


Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

INT-1Assess the relative influence of economic, religious, and political motives in promoting exploration and colonization.

INT-3 Analyze how European states established and administered overseas commercial and territorial empires.

INT-6 Assess the role of overseas trade, labor, and technology in making Europe part of a global economic network and in encouraging the development of new economic theories and state policies.

INT-11 Explain how European expansion and colonization brought non-European societies into global economic, diplomatic, military and cultural networks.

SP-15 Assess the impact of war, diplomacy and overseas exploration and colonization on European diplomacy and balance of power until 1789.

Historical Causation

Interpretation

Comparison


1.4.III.A

Answer

A) Explanations of ONE reason Portugal was successful in establishing a commercial empire in the sixteenth century may include the following:



  • Portugal, due to its limited resources and restricted territory, had no choice but to pursue overseas trade as a means to enrich its kingdom.

  • Portugal possessed inspired leadership, in the form of Prince Henry the Navigator, who promoted, sponsored, and regulated attempts at exploration and trade.

  • The caravel, astrolabe, compass, and quadrant gave the Portuguese the technological means to accomplish their voyages of discovery.

  • The Portuguese practice of establishing trading posts along the African coast on the route to India provided them with resupply points on their route as well as trade goods from those regions.



  1. Explanations of ONE reason Spain was successful in establishing a commercial empire in the sixteenth century may include the following:

  • Spain possessed a larger, more unified kingdom than most of its competitors by the late fifteenth century.

  • The completion of the reconquista, the conquest of the Muslim territories in the Iberian Peninsula, rewarded the Spanish monarchy with an influx of captured wealth and freed up resources for other ventures, namely exploration and trade.

  • The completion of the reconquista closed territorial expansion on the mainland for the Spanish, leaving only overseas expansion as a viable route for territorial and trade growth.

  • The dominance already established over the African trade route by the Portuguese, left only westward as a viable route for reaching the Orient for the Spanish. This route, in the end, had the advantage of no European competition at the time for the Spanish explorers.

  • The Spanish approach of conquest and colonization in the Americas gained greater resources and wealth than could have been gained through trade alone.



  1. Explanations of ONE similarity in the acquisition of commercial empires by Portugal and Spain may include the following.

  • Both Portugal and Spain relied upon the expertise and daring of individual explorers, such as da Gama or Columbus, to accomplish the aims of the monarchy.

  • Both kingdoms succeeded in exploration and trade through their adoption of new navigational technology and techniques.

  • Both the Spanish and Portuguese had no qualms about taking advantage of indigenous peoples in the newly explored territories for the benefit of trade.

7. Using your knowledge of European history, answer parts A, B, and C.




  1. Briefly explain the perspective of Anabaptists in terms of the relationship between church and state.




  1. Briefly explain the perspective of Calvinists in terms of the relationship between church and state.




  1. Evaluate the extent to which the views of groups such as the Anabaptists contributed to change in the social perspective in 16th century Europe.




Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

SP-2 Explain the emergence of and theories behind the New Monarchies and absolute monarchies, and evaluate the degree to which they were able to centralize power in their states.

SP-3 Trace the changing relationship between states and ecclesiastical authority and the emergence of the principle of religious toleration.

SP-11 Analyze how religious and secular institutions and groups attempted to limit monarchical power by articulating theories of resistance to absolutism, and by taking political action.

IS-10 Analyze how and why Europeans have marginalized certain populations (defined as “other”) over the course of their history.

Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time

Periodization




1.3.II.B

Answer

A) Explanations of the perspective of Anabaptists in terms of the relationship between church and state may include the following:



  • Most Anabaptists felt that religion must be separate from political life.

  • Many Anabaptists withdrew from society to establish their own, simpler communities devoid of the corrupting influence of politics and society.

  • Some Anabaptists refused to hold government offices, swear loyalty to any noble or government, or participate in the military.



  1. Analysis of the perspective of Calvinists in terms of the relationship between church and state may include the following:

  • Calvinists thought that religion should in no way be subordinate to the state.

  • Most Calvinists inverted the relationship and felt that the state must be subordinate to the precepts of religion.

