On the Random Events Table, the die roll result 2-5 (Kovno) is red, but should be purple; the die roll result 3-2 (Yekaterinoslav) is red, but should be green, and the die roll result 4-1 (Voronez) is red, should be green. On the Assassination Table, there are two different lines for a die roll of „4‰; use the first one. Unit-Counter Errata
One of the two “INT” control markers should be “INT” out.
Red leader Kidvidze starts in “S: Vlad “.
White unit 207 starts in“S: Vlad “, not “U: Vlad “.
White Leader Yudenich should be “B: Livo”.
White Leader M. Maevisky should be “U: Khar”. There are only three Shock Armies in the game. These are Red KA 124, Red LR 125, White VO 222. Other units with the cavalry symbol are treated as regular units. 1.0 INTRODUCTION
Russian Civil Waris a historical simulation of the military and political conflict of 1918-1921 that abolished the Czarist regime and created the foundation of the modern Soviet Union. The basic game is designed for 3-6 players, each of whom controls one or more factions among the revolutionary, counter-revolutionary, nationalist, and interventionist forces that participated in the bloody chaotic struggle to determine Russia’s future.
The Decision Games edition of Russian Civil War is based on the original rules set, counters and map from the original 1976 SPI version. The following have been added in this edition:
Map: expanded to cover Russian Central Asia and Mongolia.
Forces: additional units have been added to account for specialized formations and additional intervention and nationalist forces.
Randomizer markers: additional markers represent various special events of the Russian Civil War.
Rules: several rules have been clarified, and some minor modifications have been made to the Randomizer. Several Optional Rules have been added. In addition, the rules have been color coded for ease of reference as follows:
Blue: Play Examples
Red: Critical Rules
(These are also summarized in Section 32.0.)
2.0 GENERAL COURSE OF PLAY
2.1Russian Civil War is designed for three to six players, although the optional rules included allow the game to be played by any number of players, as well as solitaire. In the basic, multi-player game, each player controls a number of forces, some of which may be unfriendly to each other. In general, each player is competing against all of the other players throughout the game by maneuvering his forces and engaging in combat in order to enhance his ability to gain victory points. When the game ends, each Player’s performance is evaluated by comparing the players’ victory points. The player with the largest number of victory points is judged the winner, while the remaining players are ranked as “runners-up.” Initial set up is explained in rule 16.0. Players should consult rule 30.0 Summary of Rules to get a general idea of play.
2.2 Rule Cases
Each rules section is identified by a case number that indicates the general rules section and the order within that section. Thus, 2.2 indicated the second rule of rule
2.3 General Course of Play
Often, one rule will refer to another rule by citing its rule case.
3.0 GAME EQUIPMENT
3.1 The Game Map
The 34x44” two section map board depicting Russia and several neighboring states is the playing area on which the unit counters are deployed and maneuvered. The land area is divided into provinces to regularize the movement and positioning of the playing pieces and to delineate various political boundaries and terrain features as required by the game rules. To facilitate locating a given province, the provinces are grouped into regions and each region is distinctively coded. Other map features are explained in the appropriate rules sections.
3.2 The Playing Pieces
Differently colored sets of playing pieces (henceforth known as “units”) are supplied. These units represent the military leaders and combat forces that participated in the conflict. The units are distinguished by their color, and by the numbers and symbols printed on them. Most of the units are printed on both sides. In general, the strength and type of a given unit is indicated on the front of the unit, while geographical information is indicated on the reverse side of the unit. It is strongly recommended that the players sort the units by type and color, as this greatly facilitates setting up the game.
3.21 Sample Units
Leader Unit Combat Unit
Identity # Nationality
Combat Strengths 3.22 Summary of Unit Types
LEADER UNITS (Red and White only)
(Red, White, Blue, and Green, Black)
SPECIAL COMBAT UNITS
Reverse of Unit
Generally, the reverse side of the unit has its set-up instructions. These include:
Codes to describe regions: A = Central Asia, C = Cossack Territories, G = Greater Russia, M = Mongolia, S = Siberia, T = Trans Caucasus, U = Ukraine, W = White Russia (Byelorussia)
Following the region code is an abbreviation of the province.
