Ibn Khaldūn. (2010). Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica.
Bibliography Al-akkad, A. M. (2000). The Arab's impact on European civilisation [On-line]. Available at http://www.alazhr.org/council/books.html.
Braudel, F. (1993). A history of civilization. R. Mayne (trans.). New York: Penguin.
Cobb, S. (1965). Islamic contribution to civilization. Washington, DC: Avalon.
Dewey, J. (1993). Philosophy and education in their historic relations. Lectures transcribed by E. R. Clapp, edited by J. J. Chambliss. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Durant, W. C. (1950). The age of faith: A history of medieval civilization: Christian, Islamic, and Judaic -From Constantine to date (AD 325 – 1300). New York: NY: MJF.
Hill, D. R. (1996). Arabic fine technology and its influence on European mechanical engineering. In the Arab influence in Medieval Europe: folia scholastica mediterranea. By Agius, D. A. and Hitchcock, R. Lebanon: Ithaca Press.