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Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case.
The most outstanding social effect of the development of a division of labor system of production was
increased volume of manufactured goods
unemployment or decreased wages for skilled craftsman
increased profits for manufacturers
decreased volume of manufactured goods
The development of the Bessemer process was significant because it
doubled cotton production
facilitated the move away from human and water power
shifted the balance of military power in the nineteenth century
allowed for the manufacture of iron and steel more cheaply and in larger quantities
doubled the speed with which goods could be transported
Throughout the Industrial Revolution, the country that held the lead in innovation and industrial production was
Of the nineteenth-century ideologies, the one that most staunchly defended the institution of monarchy was
The doctrine of
, often attributed to the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith, argued that
people should be able to do whatever they want
Scotland should be free of English rule
governments should not try to interfere with the natural workings of an economy
welfare laws would retard the evolution of human society
imperial expansion was a necessary outcome of natural laws
Utilitarians differed from other liberals in their
support of tradition
emphasis on individual liberty
tendency to be more supportive of government intervention
call for the abolition of private property
advocacy of violence
Which of the following was a tenet of Martin Luther's theology?
salvation through good works
Church tradition as a source of knowledge about God
salvation by faith alone
The greatest significance of the Council of Trent for the history of Europe was
its triumph over Protestantism
its successful reform of the Roman Church
its pledge, on the part of the German princes, not
to go to war over religion
that it signified a defeat for those who wished for reconciliation between Protestants and the Roman Church
that it served as an anti-Protestant force all over the globe
The relative peace of the Restoration Period in England broke down when
Oliver Cromwell died
James II ascended to the throne
Charles II ascended to the throne
Elizabeth I ascended to the throne
a Protestant fleet invaded from the Netherlands
The degree of absolutism achieved by the seventeenth-century Bourbon monarchy in France is best explained by
the relatively low degree of religious turmoil in seventeenth-century France
the fact that seventeenth-century France was a republic
the series of "little ice ages" that characterized the climate of the 1600s
the availability of cheap housing for the rural poor
the brilliance of Louis XIV
The baroque style was popular in buildings built by
the aristocratic class only
all the classes of eighteenth-century Europe
absolute monarchs of seventeenth-century Europe
the lower classes
the bourgeoisie of nineteenth-century Europe
In early-twentieth-century Britain, the organization that advocated a broader notion of women's rights was the
Women's Social and Political Union
National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies
In Britain, the political party that made the largest gains in the first decade of the twentieth century was the
British Union of Fascists
Which of the following was a serious problem faced by the government of the Weimar Republic?
Its form was largely alien to the German people.
It was perceived to have been imposed on Germany by its vengeful war enemies.
It was blamed for the humiliating nature of the Treaty of Versailles.
It was faced with insurmountable economic problems.
All of the above.
Lenin's plan to allow small-scale private enterprise in order to stimulate the Russian economy was known as
the five-year plan
the New Economic Plan
the Soviet Constitution of 1923
socialism in one country
the collectivization of agriculture
Of the following, which is true of the fascists' rise to power in Italy?
They seized power illegally through a military coup.
They appealed to the working classes by promising to abolish private property and bring about a classless society.
They gathered massive public support by opposing the socialists and giving a sense of purpose to the disillusioned and unemployed.
They were opposed by the Church.
They were opposed by industrialists who feared that the fascists would nationalize industry.
The settlement which followed World War II differed from that which followed World War I because
It blamed Germany for the war.
It was a settlement imposed by the victors.
It dismantled the Hapsburg Empire.
It created national boundaries that ignored significant ethnic and nationalist differences.
There was no formal treaty or series of treaties signifying formal acceptance of the settlement.
it failed to attract intellectuals
it was not sufficiently nationalist
it failed to win the support of the masses
it failed to win German support
was not strong enough
The successful nineteenth-century drive for unification in Germany differed from that in Italy in which of the following ways?
It was led by a conservative aristocrat.
It was free of direct foreign domination.
It sought to rally support around a popular monarch.
Its strategy was characterized by opportunism.
It required the provocation of war.
European imperialism in Asia differed from that in Africa in which of the following ways?
It lacked economic motives.
It was facilitated by technological innovations in weaponry and transportation.
It was connected to nationalism.
It was connected to the development of mass politics.
It was exerted through control of local elites.
