Running Head: ford author note

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New Competitors
Furthermore, the automotive industry is quickly feeling the ripples caused by new technological changes that include electrification of vehicles,

8 ridesharing, and autonomous driving. In addition, the industry is transforming as new entrants from other industries leverage information technology dynamics to gain a competitive advantage. Leading strategist and author Michael Porter (1996) said, "A company can outperform rivals only if it can establish a difference that it can preserve" (p. Yet, as a latecomer to these technologies, Ford's opportunity in these sectors is limited, while global enterprises like Apple, Google, and Tesla have embarked into a frontal attack against the automotive industry giants. Furthermore, Tesla is a producer of high capacity batteries, and it is one of the top suppliers of electric batteries for the auto and other industries. But, the company also produces electric vehicles. Its vehicles are semi-autonomous and soon will be completely autonomous. This means that Tesla will compete as a vehicle manufacturer, but also as a substitute product because its autonomous vehicles will soon become the de-facto method of ride-sharing. This approach could end the need for vehicle ownership since quick, reliable, and individual transportation will be available by just summoning a vehicle with a cellular phone application.

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