An asterisk indicates that a leader starts the game stacked with combat units in the same Province.
(Reinf) indicates that the unit is not set up initially on the map but is possibly received later as a reinforcement.
(Rand) indicates that the unit or marker is initially placed in the Auxiliary Forces Randomizer.
(Optional) indicates that the unit or marker is used only if the players agree to the optional rules for its inclusion in the game.
PLAYER CONTROL MARKERS
(Red/White or Blue/Green)
These are used to indicate which player controls units on the map.
CP: Central Powers (Germans and Austro-Hungarians)
CZ: Czech Legion
FK: Free Korps
INT: Optional Allied Intervention Force.
US: United States
LR: Latvian Rifles
NM: Nester Makhno
VO: Volunteer Army
3.23 Definition of Basic Terms
Auxiliary Forces: are chits (and some units) that may come into play as a result of players drawing them from the Auxiliary Forces Randomizer.
Control of a Province: A player controls a province if both of the following are true: (1) The only units in the province are controlled by that player. No other player may have any units in it, nor may there be any non-controlled units; and second, none of the player’s units are mutually opposing. See 12.1 and 12.4 for where control of provinces applies.
Control of a unit: means that a particular unit or chit is in the player’s possession, and that player may utilize it for various game functions. A player may control units of different factions. A player indicates control of units by placing a Control marker with his letter code (A, B, etc.) on the unit or stack of units. A player indicates control of certain auxiliary forces chits (such as Assassins) by placing them on his player display on the map.
Combat Strength: is the basic offensive and defensive power of a unit quantified in combat strength points.
Critical City: is one of the major political or economic centers of the former Russian Empire.
Factions: are the five major groupings of forces: Red (Bolshevik), White (anti-Bolshevik Russians), Green (Nationalists), Blue (Interventionists) and Black (Anarchists and Independents).
Force: is a group of one or more units performing some action together.
Leadership Value: represents a given leader’s command ability in comparison with other leaders in the game. The combat strength of a given leader is equivalent to the leadership value of that leader.
Marker: is a general term for a counter used for informational or non-combat game functions. The term “chit” is sometimes used in place of “marker”.
Movement Point: is a quantification of a unit’s ability to move across the map. Effectively, a unit expends one movement point to enter one province (but also see railroad and naval movement for special cases).
Nationality: is the subdivisions of Green and Blue units. This is indicated by the code on the unit. Each nationality of Green and Blue units represents a distinct force.
Opposing: forces is a term for units antagonistic to each other. Red units are hostile to White, Green, Blue and Black units. White units are hostile to Red, Green, and Black units. Green units are hostile to Red, White, and Black units. Blue units are hostile to Red and Black units. Black units are hostile to Red, White, Green and Blue units. A player may control units that are hostile to each other. Friendly units are units that are not hostile to each other. Note that units controlled by different players may be friendly to each other. For example, if Player A and Play B both control Red units, those units are friendly to each other.
Phase: is a term for a specific segment of a game turn. Note this is quite different from the usual procedure for wargames.
Phasing player: is the player whose game turn is currently in progress. A non-phasing player would be any player whose game turn is not in progress.
Province: is one of the sub-areas that compose regions. Finland, Mongolia and Poland are regions consisting of one province each.
Purge: is a game mechanic that allows a player or a group of players to redistribute control of the Red military and political leadership depicted in the game.
Randomizer: is any wide-mouthed, opaque container in which are placed various units that must be distributed in random fashion at some time during the game. Player must supply this item themselves. A coffee cup makes a good randomizer. Players will need two of these: a Player-Turn Randomizer in which each player places one Control marker in order to determine the order of player turns; and an Auxiliary Forces Randomizer, in which the auxiliary forces chits are placed.
Random Events: occur during the Random Events Phase and attempt to simulate the unpredictable chain of events that exerted a strong influence on the course and outcome of the Russian Civil War.
Note:Do not confuse the Randomizer Phase with the Random Events Phase. These occur at separate points in the sequence of play (see 4.2) and involve different play mechanics.
