Section I time—55 minutes 80 Questions Directions

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Section I

Time—55 minutes

80 Questions
Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case.

  1. The most outstanding social effect of the development of a division of labor system of production was

    1. increased volume of manufactured goods

    2. unemployment or decreased wages for skilled craftsman

    3. increased profits for manufacturers

    4. increased efficiency

    5. decreased volume of manufactured goods

  2. The development of the Bessemer process was significant because it

    1. doubled cotton production

    2. facilitated the move away from human and water power

    3. shifted the balance of military power in the nineteenth century

    4. allowed for the manufacture of iron and steel more cheaply and in larger quantities

    5. doubled the speed with which goods could be transported

  3. Throughout the Industrial Revolution, the country that held the lead in innovation and industrial production was

    1. Russia

    2. France

    3. Germany

    4. Great Britain

    5. Holland

  4. Of the nineteenth-century ideologies, the one that most staunchly defended the institution of monarchy was

    1. conservatism

    2. liberalism

    3. socialism

    4. communism

    5. anarchism

  5. The doctrine of laissez-faire, often attributed to the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith, argued that

    1. people should be able to do whatever they want

    2. Scotland should be free of English rule

    3. governments should not try to interfere with the natural workings of an economy

    4. welfare laws would retard the evolution of human society

    5. imperial expansion was a necessary outcome of natural laws

  6. Utilitarians differed from other liberals in their

    1. support of tradition

    2. emphasis on individual liberty

    3. tendency to be more supportive of government intervention

    4. call for the abolition of private property

    5. advocacy of violence

  7. Which of the following was a tenet of Martin Luther's theology?

    1. salvation through good works

    2. Church tradition as a source of knowledge about God

    3. predestination

    4. millenarianism

    5. salvation by faith alone

  8. The greatest significance of the Council of Trent for the history of Europe was

    1. its triumph over Protestantism

    2. its successful reform of the Roman Church

    3. its pledge, on the part of the German princes, not to go to war over religion

    4. that it signified a defeat for those who wished for reconciliation between Protestants and the Roman Church

    5. that it served as an anti-Protestant force all over the globe

  9. The relative peace of the Restoration Period in England broke down when

    1. Oliver Cromwell died

    2. James II ascended to the throne

    3. Charles II ascended to the throne

    4. Elizabeth I ascended to the throne

    5. a Protestant fleet invaded from the Netherlands

  10. The degree of absolutism achieved by the seventeenth-century Bourbon monarchy in France is best explained by

    1. the relatively low degree of religious turmoil in seventeenth-century France

    2. the fact that seventeenth-century France was a republic

    3. the series of "little ice ages" that characterized the climate of the 1600s

    4. the availability of cheap housing for the rural poor

    5. the brilliance of Louis XIV

  11. The baroque style was popular in buildings built by

    1. the aristocratic class only

    2. all the classes of eighteenth-century Europe

    3. absolute monarchs of seventeenth-century Europe

    4. the lower classes

    5. the bourgeoisie of nineteenth-century Europe

  12. In early-twentieth-century Britain, the organization that advocated a broader notion of women's rights was the

    1. Women's Social and Political Union

    2. Fabian Society

    3. Social Democrats

    4. National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies

    5. Zionists

  13. In Britain, the political party that made the largest gains in the first decade of the twentieth century was the

    1. Conservative Party

    2. Liberal Party

    3. Labour Party

    4. British Union of Fascists

    5. Democratic Party

  14. Which of the following was a serious problem faced by the government of the Weimar Republic?

    1. Its form was largely alien to the German people.

    2. It was perceived to have been imposed on Germany by its vengeful war enemies.

    3. It was blamed for the humiliating nature of the Treaty of Versailles.

    4. It was faced with insurmountable economic problems.

    5. All of the above.

  15. Lenin's plan to allow small-scale private enterprise in order to stimulate the Russian economy was known as

    1. the five-year plan

    2. the New Economic Plan

    3. the Soviet Constitution of 1923

    4. socialism in one country

    5. the collectivization of agriculture

  16. Of the following, which is true of the fascists' rise to power in Italy?

    1. They seized power illegally through a military coup.

    2. They appealed to the working classes by promising to abolish private property and bring about a classless society.

    3. They gathered massive public support by opposing the socialists and giving a sense of purpose to the disillusioned and unemployed.

