Protected buildings More than 100 objects of exceptional cultural historical value. These are known as the Top 100 (see page 15) and all bear the blue and white shield, the international insignia introduced in the Hague Treaty.
Objects of importance to the national cultural heritage. These also bear the blue and white shield.
The remaining buildings on the national Register of Protected Monuments and Historic Buildings.
Other objects of cultural value Objects of exceptional cultural historical value housed in public and private collections in museums, castles, archives, libraries, etc.
Objects designated under the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act (Bulletin of Acts, Orders and Decrees 1984, 49).
Objects designated as being of exceptional cultural value, pursuant to the State Arts Collections Decree (Government Gazette 1985, 34).
Objects designated by the Head of the Netherlands Office for Fine Arts.
Cultural goods which are theoretically "movable" but which are considered "immovable" due to their location or use, designated by the Head of the Department for the Preservation of Monuments and Historic Buildings and/or the Head of the Netherlands Office of Fine Arts.
4. DANGERS TO BE PROTECTED AGAINST The ICB takes the following threats into account in implementing protective measures:
chemical damage (for example, as a result of natural disasters)
heat, fire, smoke
the effects of air pressure
This list is incomplete but does give some idea of the kind of threats the Inspectorate has to be prepared for. The above sequence is roughly in ascending order of severity, but this can by no means to be used as a yardstick. Damage caused by a knife, for example, can be more serious than the effects of a bomb explosion some distance away.
Many of these dangers can arise under normal circumstances; preventive and remedial measures may frequently coincide. For example, in the cases of fire, water or fallen masonry, steps taken to provide for emergencies are frequently useful as normal preventive measures.
The work of the ICB is carried out largely in the grey area between normal preventive tactics and supplementary measures for emergencies. It advises the owners of cultural monuments on how to protect their property from such hazards.
5. PROTECTIVE MEASURES: WHEN AND HOW The ICB's responsibilities relate to two completely different situations normal and emergencies.
Normal circumstances Under normal circumstances, the Inspectorate has a preventive function. The main task of the inspectors is to provide for possible emergencies.
Emergencies These include emergency situations and disasters, as well as threats arising during periods of international tension. The inspectors are then authorised to take any measures they consider necessary, in consultation with owners and the authorities concerned, to protect the property in question. Generally speaking, it can be assumed that during emergencies measures are taken to limit damage as much as possible.
Owners and managers of cultural property should, of course, also provide for such eventualities themselves. The ICB provides support in the from of advice and incentives and by implementing measures itself.
6. MEASURES Once an emergency situation has arisen, there is clearly no time for measures to be prepared. Emergency measures should therefore be drawn up as far as possible under normal circumstances, so that they can be implemented by regional inspectors in the event of a disaster.
Measures for the protection of cultural property can be divided into two categories organisational and practical measures.
Organisational measures It is up to the cultural preservation inspectors to consult with the relevant organisations, to outline the interests involved in protecting the cultural property concerned and to explain the workings of the ICB. They are also responsible for ensuring that relevant information on the ICB and on objects of cultural value is included in emergency plans.
It is important to encourage the fire services, which are responsible for coordinating emergency action, to include the data on the ICB and cultural objects in their own information systems so that they can respond adequately in emergencies.
The ICB promotes and supervises the documentation of cultural objects in the form of technical and architect's drawings, photogrammetry, photography and written descriptions, and the placing of these documents in safe storage.
In the field of fire prevention, the ICB encourages the drawing up of 'plans of action' for fire services containing relevant information on the object concerned, the ICB and, more importantly, which sections of the object should be given special attention in the event of fire.
In addition the ICB promotes the drawing up of evacuation plans for the most important registered buildings. These plans should also include descriptions of all parts of the object requiring special protection.
The general inspectors provide instructions on how best to protect stained glass windows, bells and carillons, organs and other objects of cultural value.
Via the Inspectorate, WVC makes a number of `pilot light' agreements with third parties to ensure that sufficient help will be available in emergencies for the ICB to implement the necessary measures.