Regions: are major geographic divisions on the map. Each region consists of one or more provinces, all colored the same.
Stack: is more than one unit piled on top of each other. Generally, a player may stack only units of the same color, though there are exceptions for Imperial Units and Special Combat Units.
Unit: is a general term for a counter that has a combat strength or leadership value. Special Combat Units: refer to units received via the Auxiliary Forces Randomizer.
3.3 GAME CHARTS AND TABLES
The game makes use of several tables to organize data into an easily retrievable form. These are the Combat Results Table, the Purge Results Table, the Random Events Table, and the Victory Points Display, all of which are printed on the map. The use of these graphic aids is explained in the appropriate rules sections.
3.4 GAME PARTS INVENTORY
A complete game should include the following parts:
One Game Map (consisting of two 22x34 sections)
Two sheets of Die-Cut Counters (456 pieces)
One Rules booklet
4.0 SEQUENCE OF PLAY
4.1 THE GAME TURN
Russian Civil War is played in successive turns called game turns. Each game turn consists of a series of player turns, which is followed by a Game Turn Inter-phase of several segments. The number of player turns in a single game turn is equal to the number of participating players. Certain standardized functions are performed by one or more players during their Inter-phase of each game turn. During the player turn series, the player whose player turn is in progress is called the “phasing player.” During his player turn, the phasing player maneuvers his units and resolves combat in sequence, according to the following outline, and within the limits provided by the rules that follow. Play continues in successive game turns until the victory conditions for ending the game are satisfied, at which time the Victory Points Schedule is consulted and a winner is determined.
4.2 GAME TURN SEQUENCE OUTLINE
Note: Each player turn consists of four phases. The actions outlined for the first player below are repeated by each player in the sequence determined during the Player Turn. Sequencing Segment of the preceding Inter-phase. Each player is considered to be the “phasing player” during the four phases that compose his player turn. FIRST PLAYER TURN
1. Random Events Phase. The phasing player rolls one die twice in succession and consults the Random Events Table. Subsequent action is governed by the random events rules (see section 12.0)
2. Movement Phase. The phasing player may move all, some or none of the units he controls within the limits provided by the movement rules (Section 5.0)
3. Combat Phase. The phasing player may use any of the units he controls to attack enemy units. Combat is resolved in accordance with the combat rules (see Section 8.0)
4. Randomizer Phase. The phasing player picks one chit from the Auxiliary Forces Randomizer. If the player controls provinces with critical cities, he draws additional chits. (see 12.11 and 12.5).
SECOND AND SUCCEEDING PLAYER TURNS
Each succeeding player takes their turn in order, repeating steps 1 through 4 as per above. Play proceeds through a Game Turn Inter-phase as outlined below.
GAME TURN INTER-PHASE
1. Game Turn Indication Segment. The first player advances the Game Turn marker one space on the Turn Record Track to mark the passage of one Game Turn and signal the start of another.
2. Replacement Segment. The players redeploy previously eliminated combat units in accordance with the replacement rules (see section 9.0).
3. Player Turn Sequencing Segment. The first player draws one marker from the Player Turn Randomizer. The player whose Control marker is selected is designated the new first player for the ensuing game turn. The player to the left (clockwise) of the new first player becomes the second player, and the remaining players are assigned a new position in the sequence of play by proceeding around the table clockwise.
4.3 Assassinations & Purges
Players may conduct assassinations at any time in their player turn (see 10.11). Players may also conduct purges under certain circumstances at any point during any player’s turn (see 11.1). One assassination or purge must be completed prior to the next one being initiated.
There are three basic types of moveable units in the game: leaders, combat units, and Imperial units. There are no movement allowances printed on the counters. All leaders have a movement allowance of five movement points. Red and White combat units may only be moved by an accompanying leader of the same color. In effect, a leader may attach and transport the otherwise immobile Red and White combat units. Green and Blue units may be moved only if a player has their Control marker. Green and Blue units have a movement allowance of three movement points. Black units never move. Also see 5.6, 5.7 and 13.25. Imperial units may not move by themselves; they may be “carried along” by certain other units.