    4. They were opposed by the Church.

    5. They were opposed by industrialists who feared that the fascists would nationalize industry.

  17. The settlement which followed World War II differed from that which followed World War I because

    1. It blamed Germany for the war.

    2. It was a settlement imposed by the victors.

    3. It dismantled the Hapsburg Empire.

    4. It created national boundaries that ignored significant ethnic and nationalist differences.

    5. There was no formal treaty or series of treaties signifying formal acceptance of the settlement.

  18. The Risorgimento failed because

    1. it failed to attract intellectuals

    2. it was not sufficiently nationalist

    3. it failed to win the support of the masses

    4. it failed to win German support

    5. the military was not strong enough

  19. The successful nineteenth-century drive for unification in Germany differed from that in Italy in which of the following ways?

    1. It was led by a conservative aristocrat.

    2. It was free of direct foreign domination.

    3. It sought to rally support around a popular monarch.

    4. Its strategy was characterized by opportunism.

    5. It required the provocation of war.

  20. European imperialism in Asia differed from that in Africa in which of the following ways?

    1. It lacked economic motives.

    2. It was facilitated by technological innovations in weaponry and transportation.

    3. It was connected to nationalism.

    4. It was connected to the development of mass politics.

    5. It was exerted through control of local elites.

  21. The term "Détente" refers to

    1. the efforts of Czechoslovakian communists to reform their society in 1968

    2. the post–World War II division of Europe into a West of United States–backed Western powers and an East dominated by the Soviet Union

    3. the 51-member international organization created to promote international peace and cooperation

    4. the U.S. mission to fly supplies into West Berlin in response to a Soviet shutdown of supply lines

    5. a period of U.S.–Soviet relations characterized by a number of nuclear test-ban treaties and arms-limitation talks

  22. The Warsaw Pact

    1. was a military alliance among the countries of Eastern Europe

    2. formed a military alliance between Poland and Russia

    3. offered economic assistance to the countries of Eastern Europe

    4. was a military alliance between the United States and Western European powers

    5. offered military and economic aid to countries threatened by communist takeover

  23. The theory which came to be known as Copernicanism

    1. argued that each piece of matter in the universe was attracted to every other particle of matter by a universally operating force.

    2. promoted a geocentric model of the cosmos

    3. declared that all matter was made up of four elements

    4. promoted a heliocentric model of the cosmos

    5. argued that the universe was infinite

  24. Mary Wollstonecraft's criticism, in 1792, of the subjugation of women in European society on the grounds that the subjugation was irrational identifies her as

    1. a conservative

    2. an Enlightenment philosophe

    3. a socialist

    4. an anarchist

    5. a suffragist

  25. "Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains." This quotation summarizes the view of human nature of

    1. John Locke

    2. Martin Luther

    3. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    4. Voltaire

    5. Jeremy Bentham

  26. The Middle Passage refers to

    1. Scripture

    2. the shipping channel that connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea

    3. the advent of rural manufacturing

    4. the route to China that was the backbone of the silk trade

    5. the transportation of African slaves across the Atlantic to the Americas and the West Indies

  27. Which of the following was NOT a way in which European armies changed in the eighteenth century?

    1. They became larger.

    2. The discipline and training became harsher and more extensive.

    3. The officer corps became full-time servants of the state.

    4. Troops came to consist predominantly of conscripts.

    5. The officer corps were chosen and promoted on the basis of merit.

  28. The decision by the representatives of the Third Estate to declare themselves, on 17 June 1789, to be the National Assembly of France signified

    1. their intention to form a republic

    2. their belief that political sovereignty belonged to the nation as a whole

    3. their intention to overthrow the monarchy

    4. their belief in democracy

    5. their willingness to go to war with Germany

  29. The agreement signed by Napoleon and the pope that stipulated that French clergy would be chosen and paid by the French state but consecrated by the pope is known as the

    1. Concordat of 1801

    2. Napoleonic Code

    3. Consulate

    4. Treaty of Tilsit

    5. Continental System

  30. The principle of "he who rules; his religion" was established by

    1. the Edict of Nantes

    2. the Papacy in Rome

    3. the Geneva Convention

    4. the Peace of Augsburg in 1555

    5. the Inquisition

  31. Which of the following were part of the structure of Calvinist communities?

    1. pastors

    2. doctors

    3. deacons

    4. elders

    5. all of the above

  32. The period of British history 1649–1660, in which Britain was ruled without a monarch, is known as

    1. the Restoration

    2. the Glorious Revolution

    3. the Commonwealth

    4. the English Civil War

    5. the Norman Conquest

  33. Neoplatonism was an important component of the Scientific Revolution because

    1. it encouraged the development of a tradition of chemical experimentation

    2. it promoted the scientific method

    3. it argued that scientific knowledge had practical implications

    4. it denied the existence of God

    5. it stimulated interest in a mathematical approach to the investigation of the natural world