The ICB also gives advice on the inclusion of measures in restoration plans to protect objects or valuable parts of them. Subsidies are available from WVC for the implementation of these supplementary measures.
Practical measures Practical measures can be divided into two categories preventive and operational measures.
Preventive measures The ICB promotes the setting up of storage space for valuable objects on site by investigating for each object whether storage can be arranged, if necessary by taking extra measures.
On site storage space must provide relatively good protection from earth tremors, falling masonry, explosions, heat, water from fire fighting activities and rising groundwater. In short, it should be adequate to cope with a large number of the hazards listed above.
The Inspectorate encourages the instalment of smoke detectors, with an automatic connection to the fire service.
Building regulations, of course, also require the presence of fire extinguishers. Dry standpipes may also be installed to facilitate fire fighting on upper floors.
There must be a sufficient source of water available for fire fighting purposes in the immediate vicinity of the object.
The ICB promotes the distribution of information on action to be taken in the event of fire. To prevent fires spreading, it is important to act quickly to extinguish them in the early stages. Owners and managers of cultural property should therefore be given basic training in fire fighting techniques. After all, speed is of the essence!
The Inspectorate develops protective structures to safeguard objects that cannot be stored on site. Materials are reserved for this in consultation with WVC. The possibility of installing permanent structures is considered, for example, to protect vulnerable objects against water or projectiles.
Burglary prevention is also something that the Inspectorate, as well as owners and managers, must take into account. The primary requirement is that the object can be adequately locked up. Measures to ensure this must comply at least with the *** classification, with extra steel plating, iron bars, etc., if necessary.
Operational measures As is clear from the above, the cultural protection inspectors are authorised to take or instigate any measures they consider necessary on their own initiative, in consultation with local authorities.
The inspectors are responsible for the implementation of protective measures, provided, of course, that no other party has been given this responsibility by the owner of the property. Inspectors should also help organise the transport of cultural objects to national and other storage areas, if this is necessary.
The ICB promotes and supervises the on site storage and protection of objects that cannot be moved elsewhere. This may mean enlisting the help of third parties in relation to either manpower or materials under the 'pilot light' agreements.
Third parties may likewise be called in if the circumstances call for supplementary measures over and above the preventive measures already implemented.
The Inspectorate can provide advice on fire fighting activities to ensure that objects suffer as little damage as possible. The fire services will, of course, need to guarantee the safety of persons and animals, and then of the area around the fire, before attention can be given to the object. It is up to the regional inspectors to inform the fire services of the instructions in the above mentioned 'plans of action'.
In the event of an emergency, an official of the Building and Housing Inspection Department will advise the fire service on action to be taken if there is a danger of the structure collapsing. The regional inspector must be involved in these consultations and should insist on measures being taken to keep damage done to the culturally important parts of the buildings to an absolute minimum.
Finally, the ICB will provide owners and managers of cultural property with as much help as possible in emergencies, taking into account the Inspectorate's capacity and priorities. If the owner is unable to take action himself, the regional inspector may take any measures he considers necessary.
7. FUNDING In principle, the activities of the Inspectorate are carried out free of charge. If measures have to be taken under circumstances that cannot be considered emergencies, the costs have to be borne by the owner of the property. Limited subsidies are available from WVC for supplementary preventive measures.
