Reflected American fears of a Communist takeover following the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia
Placed quotas on immigration from Asia and Eastern Europe
Two Italian immigrants were found guilty of murder and executed based on questionable evidence of guilt
[Second] Ku Klux Klan Provided an outlet for nativist sentiment against African Americans, Jews and Catholics in addition to continuing the First Klan’s commitment to white supremacy. The Klan’s membership exceeded four million in the 1920s, and the organization was strongest in the Midwest (Indiana, Ohio, etc.) FACT: The phrase, “Monkey Trial,” was coined by H.L. Mencken, a reporter covering the trial for the Baltimore Sun.
The Scopes “Monkey” Trial Fundamentalism: Strict Adherence to a doctrine e.g. Christianity The Tennessee legislature passed a law forbidding the teaching of Charles Darwin’s theory of Evolution in public schools. John Scopes, a substitute teacher and football coach, taught a lesson on evolution so that the town of Dayton, Tenn., could host a trial.
William Jennings Bryan, a Fundamentalist, volunteered to prosecute the case against Scopes. He was opposed by Clarence Darrow, who represented the
American Civil Liberties Union.
During the 1920s, the Federal Reserve kept interest rates low, which encouraged borrowing.
Consumers borrowed money to pay for new appliances and other consumer goods, purchasing these items on credit
Since the stock market was doing so well, many people borrowed money to speculate in the market. Borrowing money to invest in stocks is called
buying on the Margin.
By the late 1920s, consumers had so much debt that they could no longer pay for expensive consumer goods, which lowered demand. This resulted in overproduction, resulting in decreased profits for companies.
President Herbert Hoover tried many things, such as increasing tax rates and the tariff, but his efforts failed to bring about recovery. Many historians contend that Hoover’s meddling only made things worse, while others criticize him for not doing enough. Hoover rejected the idea of DIRECT RELIEF (payments from the government to individuals). Standard 6.4
The New Deal
Franklin D. Roosevelt Wife: Eleanor
The “Darkest Days”
Bank Shut Down
The “Three R’s” of the New Deal:
FDR’s Alphabet Soup (New Deal Agencies created by the FDR administration)
“HUNDRED DAYS” (FIRST NEW DEAL) LEGISLATION AAA: Agricultural Adjustment Administration
FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
NRA: National Recovery Administration
SEC: Securities and Exchange Commission
TVA: Tennessee Valley Authority
SECOND NEW DEAL LEGISLATION NLRB:National Labor Relations Board Established by the Wagner Act
Huey Long, Townsend, Father Coughlin: Didn’t do Enough
Former President Hoover: Too much Government Intervention
The Supreme Court and the New Deal In Schechter v. United States (1935), the Supreme Court declared the National Recovery Act Unconstitutional. This is an example of judicial Review a principle established by John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison.
In response to the Supreme Court’s ruling, FDR presented a plan to Congress to Enlarge the Supreme Court, which would have allowed the president to appoint more justices to the Court. This plan undermined the system of Checks and Balances that are enshrined in the U.S. Constitution. Congress rejected the “court packing” plan, handing FDR his first major legislative defeat