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This publication is available from the APVMA website: www.apvma.gov.au. A REVIEW OF THE EARTH OPEN SOURCE (EOS) REPORT
“ROUNDUP AND BIRTH DEFECTS: IS THE PUBLIC BEING KEPT IN THE DARK?”
Prepared for the APVMA
Scitox Assessment Services
Canberra, ACT, Australia
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS 4
1. SUMMARY 7
1.1 The association between glyphosate / glyphosate-based herbicides and developmental malformations 7
1.2 The association between glyphosate / glyphosate-based herbicides, endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity 9
1.3 Evidence for the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of glyphosate / glyphosate-based herbicides 10
1.4 Neurotoxicity of glyphosate / glyphosate-based herbicides 11
1.5 Human exposure to glyphosate 11
1.6 Overseas assessment activity 12
2. MAIN BODY OF THE REVIEW 14
2.1 The association between glyphosate / glyphosate—based herbicides and developmental malformations 14
2.1.1 Effects in toad and bird embryos 14
2.1.2 Effects in laboratory animals 15
2.1.3 Epidemiological evidence 18
2.2 The association between glyphosate / glyphosate-based herbicides, endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity 22
2.2.1 Reproductive effects of glyphosate in vivo 23
2.2.2 Evidence of endocrine modulation in other studies 24
2.2.3 Testicular carcinogenicity 24
2.3 Evidence for the genotoxicity of glyphosate / glyphosate-based herbicides 28
2.4 Carcinogenicity of glyphosate / glyphosate-based herbicides 31
2.4.1 Evidence from studies in laboratory animals 31
2.4.2 Evidence from human populations 34
2.5 Neurotoxicity of glyphosate / glyphosate-based herbicides 36
APPENDIX 1: ASSESSMENTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES IN RATS 50
APPENDIX 2: ASSESSMENTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES IN RABBITS 53
APPENDIX 3: ASSESSMENTS OF REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIES 60
A3.1 Rats 60
APPENDIX 4: STUDY ASSESSMENTS PERFORMED BY MARK JENNER, SCITOX ASSESSMENT SERVICES 62
A4.1 Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide formulation on gene expression in vitro 62
A4.2 Cytotoxicity of glyphosate, AMPA and glyphosate-based herbicides in vitro 63
A4.3 Cytotoxicity, anti-estrogenic and anti–androgenic activity, and genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides in vitro 67
A4.4 Developmental and reproductive effects of glyphosate-based herbicide in amphibians and birds 71
A4.5 Developmental and reproductive effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide in rats 74
A4.6 Reproductive effects of glyphosate in male rabbits 83
A4.7 Dermal carcinogenicity of a glyphosate-based herbicide in mice 85
A4.8 Epidemiological Study 88
GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AChE acetylcholinesterase