Review for the South Carolina United States History and the Constitution

The Roaring Twenties and Harlem Renaissance

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The Roaring Twenties and Harlem Renaissance

The Roaring Twenties
Mass Production Henry Ford Assembly Line

Household Appliances
Aviation Charles Lindbergh (Pilot)
1920s Literature

Harlem Renaissance

The “Lost Generation”

Langston Hughes
An outpouring of African-American literature, art, and poetry

F. Scott Fitzgerald

The Great Gatsby
Ernest Hemingway

The Entertainment Industry


The Movies


Movies like Rise of a Nation influenced cultural attitudes. The popularity of Birth of a Nation is partially responsible for the re-emergence of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s.

Twenties Culture
Flappers Women who wanted to shock society by cutting hair short wearing short dresses
Nativism - Prejudice against all who were not born in America
Standard 6.2

[First] Red Scare

Immigration Quota Acts

Sacco and Vanzetti Trial

Reflected American fears of a Communist takeover following the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

Placed quotas on immigration from Asia and Eastern Europe
(New Immigrants)

Two Italian immigrants were found guilty of murder and executed based on questionable evidence of guilt

[Second] Ku Klux Klan
Provided an outlet for nativist sentiment against African Americans, Jews and Catholics in addition to continuing the First Klan’s commitment to white supremacy. The Klan’s membership exceeded four million in the 1920s, and the organization was strongest in the Midwest (Indiana, Ohio, etc.)
FACT: The phrase, “Monkey Trial,” was coined by H.L. Mencken, a reporter covering the trial for the Baltimore Sun.

The Scopes “Monkey” Trial
Fundamentalism: Strict Adherence to a doctrine e.g. Christianity
The Tennessee legislature passed a law forbidding the teaching of Charles Darwin’s theory of Evolution in public schools. John Scopes, a substitute teacher and football coach, taught a lesson on evolution so that the town of Dayton, Tenn., could host a trial.
William Jennings Bryan, a Fundamentalist, volunteered to prosecute the case against Scopes. He was opposed by Clarence Darrow, who represented the
American Civil Liberties Union.

Standard 6.3

The Great Depression

Easy Money” Policies


Stock Market Speculation

During the 1920s, the Federal Reserve kept interest rates low, which encouraged borrowing.

Consumers borrowed money to pay for new appliances and other consumer goods, purchasing these items on credit


Since the stock market was doing so well, many people borrowed money to speculate in the market. Borrowing money to invest in stocks is called
buying on the Margin.

By the late 1920s, consumers had so much debt that they could no longer pay for expensive consumer goods, which lowered demand. This resulted in overproduction, resulting in decreased profits for companies.

STOCK MARKET Crash (1929)


The Dust Bowl


Shanty Towns

Dust Storms in the West

Skyrockets to near 25%

President Herbert Hoover tried many things, such as increasing tax rates and the tariff, but his efforts failed to bring about recovery. Many historians contend that Hoover’s meddling only made things worse, while others criticize him for not doing enough. Hoover rejected the idea of DIRECT RELIEF (payments from the government to individuals).
Standard 6.4

The New Deal

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Wife: Eleanor
The “Darkest Days”
Bank Shut Down

The “Three R’s” of the New Deal:





FDR’s Alphabet Soup (New Deal Agencies created by the FDR administration)
AAA: Agricultural Adjustment Administration
FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
NRA: National Recovery Administration

SEC: Securities and Exchange Commission
TVA: Tennessee Valley Authority

NLRB:National Labor Relations Board Established by the Wagner Act

SSA: Social Security Act

Criticisms of the New Deal

From the “Left”

From the “Right”

Huey Long, Townsend, Father Coughlin: Didn’t do Enough

Former President Hoover: Too much Government Intervention

The Supreme Court and the New Deal
In Schechter v. United States (1935), the Supreme Court declared the National Recovery Act Unconstitutional. This is an example of judicial Review a principle established by John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison.

In response to the Supreme Court’s ruling, FDR presented a plan to Congress to Enlarge the Supreme Court, which would have allowed the president to appoint more justices to the Court. This plan undermined the system of Checks and Balances that are enshrined in the U.S. Constitution. Congress rejected the “court packing” plan, handing FDR his first major legislative defeat

Standard 7

Standard 7.1

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