The term "Détente" refers to
the efforts of Czechoslovakian communists to reform their society in 1968
the post–World War II division of Europe into a West of United States–backed Western powers and an East dominated by the Soviet Union
the 51-member international organization created to promote international peace and cooperation
the U.S. mission to fly supplies into West Berlin in response to a Soviet shutdown of supply lines
a period of U.S.–Soviet relations characterized by a number of nuclear test-ban treaties and arms-limitation talks
The Warsaw Pact
was a military alliance among the countries of Eastern Europe
formed a military alliance between Poland and Russia
offered economic assistance to the countries of Eastern Europe
was a military alliance between the United States and Western European powers
offered military and economic aid to countries threatened by communist takeover
The theory which came to be known as Copernicanism
argued that each piece of matter in the universe was attracted to every other particle of matter by a universally operating force.
promoted a geocentric model of the cosmos
declared that all matter was made up of four elements
promoted a heliocentric model of the cosmos
argued that the universe was infinite
Mary Wollstonecraft's criticism, in 1792, of the subjugation of women in European society on the grounds that the subjugation was irrational identifies her as
"Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains." This quotation summarizes the view of human nature of
The Middle Passage refers to
the shipping channel that connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea
the advent of rural manufacturing
the route to China that was the backbone of the silk trade
the transportation of African slaves across the Atlantic to the Americas and the West Indies
Which of the following was NOT a way in which European armies changed in the eighteenth century?
They became larger.
The discipline and training became harsher and more extensive.
The officer corps became full-time servants of the state.
Troops came to consist predominantly of conscripts.
The officer corps were chosen and promoted on the basis of merit.
The decision by the representatives of the Third Estate to declare themselves, on 17 June 1789, to be the National Assembly of France signified
their intention to form a republic
their belief that political sovereignty belonged to the nation as a whole
their intention to overthrow the monarchy
their belief in democracy
to go to war with Germany
The agreement signed by Napoleon and the pope that stipulated that French clergy would be chosen and paid by the French state but consecrated by the pope is known as the
Concordat of 1801
Treaty of Tilsit
The principle of "he who rules; his religion" was established by
the Edict of Nantes
the Papacy in Rome
the Geneva Convention
the Peace of Augsburg in 1555
Which of the following were part of the structure of Calvinist communities?
all of the above
The period of British history 1649–1660, in which Britain was ruled without a monarch, is known as
the Glorious Revolution
the English Civil War
the Norman Conquest
Neoplatonism was an important component of the Scientific Revolution because
it encouraged the development of a tradition of chemical experimentation
it promoted the scientific method
it argued that scientific knowledge had practical implications
it denied the existence of God
it stimulated interest in a mathematical approach to the investigation of the natural world
Crime and Punishment
(1764), the Italian philosopher Cesare Beccaria extended the Enlightenment line of thought by arguing that
the purpose of punishment should be to rehabilitate and reintegrate the individual into society
an all-powerful ruler was necessary to keep order and prevent crime
the death penalty should be abolished
the punishment for crimes should be standard in all kingdoms
society corrupts human nature, which is naturally good
The significance of the Masons in eighteenthcentury Europe was
their impact on the architecture of the period
their plot to assassinate the pope
that they provided a home for revolutionary plots
that their lodges formed a network for the communication for new ideas and ideals
the reform of currency they carried out
Which of the following were factors in the breaking of the traditional population cycle in eighteenth-century Europe?
the Black Death
the Hundred Years War
development of heavy industry
the development of rural manufacturing
the advent of steam power
Which of the following helps to account for the death of the liberal–nationalist alliance in nineteenth-century Europe?
the liberals' emphasis on individual liberty
the nationalists' tendency to mythologize the past
the liberals' emphasis on limited government
the failure of the liberals to hold and use the power they had seized at the beginning of 1848
all of the above
Bismarck's strategy of increasing Prussia's power by whatever means and strategies were necessary and useful has come to be known as
the Schlieffen Plan
The radical break with tradition and convention ushered in by the French Revolution was experienced in the world of art through
the development of impressionism
a rejection of realism
the re-adoption of religious subject matter
the rejection of the dominant rococo aesthetic in favor of a neoclassical style
works like Caravaggio's
Calling of St. Matthew
Conversion of St. Peter
Which of the following did NOT contribute to the outbreak of World War I?