During the movement phase of his player turn, the phasing player may move as many or as few of his Red and White leaders (and any combat units they attach and transport) as he desires. Each leader may be moved as many or as few provinces as the player desires to as long as an individual leader’s movement allowance is not exceeded in a single movement phase. Additionally, the player may move any controlled Green and Blue units without needing leaders.
Units may be moved individually (in any order the player desires), or in company with other leaders, combat units or Imperial units with which they are stacked (in accordance with the stacking rules). Any aggregation of units that is moved together as one stack is considered a “force.” Forces must be moved one at a time. Once a force has been moved and the player’s hand withdrawn, no portion of that force may be moved again during the same movement phase. Unused movement points may neither be accumulated from phase to phase, nor transferred from unit to unit.
5.1 HOW TO MOVE UNITS
5.11 During the movement phase, only the phasing player may move units; he may choose to move all, some, or none of his units. No combat is permitted during the movement phase.
5.12 Movement is calculated in terms of movement points. A unit expends movement points from its total movement allowance when moving across the map at the rate of one movement point for each province it enters (exception: see 5.5).
5.13 Movement may never take place out of sequence. A player’s units may only be moved during his own movement phase.
5.14 One movement point must be expended from the movement allowance of a unit for each province the unit enters during a movement phase (exception: see 5.5). Note: Only Red and White leaders and Blue and Green combat units possess a movement allowance.
5.15 All movement must be executed from one province to another contiguous province borders. Units may not skip or jump from one province to any nonadjacent province. For example, a unit could move directly from Finland to Petrograd.
5.16 A unit may never expend more movement points than its total movement allowance in a single movement phase. A unit may expend all, some, or none of its movement points in any one game turn, but unused movement points may not be accumulated from one game turn to another or transferred to another unit. Note: In certain circumstances, a given unit may move more than once per game turn (never more than once per individual movement phase). For example, in Player A’s turn, a Red or White unit might move and then be detached 5.24. Player B could then, in his movement phase, attach that unit and move it.
5.17 Blocking Movement
A force must stop upon entering a province containing a unit of an opposing color. It may move no farther that turn. See 8.1 Definition of Opposing Forces and the chart on the map for which units oppose which units. If the moving unit enters a province containing units of the same color, or of a color that does not oppose that unit, then it may continue moving. Note: This is a change from the original rules, in which units would have to stop if entering a province containing units of a different color (now the movement stops only if there are opposing units).
5.18 A force may freely enter or exit a province regardless of the presence of other units in the province being entered or exited. A force may not, however, both enter and leave a province during the same movement phase if the province entered is occupied by any opposing units (again, see 8.1). There is no additional movement point cost to enter or leave a province occupied by other units, regardless of the color orientation (friendly or opposing) of the units involved.
5.19 The restrictions of 5.17 and 5.18 apply even if a player controls both the moving and non-moving force.
Example 1: Player A has a Red force in Finland, and a White force in Petrograd. He could move his Red force into Petrograd, but it would have to stop.
Example 2: Player A has a Red force in Finland, and Player B has a Red force in Petrograd. Player A could move his Red force into Petrograd and it could keep on moving out of Petrograd.
5.20 Exceptions: see 13.23 Imperial Units and 14.3 Armored Trains.
5.2 HOW TO MOVE RED & WHITE UNITS
5.21 Red and White combat units may only be moved by a leader of the appropriate color. Red combat units are moved by Red leaders; White combat units are moved by White leaders. Note: There are no Blue or Green leaders. There are special rules that govern the movement of Blue and Green units (see 5.6 and 5.7). Black units may never move, nor may they ever be attached. There are also special rules that govern the movement of Imperial units (see section 13.0).
5.22 Leader Attachment of Red & White Combat Units
A Red or White leader may attach (pick up) and/or detach (drop off) any eligible combat units of the leader’s color in any province during his movement (including the province the leader occupies at the start of his movement). A player may only attach units of the same color, and units that are either controlled by the player or have no player controlling them. Units controlled by other players may not be attached. Combat units moved by a leader are considered “under the command” of that leader. A leader and his attached combat units are referred to as a “force.” There is no additional movement point cost for a leader to attach, transport, or detach combat units. Note: Red and White combat units may not move by themselves. Leaders, obviously, may.