8. `TOP 100' LISTED BUILDINGS ProvinceBuilding Place
9. THE `TOP 10' OBJECTS OF CULTURAL INTEREST(OTHER THAN BUILDINGS)
(left untranslated where advisable)
Stained glass windows Object Place Remarks
St Jan's church Gouda made by Crabeth et al, begun in 1555
Church of St Edam made by Isaac Nicolay et al
Nicolaas begun in 1606
Dutch Reformed Oudshoorn made between 1661 and 1671
Nieuwe Kerk Amsterdam lower section in northern transept, made by J. van Bronckhorst in 1650
Oude Kerk Amsterdam made by Crabeth and Lambeth van Noort, circa 1560
Sint Annahof Leiden makers unknown, circa 1500
Dutch Reformed Schermerhorn made by Pieter Holsteyn, church 1631 1636
Reformed church Oudega made by Ype Staak and Jurjen (Friesland) Staak in 1717
Rams Woerthe Steenwijk made by A. le Comte circa (former villa) 1920
Maritime Museum Amsterdam made by W. Bogtman circa 1916
Church bells Object Place Remarks Reformed church Usquert cast by Herman(nus) in 1405, Ø 140 cm
Reformed church Zandeweer cast by H. Kokenbakker in 1467,
Ø 107 cm
Reformed church Oudega cast in 15th century (caster unknown), Ø 99 cm
Reformed church Hattem cast by Gert Klinge in 1455, Ø 130 cm
Buurkerk Utrecht cast by Steven Butendiic in 1471,
Ø 166 cm
Zuiderkerk tower Amsterdam cast by Willem and Jasper Moer in 1511, Ø 170 cm
Oude Kerk Delft cast by C. Noorden and J.A. Grave in 1719, Ø 149.3 cm
cast by H. van Trier in 1570, Ø 230 cm
Reformed church Schoonhoven cast by Gregorius in 1416, Ø 124.5 cm
H. Catherinakerk Buchten cast in 12th century (caster unknown), Ø 45.5 cm. Probably the oldest church bell in the Netherlands.
Clocks and chimes Object Place Remarks Reformed church Schildwolde tower clock with cast iron mechanism, 1598
Reformed church Poppingawier tower clock with cast iron mechanism, 16th century
Nieuwe toren Kampen chiming clock, made by M. Hansen in 1661; drum by F. Hemony, 1661
Reformed church Dodewaard tower clock with cast iron mechanism, made by Goslinck and Hendrik Ruempol in 1754
Speeltoren Monnickendam tower with chiming clock and moving figures, made by Roeloff Othszn. in 1595
Reformed church Winkel tower clock with cast iron mechanism, 15th century
Reformed church Zoeterwoude clock with cast iron mechanism, made by Dirk de Graaf in 1722
Town Hall Tholen chiming clock, made by Hendrik Arnouts in 1590
Town Hall Sluis `Jantje van Sluis', carved wooden figure with 4 small bells, made circa 1423
Town Hall 's Hertogen chiming clock with moving
bosch figures, made by Juriaan Sprakel in 1651
Former Dinghuis Maastricht clock with cast iron mechanism, 17th century
Organs Object Place Remarks
Grote Kerk Alkmaar great organ, designed by Jacob van Campen and built by G. van Hagerbeer in 1643; choir organ, made by J. van Covelen in 1511
Nieuwe Kerk Amsterdam organ with Hauptwerk, Rückpositiv and separate pedal department, built by H.W. Schonat in 1652; upper manual by J. van Hagerbeer added in 1668
Reformed church Baarland organ with main and auxiliary manual made by J.J. Moreau circa 1760
Martinikerk Groningen 15th century organ with three manuals; modified in 1542; pedal department by A. Schnitger added in 1692; new Rückpositiv by F.C. Schnitger and A.A. Hinsz added in 1730
R.C. church Gronsveld organ with Grand Orgue, Positif and Écho, made by P. le Picard in 1712
Reformed church Hattem organ with single manual, probably made by the Slegel organ builders, 16th century
Church of St Lam Helmond organ originally with Grand
bertus Orgue, Positif, Écho, Récit and attached pedal department, made by G. Robustelly in 1722 for Averbode Abbey
Reformed church Krewerd organ with single manual, dating from 1531 (builder unknown)
Nicolaikerk Utrecht organ with two manuals, made by Peter Gerritsz. between 1477 and 1479; Renaissance style Rückpositiv added in 16th century (now in storage).
OUTLINE OF RECOMMENDED COMPOSITION AND ROLE OF
THE PROPOSED INTERGOVERNMENTAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE ON THE PROTECTION OF CULTURAL
PROPERTY IN THE EVENT OF ARMED CONFLICT
1. An Intergovernmental Advisory Committee for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict should be established within UNESCO, constituted initially under Category II (Articles 18 - 20) of the UNESCO Regulations for the general classification of the various categories of meetings convened by UNESCO319. In the longer term the Committee might be re-constituted under specific powers in an updated text of the 1954 Hague Convention and Protocol, or by a new Additional Protocol, in either case incorporating appropriate arrangements for financial contributions from High Contracting Parties to meet the necessary expenses of the Committee and its Secretariat.