the Anglo-German rivalry
the Alliance System
the rise of a unified Germany as an industrial and military power in Europe
German military planning
the remilitarization of the Rhineland
In late-nineteenth-century France, the Dreyfus affair illustrated
the weakness of French nationalism
the strength of ultranationalist and anti- Semitic sentiment in the French establishment
the subjugation of women in French society
France's lack of military preparation
France's desire for war with Germany
The above propaganda poster from the period 1917–1920
depicts Germans mistreating Russian Army prisoners
illustrates Stalin's collectivization of agriculture
depicts Stalin purging his political enemies
depicts Trotsky as a Jewish devil and Bolsheviks as foreigners
illustrates the atrocities of the Holocaust
The most significant aspect of the social composition of the Renaissance art world was
the high degree of women's participation in it
its apprentice system
the large proportion of artists who came from the elite classes
the lack of a patronage system
the high degree of specialization that was demanded
In France, England, and Spain the Renaissance was centered in
the great independent city-states
small independent religious communities
the great universities
all of the above
The Anglican Church, as created by Henry VIII, differed from other Protestant churches in that it
remained loyal to Rome
had an episcopal structure
broke with Rome
abolished the sacraments
The landholding nobles of Central and Eastern Europe differed from those in Western Europe in the period 1600–1715 in that they
were drastically reduced in number
made an alliance with the middle classes
triumphed in their struggle with the monarchs
lost control of their lands
retained control of vast estates worked by serfs
The publication, in 1632, of the
Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World
resulted in Galileo being called before the Inquisition because
it described the Copernican system
it blatantly ridiculed the Aristotelian system in the vernacular Italian
it denied the existence of God
it was a Protestant text
it claimed that the Copernican system was actually true
Enlightened despotism refers to
the idea that powerful rulers would act to reform and rationalize European society
the rule of law
the extensive, international correspondence network of the
a network of fraternities linked together by a Grand Lodge
The enclosure movement in Britain was most directly a result of
the development of the manorial system
the failure of mercantilism
the collectivization of agriculture
the development of the Bessemer process
the development of market-oriented agriculture
the French Revolution
, the March to Versailles that occurred in October of 1789 illustrates
the conservative nature of the
the power of the French army
the beginning of the radical phase of the revolution
the fact that the crowds of Paris did not yet look upon Louis XVI as their enemy
the brilliance of Napoleon as a military leader
The celebratory mood at the outset of World War I is best explained by
a fascination with militarism that pervaded European culture
feelings of fraternity or brotherhood that a war effort brought out in people who lived in an increasingly fragmented and divided society
a sense of romantic adventurism that cast war as an alternative to the mundane, working life of industrial Europe
expectations that the war would be short
all of the above
American entry into World War I was mostly triggered by
America's economic rivalry with Germany
America's desire to seize German colonies
the sinking of American vessels by German U-boats
the fall of Paris to the Germans
the Zimmerman Note
Abstractionist painters of the early twentieth century
sought to depict a world of emotional and psychological states
sought to accurately and honestly render the life around them in meticulous detail
sought to "analyze" the essence of perception and experience
sought to evoke the glory and power of ancient Rome
sought to reflect the grandeur of the aristocracy
Which of the following helps to explain the British policy of appeasement of Germany during the 1930s?
The British public wanted no part of renewed hostilities.
Many of the British leaders privately agreed with the Germans that the Versailles Treaty had been unprecedented and unwarranted.
British leaders believed that a decision to pursue a military response to Hitler's demands was politically unwise.
Britain and her allies were not prepared militarily to back up any ultimatums they might give to Hitler.
All of the above.
Which of the following did NOT occur following World War II?
Germany was divided into Western and Eastern Sectors.
Germany, in what came to be known as "the war guilt clause," was forced to accept full blame for the war
Poland's border with Germany was pushed westward.
The United Nations was created.
Pro-Soviet governments were installed in Eastern Europe.
The treatment received by Alexander Solzhenitsyn illustrated the Soviet regime's
preference for technocratic expertise
total immunity to pressure from the West
insistence on absolute conformity
new, more democratic policies
The main motivation of the architects of the process of European integration that has culminated in the European Union was to
stand on more equal footing with the superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union
rebuild a war-torn economy
increase iron and steel production
all of the above
The most prevalent form of religious belief among the
Which of the following was NOT a component of the triangle of trade?