5.23 The maximum number of combat units a leader may attach is equal to the leadership value of that leader. For example, a White leader with a leadership value of “3” could attach (and transport) a maximum of three (White) combat units (exception: see 13.22 and 13.25), nor may it be attached by another leader.
5.24 Attachment and Detachment
Red and White leaders attach combat units of the same color by placing them underneath the leader counter as part of the same stack. Additionally, a leader may also attach another leader of the same color that is either controlled by the player or not controlled by any other player. Once attached to a given leader, a combat unit may not be attached or transported by any other leader until it has been detached. (Remember, a unit that moved and was then detached may not be moved again in the same movement phase.) A leader and its attached combat units move together, accompanied by other leaders, as part of a larger force. A unit is detached during a movement phase by removing it from the leader’s stack and placing it separately in the province. Note: See rule 7.4 for emergency restacking during combat.
5.3 TERRAIN EFFECTS ON MOVEMENT
5.31 Units are prohibited from entering sea or lake areas. See the Terrain Key on the map. See the naval movement rules for special cases.
5.32 White units (only) are permitted to move directly form Taurida to Kuban (and vice versa) via the Kerch Straits.
5.33 Units are prohibited from moving directly from Petrograd to Livonia due to the presence of Lake Pskov.
5.34 Combat and leader units may never be voluntarily moved off the map (exception: see 5.66). There are special rules governing the removal of Imperial units form the map (see 13.3), the withdrawal of Blue units, and the evacuation of White units.
5.35 The movement of certain Blue and Green units is geographically restricted (see 5.6 and 5.7)
5.36 There are special rules governing the movement of units by rail (see 5.5).
5.41 Stacking or unstacking units in the same province is considered a type of movement. There is no additional movement point cost involved in stacking or unstacking units; however, a player’s units may only be stacked or un-stacked during his own movement phase. During all other phases, that player’s units may not be voluntarily rearranged (exception see Purge, 11.21).
5.42 A force may not end a movement phase in violation of the stacking limits (see section 7.0).
5.5 RAIL MOVEMENT
5.51 Only Red and White units may use rail movement. (See the armored train rule for a special case, 14.3.)
5.52 A Red or White force (or leader) that begins its movement phase in a province traversed by a rail line may move into or through an unlimited number of contiguous rail-connected provinces. Units moving by rail must stop upon entering a province occupied by opposing forces.
5.53 Rail movement is executed during the regular movement phase. Rail movement expends no movement points, regardless of the distance it permits a force to move. Rail movement may not, however, be combined with normal overland movement during the same movement phase. Thus, a force may either use rail movement or normal overland movement, but not both during a single movement phase. Additionally, rail movement may not be combined with naval movement or evacuation.
5.54 The ability of a leader to attach, transport an/or detach units is not impaired when the leader is using rail movement.
5.55 Red and White combat units may only be moved by rail by a leader of the appropriate color.
5.6 HOW TO MOVE BLUE INTERVENTIONIST UNITS
The Blue units represent the foreign intervention forces that participated in the Russian Civil War. These include the Central Powers (CP), Turkey (TU), Free Korps (FK), China (CH), Czechoslovakia (CZ), France (FR), Romania (RM), Japan (JA), the United States (US), and the British Empire (BR). Additionally, there are Optional Allied Intervention (INT) units, used only when playing with the optional rules.
All Blue units are combat units; there are no Blue leaders. Blue units are moved in accordance with the general Movement Rules as modified by the following special rules.Note that the Central Powers (CP) have no Control marker. They also have no OUT marker, but when the Armistice marker is picked, all CP units withdraw.
Note that the Chinese (CH) and Romanian (RO) Blue units have no Control and no OUT markers. They remain on the map until eliminated. Note that the Turk units in the game have no connection to the Turkistan province.