2. The Committee should follow in general terms the model of the World Heritage Committee320, though it would not have executive powers.
2. The main purpose would be keep under review the effectiveness and implementation of the 1954 Convention and Protocol, to advise the Director General, the General Conference, States Party to the Convention, as well as non-signatory sovereign states, on appropriate practice in relation to all aspects of the implementation of the Convention and more generally on the Protection of Cultural Property in times of Armed Conflict.
3. The Intergovernmental Advisory Committee would in particular receive, review and formally publish the periodic reports of High Contracting Parties specified in Article 26(2) of the 1954 Convention, and would assist the Director General in relation to the training and education programmes referred to below.
4. The Committee should be composed of eleven States who shall be High Contracting Parties to the Hague Convention elected with due regard to an equitable representation of the different regions and cultures of the world at a meeting in general assembly of States Parties to the Convention held during the ordinary session of each UNESCO General Conference. The number of States members of the Committee shall be increased to fifteen States following the entry into force of the Convention for at least 100 States, and to twenty-one when the number of States Parties reaches 130.
5. The membership of States Parties to the Convention shall be rotated in accordance with the practice of the World Heritage Committee, under rules to be made by the general assembly of High Contracting Parties, based on those in Article 9 of the World Heritage Convention.
6. In addition, the following international organisations with special interest and expertise relevant to the application of the Convention may be invited by the periodic general assemblies of the High Contracting Parties to attend the meetings of the Committee in an advisory capacity:
International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM):
International Committee of the Red Cross
International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)
International Council of Museums (ICOM)
International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)
International Council of Archives (ICA)
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
APPENDIX XI CHARLES E. McCONNEY, LOS ANGELES, 1992: DRAFT PROPOSAL FOR THE CREATION OF A PERMANENT
MONUMENTS, FINE ARTS AND ARCHIVES UNIT WITHIN
WITHIN THE U.N. PEACE KEEPING FORCES (SUMMARY)
To better protect the world's diverse cultural and natural heritage for all humanity and future generations, I believe it is time to create a permanent Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Unit (`M,FA & A Unit') in the U.N. Peace Keeping Forces.
The idea for such a Unit and the term `M,FA & A' come from World War II, when Allied Armies (notably U.S. and U.K. forces) assigned approximately 200 officers and enlisted men to protect cathedrals, museums, art collections, historic buildings, etc. from destruction and looting.
Civilians also helped to protect endangered cultural assets in WWII. For example, two private American groups, The American Defense Harvard Group, and The American Council of Learned Societies, organized several hundred expert scholars, art historians, collectors and artists many of them refugees from Europe and painstakingly prepared over 800 detailed maps for Allied ground and air forces. These maps showed monuments, fine art collections and archives to be protected.
In World War II, looting and cultural destruction were also prosecuted in the International Tribunal at Nuremberg. Goering, for instance, was tried, convicted and sentenced for "looting the Low Countries."
Such efforts to protect culture need to be re created today and institutionalized as a permanent feature in the U.N. Peace Keeping Forces. There is an urgent need for action as major historic sites and buildings in many areas of the world are threatened with potential destruction. Of great concern is the situation in the former Yugoslav Republics where "World Heritage Sites" (the historic old cities of Split and Dubrovnik) have been deliberately shelled over extended periods of time by federal forces, in violation of international law, without valid military purpose, and seemingly solely to destroy native Croatian culture.
International treaties to protect our planet's cultural and natural assets have been too often been lacking in implementation. Take, for example, the Roerich Pact, which in its April 15, 1935 form was signed by the U.S. and twenty one other countries in North, Central and South America. To protect sites under this Treaty, parties (nations who have signed or joined the Treaty) are obligated to register sites with the "Registry" (currently the Organization of American States), and display the distinctive flag of the Treaty (often referred to as the " Banner of Peace") . Regrettably, in over fifty five years only Mexico has registered its sites and this legally valid and important treaty lies dormant.