  • Under Calvin’s leadership, Geneva became essentially a theocracy ruled by Calvin and other church leaders and governed by the laws of religion rather than society.

  • Calvinist Geneva’s governmental/religious leaders restricted everything from dancing and song through the normal range of civil crimes.



  1. Analysis of the extent to which the views of groups such as the Anabaptists contributed to change in the social perspective in 16th century Europe may include the following:

  • The views of radical reformers of the 16th century reversed the trend of subordinating the church to the aims of political leaders as seen in some of the Protestant principalities as well as England under Henry VIII.

  • Those reformers who sought to subordinate politics to religious leaders were inadvertently continuing the policies the popes had been advocating for centuries.

  • The desire to separate church and state was a radical departure from social and political norms of the Middle Ages.

  • Those reform groups which withdrew from society to form uncorrupted communities were continuing in the traditional and ideals of many monastic orders which had preceded them.

8. Using your knowledge of European history, answer parts A, B, and C.




  1. Briefly explain ONE economic or demographic issue that led to the rise of the African slave trade by the mid seventeenth century.




  1. Briefly explain ONE justification for the African slave trade supported by Europeans at that time.



  1. Evaluate ONE impact that the expansion of slavery had on 17th century European colonial society.




Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

INT-5 Evaluate the impact of the Columbian Exchange—the global exchange of goods, plants, animals and microbes—on Europe’s economy, society and culture.

INT-6 Assess the role of overseas trade, labor, and technology in making Europe part of a global economic network and in encouraging the development of new economic theories and state policies.

INT-7 Analyze how contact with non-European peoples increased European cultural and social diversity, and affected attitudes toward race.

INT-9 Assess the role of European contact on overseas territories through the introduction of disease, the participation in the slave trade and slavery, effects on agricultural and manufacturing patterns, and global conflict.

INT-11 Explain how European expansion and colonization brought non-European societies into global economic, diplomatic, military and cultural networks.

PP-1 Explain how and why wealth generated from new trading, financial, and manufacturing practices and institutions created a market and then a consumer economy.

IS-7 Evaluate how identities such as ethnicity, race, and class have defined the individual in relationship to society.


Contextualization

Interpretation




1.4.IV.C

Answer

A) Explanations of ONE economic or demographic issue that necessitated the rise of the African slave trade by the mid-17th century may include the following:



  • Portugal lacked the population to exploit and develop the territories it seized during exploration. This required acquisition of slaves to work the plantations of new Portuguese colonies.

  • The Portuguese, and later Dutch, viewed the population of Africa as one more resource to be gained and sold to profit their commercial empires.

  • In the territories conquered by the Spanish, the decimation of native populations, by warfare and disease led to a need for a new labor supply to work the mines and plantations of the new Spanish colonies.

  • The relatively small number of Portuguese and Spanish settlers that moved to the New World necessitated a new source from which to inflate the population of their colonies.

  • Slavery provided the essential workforce to keep the growing international economy flourishing.

B) Explanations of ONE justification for the African slave trade supported by Europeans at that time may include the following:

  • Slavery provided the essential workforce to keep the growing international economy flourishing and, thus, was a necessary evil.

  • Some Europeans justified slavery upon religious grounds, that black-skinned people were condemned to slavery.

  • Most Europeans viewed Africans as uncivilized, and some even sub-human, and therefore not entitled to the rights or protections of civilized society.

  • Some Europeans viewed African slaves as conquered peoples and subject to the treatment of defeated foes as had been carried out for eons. In essence, this was an approach of “might makes right”; the Europeans could seize and enslave Africans and therefore it was justified.

C) Analysis of the impact that the expansion of slavery had on 17th century European colonial society may include the following:



  • The introduction of large numbers of slaves forced Europeans to re-evaluate their place in society in terms of race, which inevitably led to Europeans’ declaring themselves superior to the inhabitants of the Americas and Africa.

  • The rise of slavery introduced a new stratum to the European class system, one that even the poorest working class citizens could view as below them.

  • The work of slaves helped to elevate the income and, therefore, opulence of the European mercantile and ruling classes.

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