5.61 There are seven Blue Control markers in the Auxiliary Forces Randomizer. Each of these markers controls one of the following nationalities: Turkey (TU), Free Korps (FK), Czechoslovakia (CZ), France (FR), Japan (JA), the United States (US), and the British Empire (BR). Additionally, there is an Optional Allied Intervention (INT) control marker. These markers are gradually distributed among the players during the Randomizer or Random Events Phase of each player turn. Possession of a Blue Control marker permits a player to move any and all of the corresponding Blue combat units during the movement phase of his player turn. For example, if you possess the US marker, you control the one US unit in Archangel and the two US units in Vladivostok.
5.62 The Blue units that lack a corresponding Control marker, including the Romanian (RM), Chinese (CH), and Central Powers (CP) units, may never be moved or controlled by any player. They may never attack, though they must defend when attacked.
5.63 Blue units have a movement allowance of three movement points. They may only be moved by a player possessing their Control marker.
5.64 Blue Units may not use rail movement (exception: see the Armored Train rule). They may use naval movement, if it is otherwise allowed for them.
1) Czechoslovakian and Japanese units may only enter provinces in the Siberian region.
2) Turkish units may only enter provinces in the Trans-Caucasus, Cossack and Central Asia regions.
3) Central Powers, Chinese and Romanian units may never move.
4) Other moveable Blue units may enter any province on the map.
5.66 Czech Withdrawal
Czech units may exit the map from the Vladivostok province in Siberia (see 14.45). This is done to gain the special victory points for Czech withdrawal (rule 15.45). Simply remove the Czech unit(s) from the map and place them on the controlling player’s Victory Point Display. There is no movement point cost to a unit that is removed from the map for victory point purposes.
5.67 Other Blue Withdrawals
There are six Blue OUT (Withdrawal) markers in the Auxiliary Forces Randomizer (BR, FK, FR, JP, TU, US). At the instant a Blue Withdrawal marker is selected from the randomizer, all Blue units of the corresponding nationality are permanently removed from the map. Additionally, if the Armistice marker is drawn, then all CP units are withdrawn. Withdrawal is not movement; simply pick up the units and remove them from the map. This is regardless of their location.
Note: There is no CZ OUT marker. The only way to withdraw Czech units is via the procedure in 5.66.
5.68 If a player picks a Blue force OUT marker, then those units are considered withdrawn even if the Control marker has not yet been picked. If the Control marker is later picked, then the marker is removed from play and nothing happens—the Blue units are not controlled.
5.69 Blue units that were previously eliminated in combat are not withdrawn per se; they remain on the Victory Point Display.
5.7 HOW TO MOVE GREEN NATIONALIST UNITS
The Green units represent regional nationalist forces that sought independence during the Russian Civil War. A total of nine different nationalist areas are represented, including the Baltic Provinces (BA); Byelorussia (BY); the Ukraine (UK); the Trans-Caucasus Region (TC); Central Asia (CA); Siberia (SB); Finland (FN); Poland (PO); and Mongolia (MO). All Green units are combat units there are no Green leaders. Green units are moved in accordance with the general movement rules as modified by the following special rules. Note: Byelorussia is designated “White Russia” on the map board. Also, note that the White Russia designated on the map is the historic name of that region; it is not related to the White Russian faction.
5.71 Each distinct nationalist force is represented by a Green Control marker. Possession of a Green Control Marker permits a player to move any and all of the corresponding Green combat units during the movement phase of his player turn.
Note: Unlike Blue units, there are no Green OUT markers.
5.72 All Green combat units have a movement allowance of three movement points.
5.73 Green units may not use rail movement. They may never use naval movement or evacuation.
5.74 Green units may never enter a province outside of their “home” region (exception: see 5.75 and 5.76). For example: Ukrainian units may only move within the Ukraine region.
5.75 Finnish units may only enter the following provinces: Archangel, Olonetz, Petrograd and Finland.
5.76 Polish units may enter any province in any of the following regions: White Russia, Greater Russia, the Baltic Region, and the Ukraine region. Polish units may, of course, enter Poland also.
5.8 HOW TO MOVE BLACK ANARCHIST UNITS