Rumble in the jungle the ‘Blessing’ and ‘Curse’ of Mineral Wealth in the Congo



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Christian Hedegaard Jensen Master Thesis 31.05.2012

Student Id: 20101177 Development and International Relations Supervised by Per Lunde

Aalborg University

RUMBLE IN THE JUNGLE

The ‘Blessing’ and ‘Curse’ of Mineral Wealth in the Congo



punch_congo_rubber_cartoon.jpg1

We are fighting and killing ourselves over what

God gave to make us happy and comfortable.

I sometimes wonder whether it would not

be better if God takes away the endowment, and by

so doing, spare us the tragedy it has brought to our life.2












LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ABAKO Association des Bakongo pour l’Unification, la Conservation, le Perfectionnement et l’Expansion de la Langue Kikongo

AFDL Alliance des Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Congo-

Zaïre


AMF America’s Mineral Fields

CNS Sovereign National Conference

DRC Democratic Republic of Congo

FAZ Forces Armées Zaïroises

FSI Failed State Index

FP Force Publique

GDP Gross Domestic Product

HDI Human Development Index

HDR Human Development Report

HIID Harvard Institute for International Development

ICD Inter-Congolese Dialogue

IMF International Monetary Fund

KIET Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade

MNC Mouvement National Congolais

MPR Mouvement Populaire de la Révolution

RCD-G Rassemblement congolais pour la démocratie/Goma

RCD-K-ML RCD-Kisangani-Mouvement de liberation

TWC Third World Countries

UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNU-UNESCO United Nations University/United Nations Educational Scientific and

Cultural Organization

WB World Bank


TABLE OF CONTENTS


RUMBLE IN THE JUNGLE 1

The ‘Blessing’ and ‘Curse’ of Mineral Wealth in the Congo 1



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 4

1.0 Introduction 6

1.1 Research Question 7

1.2 Overview of the Project 7

1.2.1 First Part: Methodology, theories and historical introduction. 7

1.2.2 Second Part: Analysis 8

1.2.3 Third Part: Conclusion 8

2.0 Methodology 8

2.1 Delimitation 8

2.2 Hypothesis 9

2.2.1 Hypothesis 1: The political system of the DRC is flawed due to the historical legacy of colonial rule, while the impact of conflict has produced a power vacuum. 9

2.2.2 Hypothesis 2: The economic development of the DRC has been crippled due to a continuous dependence and emphasis on raw materials and the interference of non-Congolese actors in state financial affairs. 10

2.2.3 Hypothesis 3: The discourse of colonial racial and cultural superiority of the white man vs. the inferiority of the black man still persists in contemporary Congolese identity and consciousness. 10

2.3 Project assessment 10

2.4 Sources 11

2.4.1 Empirical Data 11

2.4.2 The World Bank 11

2.4.3 The Human Development Index 11

2.4.4 The International Monetary Fund 12

2.5 Critical assessment of the theories 12

2.6 Historical Considerations 14

3.0 Theoretical Approach 14

3.1 Colonialism and Neo-colonialism 14



3.1.1 Kwame Nkrumah on Neo-Colonialism 15

3.2 The Resource Curse Thesis 17

3.3 Dependency Theory 19

3.3.1 Dependence Occurs Threefold 20

3.4 Frantz Fanon: Black Consciousness; Perspective of the Colonized 22

3.5 Frantz Fanon: Inferiority Complex of Colonized Africans 24

3.6 Conflict Theory 26



3.6.1 Conflicts of Interest 28

3.6.2 Conflicts of Values 28

3.7 Democracy vs. Socio-Economic Development 29



4.0 Historical Outline 31

4.1 Leopoldian Congo and Belgian Colonial Rule 31



4.1.1 ‘Red Rubber’ 32

4.1.2 Belgian Congo 33

4.2 Decolonization and the Drive for Independence 34



4.2.1 The Forming of a Political Opposition 34

4.2.2 Assuming Control of the Colonial Administration 35

4.2.3 The Lack of an Educated Elite 35

4.2.4 Civil War and Secession 36

4.3 The Rise of Mobutu and Authoritarian Dictatorship 37



4.3.1 Consolidating Political Power 37

4.3.2 From the DRC to Zaire 38

4.4 Towards the New Millennium: Same Dreams, Same Story 39



4.4.1 Kabila Senior Takes Control of Zaire 40

4.4.2 2001 to Present 42

5.0 Analysis 43

5.1 Hypothesis 1: The political system of the DRC is flawed due to the historical legacy of colonial rule, while the impact of conflict has produced a power vacuum. 43



5.1.1 Democratic Republic of Congo Anno 2012 43

5.1.2 Colonial Legacy – From Leopold to Mobutu and Kabila 43

5.1.3 Colonial Legacy 44

5.1.4 Living the Legacy 45

5.1.5 Transitional Tendencies 46

5.1.6 Escaping the Legacy 48

5.1.7 Failure of Democracy 49

5.1.8 Political Conflict and Economic Incentives: Roots and Triggers 51

5.1.9 Typology of Conflict 54

5.1.10 Summary 55

5.2 Hypothesis 2: The economic development of the DRC has been crippled due to a continuous dependence and emphasis on raw materials and the interference of non-Congolese actors in state financial affairs. 56



5.2.1 The Resource Thesis: True or False? 56

5.2.2 The Natural Resource Trap 59

5.2.3 External Actors – Actions, Consequences and Dependencies 62

5.2.4 Dependency in the DRC 64

5.2.5 Columbium Tantalum 65

5.2.6 Summary 67

5.3 Hypothesis 3: The discourse of colonial racial and cultural superiority of the white man vs. the inferiority of the black man still persists in contemporary Congolese identity and consciousness. 68



5.3.1 Control the Mind, Control the Body; Colonizer and Colonized 68

5.3.2 Post-Colonial State, Neo-Colonialism and Identity 70

5.3.3 An Architectural Heritage 72

5.3.4 Past and Present 73

5.3.5 Summary 75

6.0 Conclusion 76

6.1 Hypothesis One 76

6.2 Hypothesis Two 77

6.3 Hypothesis Three 79



7.0 Perspective/Further Research 81

7.1 The Consociational Model 81



8.0 Bibliography 83

8.1 Literature 83

8.2 Articles 83

8.3 Internet Websites – Viewed on May 25, 2012. 84



8.3.1 Dictionaries and Encyclopaedias Online Et. Al. 84

8.3.2 Central Intelligence Agency 84

8.3.3 International Monetary Fund 84

8.3.4 World Bank 85

8.3.5 Human Development Index 85

8.3.6 Freedom House 85

8.3.7 Failed States Index 85

8.3.8 Transparency International 85





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