  34. In Crime and Punishment (1764), the Italian philosopher Cesare Beccaria extended the Enlightenment line of thought by arguing that

    1. the purpose of punishment should be to rehabilitate and reintegrate the individual into society

    2. an all-powerful ruler was necessary to keep order and prevent crime

    3. the death penalty should be abolished

    4. the punishment for crimes should be standard in all kingdoms

    5. society corrupts human nature, which is naturally good

  35. The significance of the Masons in eighteenthcentury Europe was

    1. their impact on the architecture of the period

    2. their plot to assassinate the pope

    3. that they provided a home for revolutionary plots

    4. that their lodges formed a network for the communication for new ideas and ideals

    5. the reform of currency they carried out

  36. Which of the following were factors in the breaking of the traditional population cycle in eighteenth-century Europe?

    1. the Black Death

    2. the Hundred Years War

    3. the development of heavy industry

    4. the development of rural manufacturing

    5. the advent of steam power

  37. Which of the following helps to account for the death of the liberal–nationalist alliance in nineteenth-century Europe?

    1. the liberals' emphasis on individual liberty

    2. the nationalists' tendency to mythologize the past

    3. the liberals' emphasis on limited government

    4. the failure of the liberals to hold and use the power they had seized at the beginning of 1848

    5. all of the above

  38. Bismarck's strategy of increasing Prussia's power by whatever means and strategies were necessary and useful has come to be known as

    1. détente

    2. Lebensraum

    3. Realpolitik

    4. the Schlieffen Plan

    5. the Kulturkampf

  39. The radical break with tradition and convention ushered in by the French Revolution was experienced in the world of art through

    1. the development of impressionism

    2. a rejection of realism

    3. the re-adoption of religious subject matter

    4. the rejection of the dominant rococo aesthetic in favor of a neoclassical style

    5. works like Caravaggio's Calling of St. Matthew and Conversion of St. Peter

  40. Which of the following did NOT contribute to the outbreak of World War I?

    1. the Anglo-German rivalry

    2. the Alliance System

    3. the rise of a unified Germany as an industrial and military power in Europe

    4. German military planning

    5. the remilitarization of the Rhineland

  41. In late-nineteenth-century France, the Dreyfus affair illustrated

    1. the weakness of French nationalism

    2. the strength of ultranationalist and anti- Semitic sentiment in the French establishment

    3. the subjugation of women in French society

    4. France's lack of military preparation

    5. France's desire for war with Germany

ap european history practice test 1

  1. The above propaganda poster from the period 1917–1920

    1. depicts Germans mistreating Russian Army prisoners

    2. illustrates Stalin's collectivization of agriculture

    3. depicts Stalin purging his political enemies

    4. depicts Trotsky as a Jewish devil and Bolsheviks as foreigners

    5. illustrates the atrocities of the Holocaust

  2. The most significant aspect of the social composition of the Renaissance art world was

    1. the high degree of women's participation in it

    2. its apprentice system

    3. the large proportion of artists who came from the elite classes

    4. the lack of a patronage system

    5. the high degree of specialization that was demanded

  3. In France, England, and Spain the Renaissance was centered in

    1. the great independent city-states

    2. the royal courts

    3. small independent religious communities

    4. the great universities

    5. all of the above

  4. The Anglican Church, as created by Henry VIII, differed from other Protestant churches in that it

    1. was congregational

    2. remained loyal to Rome

    3. had an episcopal structure

    4. broke with Rome

    5. abolished the sacraments

  5. The landholding nobles of Central and Eastern Europe differed from those in Western Europe in the period 1600–1715 in that they

    1. were drastically reduced in number

    2. made an alliance with the middle classes

    3. triumphed in their struggle with the monarchs

    4. lost control of their lands

    5. retained control of vast estates worked by serfs

  6. The publication, in 1632, of the Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World resulted in Galileo being called before the Inquisition because

    1. it described the Copernican system

    2. it blatantly ridiculed the Aristotelian system in the vernacular Italian

    3. it denied the existence of God

    4. it was a Protestant text

    5. it claimed that the Copernican system was actually true

  7. Enlightened despotism refers to

    1. the idea that powerful rulers would act to reform and rationalize European society