The 1954 Hague Convention (UNESCO) is also under applied. Many countries do not send in required reports to UNESCO and under registration of sites is the pattern. Signatories to the Convention include Israel and all its neighbors, Iran and Iraq, etc. Yet in wars in the Middle East, there has been little, if any, application of the 1954 Hague Convention. And in Yugoslavia, "registered" sites, displaying the banner of the Hague Convention, have been deliberately attacked by federal forces.
To save and preserve artworks, and important cultural and natural sites from destruction and to promote Peace through Culture on a global basis, I propose the creation of a permanent U.N. M,FA & A Unit. The Unit would be a ready force of approximately 1,000 to 2,500 specially trained activists/solders/scholars individually chosen from U.N. Member Countries. When not in action, Unit forces would be based near major restoration/teaching centers (Rome/Paris, etc.) and could be deployed on short notice to any theater of conflict in the world where important cultural, artistic, and/or natural treasures are endangered. The Unit would always be available to the world community for the emergency protection of endangered World Heritage Sites and other appropriate cultural property. Sites in disputed, boundary or occupied areas could be held and administered by M,FA & A Unit forces in emergency situations (floods, earthquakes, civil disorder, etc.) In addition, in conflict areas, the M,FA & A Unit could intervene or be deployed pursuant to an authorizing resolution of the U.N. Security Council.
To support the work of the M,FA & A Unit, I also propose the creation of a civilian/diplomatic office (which I call the "International Commission") to serve as a bridging group between the Security Council, UNESCO and the Peace Keeping Forces. The Commission would employ experts in culture, site preservation and international law, and coordinate "campaigns" to protect specific endangered sites.
In theaters of military conflict, with respect to significant cultural and natural heritage issues, the International Commission could provide negotiating leadership & initiative analogous to the efforts of the Swiss Committee of the International Red Cross.
There are several important (and hitherto unrecognized) ways in which M,FA & A work intrinsically promotes Peace:
Peace begins when potential conflicting parties demonstrate respect for the common environment and the essence and integrity of each other's contributions to the whole;
M,FA & A work is an ideal context in which to begin the processes of finding common values among belligerents and resolving practical issues;
The U.N. Security Council, working through the medium of M,FA & A work, can significantly modify the behavior of belligerents, promote pacification, and affect the course and outcome of regional conflicts;
A permanent M,FA & A Unit will facilitate the needed implementation and better utilization of existing international law;
"Peace Zones" can be created, and enforced easily and readily in war areas if a permanent M,FA & A Unit exists in the U.N. Peace Keeping Forces to aid implementation. United Nations M,FA & A work will help build a sense of shared world community by focusing the world's attention on cultural and natural sites and human experiences that "belong to the common world heritage", etc.
The M,FA & A Unit will become an inspiring and reassuring symbol of the world's organized commitment and dedication to the principles of inclusive diversity and the pursuit of Peace through Culture. Finally, it is important to realize that, at present, there are no (and never have been any) permanent units in the U.N. Peace Keeping Forces. For each crisis a new peace keeping unit has had to be created. Creating the M,FA & A Unit as the first permanent unit in the U.N. Peace Keeping Forces will give the world valuable experience in organizing, staffing and administering a supra national, permanent corps. An independently formed permanent unit (not comprised of units assigned from M,FA & A national armies) will be an important symbolic and tangible step towards creating a more effective U.N./World Government one that can help humanity develop solutions to difficult problems in the context of law and culture and not through resort to war.
For the first permanent U.N. Peace Keeping Unit to be an M,FA & A one, dedicated to extending Peace through Culture, will be a heartening step forward for humanity.
The Proposal is available in a more detailed format with exhibits (totaling about 55 pages) and is being circulated to government, cultural, and world leaders.
For further information, please contact:
Charles E. McConney