The cottage industry or putting-out system that had a dramatic effect on European economic and social life in the eighteenth
century primarily produced
During the French Revolution, Robespierre asserted that terror was necessary because
there was no God
the revolution fought against genuine tyranny
the aims of the revolution were virtuous
the people were not loyal
the king had betrayed the people
The Frankfort Assembly's decision in 1848 to offer Frederick William IV of Prussia the crown of a united Germany illustrates
the power of parliamentary traditions in Germany
the weakness of the Germany monarchy
the role of liberalism in the unification of Germany
the tension between liberalism and nationalism in mid-nineteenth-century Europe
the charisma of Frederick William IV
The advantage of electrical power over steam power that came to be exploited towards the end of the nineteenth century was the
speed of electricity
reliability of electrical power
greater versatility and ease of transportation of electrical generators
cheaper cost of electrical power
greater energy output of electrical generators
Which of the following was an outgrowth of the strain of thought known as social Darwinism?
child labor laws
In order to increase the power of the newly unified Spanish monarchy, Ferdinand and Isabella
instituted liberal reforms
bought the loyalty of the Spanish nobility by strengthening the institution of serfdom
allowed Protestantism to flourish in Spain
signed an alliance with Britain and France
used the Church to build national unity
The work of art that both captures the emphasis on human form and illustrates the last and most heroic phase of Renaissance art is
Life of St. Francis
St Peter's Basilica
After the publication of Newton's
mathematics became the "queen of the sciences"
people spoke of a universe instead of a cosmos
it was known that Jupiter had four moons
it was understood that the cosmos was geocentric
Newton was condemned by the Catholic Church
of the late eighteenth century was considered radical because it
was printed in English rather than Latin
was the first multivolume publication
labeled anything not based
on reason as superstition
called for a revolution and overthrow of the monarchy
was a Protestant encyclopedia
Russia participated in the expansionist trend of the late eighteenth century by
defeating the Ottoman Turks in 1774
single-handedly conquering Poland in 1775
invading Prussia in 1770
enacting the Pragmatic Sanction
invading Finland in 1774
The event most responsible for turning the people of Paris against Louis XVI was
his attempt to flee Paris in June of 1791
his decision to execute Robespierre
his decision to raise taxes
his decision to crush the Paris Commune
his decision to issue the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
The Boulanger Affair in the late 1880s
testified to the strength of anti-Semitism in France
led to the fall of the Second Republic
was evidence of the radical nature of the French working class
led to the election of a socialist popular front
underscored the fragility of French democracy and the volatility of mass politics in France
The Sepoy Rebellion of 1857
was a vast nationalist uprising
demonstrated anti-Western sentiment in China
drove the British from Burma
led the British government to begin to rule India directly
led the British to concentrate on bringing liberal reforms to India
The Taiping Rebellion is connected to European history because
the rebels were demanding Western-style reform
it was a result of the Russo-Japanese war
Western encroachment undermined the power of the ruling dynasty
it was caused by fighting in World War II
the rebels were acting at the instigation of Westerners
In the interwar years, the reconstituted nations of East-Central Europe, Hungary, Poland, and Yugoslavia,
became satellite states of the Soviet Union
ceased to exist
came to be ruled by right-wing, authoritarian regimes
were ruled by liberal-democratic parliaments
The German election of 1932 was significant because
it brought a socialist coalition to power
the Nazi Party won 35 percent of the vote
Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany
a coalition of right-wing
parties was elected
it was never held; Hitler seized power in order to prevent an expected socialist victory
The Marshall Plan of 1947 demonstrates that the U.S. was
an imperialist country
fearful of Soviet military expansion into Western Europe
mindful of the role that economic hopelessness had played in the rise of fascism
ready to enter World War II
fearful of Germany rising again
Which of the following is connoted by the cartoon above?
support for the women's suffrage movement
skepticism about claims that marriage abuses many women
the need for child labor laws
the need for the protection of abused women
the need for a larger police force
Which of the following accurately illustrates the reciprocal nature of innovation in the Second Industrial Revolution?
the increase in the demand for coal created by the introduction of steam power
the demand for more and improved steam engines created by the development of the iron and steel industries
the need for a railway system to transport iron and steel
the increased demand for iron and steel created by the development of the railroad
all of the above
In the first decades of the twentieth century, the "nationalities problem" referred to
the absence of an international organization to coordinate diplomacy
the Anglo-German arms race
the rise of ultranationalist parties
the agitation of linguistic and ethnic minorities within the Hapsburg Empire
the agitation of southern Slavs for independence from the Russian Empire
Fritz Lang's film
the feeling of gaiety that permeated "the Roaring Twenties"
the futuristic style of architecture that was prevalent in the interwar years
the deep anxiety over the future that existed in the 1920s
the Romantic sensibilities of the era
the year for the pastoral that characterized the films of the era
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late eighteenth century