    2. Prussian militarism

    3. the rule of law

    4. the extensive, international correspondence network of the philosophes

    5. a network of fraternities linked together by a Grand Lodge

  8. The enclosure movement in Britain was most directly a result of

    1. the development of the manorial system

    2. the failure of mercantilism

    3. the collectivization of agriculture

    4. the development of the Bessemer process

    5. the development of market-oriented agriculture

  9. In the French Revolution, the March to Versailles that occurred in October of 1789 illustrates

    1. the conservative nature of the sans-culottes

    2. the power of the French army

    3. the beginning of the radical phase of the revolution

    4. the fact that the crowds of Paris did not yet look upon Louis XVI as their enemy

    5. the brilliance of Napoleon as a military leader

  10. The celebratory mood at the outset of World War I is best explained by

    1. a fascination with militarism that pervaded European culture

    2. feelings of fraternity or brotherhood that a war effort brought out in people who lived in an increasingly fragmented and divided society

    3. a sense of romantic adventurism that cast war as an alternative to the mundane, working life of industrial Europe

    4. expectations that the war would be short

    5. all of the above

  11. American entry into World War I was mostly triggered by

    1. America's economic rivalry with Germany

    2. America's desire to seize German colonies

    3. the sinking of American vessels by German U-boats

    4. the fall of Paris to the Germans

    5. the Zimmerman Note

  12. Abstractionist painters of the early twentieth century

    1. sought to depict a world of emotional and psychological states

    2. sought to accurately and honestly render the life around them in meticulous detail

    3. sought to "analyze" the essence of perception and experience

    4. sought to evoke the glory and power of ancient Rome

    5. sought to reflect the grandeur of the aristocracy

  13. Which of the following helps to explain the British policy of appeasement of Germany during the 1930s?

    1. The British public wanted no part of renewed hostilities.

    2. Many of the British leaders privately agreed with the Germans that the Versailles Treaty had been unprecedented and unwarranted.

    3. British leaders believed that a decision to pursue a military response to Hitler's demands was politically unwise.

    4. Britain and her allies were not prepared militarily to back up any ultimatums they might give to Hitler.

    5. All of the above.

  14. Which of the following did NOT occur following World War II?

    1. Germany was divided into Western and Eastern Sectors.

    2. Germany, in what came to be known as "the war guilt clause," was forced to accept full blame for the war

    3. Poland's border with Germany was pushed westward.

    4. The United Nations was created.

    5. Pro-Soviet governments were installed in Eastern Europe.

  15. The treatment received by Alexander Solzhenitsyn illustrated the Soviet regime's

    1. preference for technocratic expertise

    2. total immunity to pressure from the West

    3. insistence on absolute conformity

    4. new, more democratic policies

    5. commitment to glasnost

  16. The main motivation of the architects of the process of European integration that has culminated in the European Union was to

    1. stand on more equal footing with the superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union

    2. end communism

    3. rebuild a war-torn economy

    4. increase iron and steel production

    5. all of the above

  17. The most prevalent form of religious belief among the philosophes was

    1. Catholicism

    2. Lutheranism

    3. Islam

    4. deism

    5. atheism

  18. Which of the following was NOT a component of the triangle of trade?

    1. guns

    2. silk

    3. cotton

    4. timber

    5. slaves

  19. The cottage industry or putting-out system that had a dramatic effect on European economic and social life in the eighteenth century primarily produced

    1. steel

    2. iron

    3. cotton

    4. guns

    5. textiles

  20. During the French Revolution, Robespierre asserted that terror was necessary because

    1. there was no God

    2. the revolution fought against genuine tyranny

    3. the aims of the revolution were virtuous

    4. the people were not loyal

    5. the king had betrayed the people

  21. The Frankfort Assembly's decision in 1848 to offer Frederick William IV of Prussia the crown of a united Germany illustrates

    1. the power of parliamentary traditions in Germany

    2. the weakness of the Germany monarchy

    3. the role of liberalism in the unification of Germany

    4. the tension between liberalism and nationalism in mid-nineteenth-century Europe

    5. the charisma of Frederick William IV

  22. The advantage of electrical power over steam power that came to be exploited towards the end of the nineteenth century was the

    1. speed of electricity

    2. reliability of electrical power

    3. greater versatility and ease of transportation of electrical generators

    4. cheaper cost of electrical power

    5. greater energy output of electrical generators

  23. Which of the following was an outgrowth of the strain of thought known as social Darwinism?

    1. eugenics

    2. poor relief

    3. workhouses

    4. child labor laws

    5. women's suffrage

  24. In order to increase the power of the newly unified Spanish monarchy, Ferdinand and Isabella

    1. instituted liberal reforms

    2. bought the loyalty of the Spanish nobility by strengthening the institution of serfdom

    3. allowed Protestantism to flourish in Spain

    4. signed an alliance with Britain and France

    5. used the Church to build national unity

  25. The work of art that both captures the emphasis on human form and illustrates the last and most heroic phase of Renaissance art is

    1. Giotto's Life of St. Francis

    2. Picasso's Guernica

    3. Donatello's David

    4. Michelangelo's David

    5. St Peter's Basilica

  26. After the publication of Newton's Principia Mathematica in 1687,

    1. mathematics became the "queen of the sciences"

    2. people spoke of a universe instead of a cosmos

    3. it was known that Jupiter had four moons

    4. it was understood that the cosmos was geocentric

    5. Newton was condemned by the Catholic Church

  27. The Enyclopedia of the late eighteenth century was considered radical because it

    1. was printed in English rather than Latin

    2. was the first multivolume publication

    3. labeled anything not based on reason as superstition

    4. called for a revolution and overthrow of the monarchy

    5. was a Protestant encyclopedia

  28. Russia participated in the expansionist trend of the late eighteenth century by

    1. defeating the Ottoman Turks in 1774

    2. single-handedly conquering Poland in 1775

    3. invading Prussia in 1770

    4. enacting the Pragmatic Sanction

    5. invading Finland in 1774

  29. The event most responsible for turning the people of Paris against Louis XVI was

    1. his attempt to flee Paris in June of 1791

    2. his decision to execute Robespierre

    3. his decision to raise taxes

    4. his decision to crush the Paris Commune

    5. his decision to issue the Civil Constitution of the Clergy

  30. The Boulanger Affair in the late 1880s

    1. testified to the strength of anti-Semitism in France

    2. led to the fall of the Second Republic

    3. was evidence of the radical nature of the French working class

    4. led to the election of a socialist popular front

    5. underscored the fragility of French democracy and the volatility of mass politics in France

  31. The Sepoy Rebellion of 1857

    1. was a vast nationalist uprising

    2. demonstrated anti-Western sentiment in China

    3. drove the British from Burma

    4. led the British government to begin to rule India directly

    5. led the British to concentrate on bringing liberal reforms to India

  32. The Taiping Rebellion is connected to European history because

    1. the rebels were demanding Western-style reform

    2. it was a result of the Russo-Japanese war

    3. Western encroachment undermined the power of the ruling dynasty

    4. it was caused by fighting in World War II

    5. the rebels were acting at the instigation of Westerners

  33. In the interwar years, the reconstituted nations of East-Central Europe, Hungary, Poland, and Yugoslavia,

    1. flourished economically

    2. became satellite states of the Soviet Union

    3. ceased to exist

    4. came to be ruled by right-wing, authoritarian regimes

    5. were ruled by liberal-democratic parliaments

  34. The German election of 1932 was significant because

    1. it brought a socialist coalition to power

    2. the Nazi Party won 35 percent of the vote

    3. Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany

    4. a coalition of right-wing parties was elected

    5. it was never held; Hitler seized power in order to prevent an expected socialist victory

  35. The Marshall Plan of 1947 demonstrates that the U.S. was

    1. an imperialist country

    2. fearful of Soviet military expansion into Western Europe

    3. mindful of the role that economic hopelessness had played in the rise of fascism

    4. ready to enter World War II

    5. fearful of Germany rising again

ap european history practice test 1

  1. Which of the following is connoted by the cartoon above?

    1. support for the women's suffrage movement

    2. skepticism about claims that marriage abuses many women

    3. the need for child labor laws

    4. the need for the protection of abused women

    5. the need for a larger police force

  2. Which of the following accurately illustrates the reciprocal nature of innovation in the Second Industrial Revolution?

    1. the increase in the demand for coal created by the introduction of steam power

    2. the demand for more and improved steam engines created by the development of the iron and steel industries

    3. the need for a railway system to transport iron and steel

    4. the increased demand for iron and steel created by the development of the railroad

    5. all of the above

  3. In the first decades of the twentieth century, the "nationalities problem" referred to

    1. the absence of an international organization to coordinate diplomacy

    2. the Anglo-German arms race

    3. the rise of ultranationalist parties

    4. the agitation of linguistic and ethnic minorities within the Hapsburg Empire

    5. the agitation of southern Slavs for independence from the Russian Empire

  4. Fritz Lang's film Metropolis (1925) illustrates

    1. the feeling of gaiety that permeated "the Roaring Twenties"

    2. the futuristic style of architecture that was prevalent in the interwar years

    3. the deep anxiety over the future that existed in the 1920s

    4. the Romantic sensibilities of the era

    5. the year for the pastoral that characterized the films of the era

STOP. End of Section I

Section II

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