Review for Midterm

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Class 16

Ex-Post-Facto designs (continued)

  • A comparison of Prospective and Retrospective data

  • Volunteers

  • Review for Midterm

  • return of Flotsam & Jetsam assignments

Winter Colloquium Series

Dr. Peter MacIntyre

The Role of Motivation and Emotion in Adult Second Language Learning

Friday, March 5, 1999, 3:30 p.m.

BAC 244

Supported by the Associated Alumni Visiting Lectureship Fund of Acadia University

Cyclic Moods?

How many believe their moods vary with:

  • Days of the week?

  • Lunar cycle?

  • Menstrual cycle?

How would you study this?

Raging female hormones in the courts

Macleans, June 15, 1981

Treatment for PMS ordered as stabber put on probation

Globe and Mail, Feb 10, 1987

Women’s violence blamed on period

Toronto Star, August 25th 1978

Woman’s syndrome brings leniency

Vancouver Sun, February 10th, 1987

Politics of PMS

  • 1929 term “premenstrual tension” Dr. Robert Frank

  • Since 1970’s Dr. Katherine Dalton - supports progesterone therapy

  • estimates of prevalence 6-95%

  • 150 somatic and psychological symptoms associated with PMS

  • According to some, PMS is a social and political construct

Hormonal Changes
Over Menstrual

Criteria for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

A: At least five of the following, present during last week of luteal phase, remit within days of follicular phase onset and absent week postmenses

(1) markedly depressed mood, feelings of hopelessness. or self deprecating thoughts

(2) marked anxiety, tension, feelings of being "keyed up.' or "on edge"

(3) marked affective lability, (e.g.. feeling suddenly sad or tearful or increased sensitivity to rejection)

(4) persistent and marked anger or irritability or increased interpersonal conflicts

(5) decreased interest in usual activities (e.g., work, school, friends, hobbies)

from DSM IV

Criteria for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder


(6) subjective sense of difficulty in concentrating

(7) lethargy, easy fatigability or marked lack of energy

(8)marked change in appetite, overeating, or specific food cravings

(9) hypersomnia or insomnia

(10) a subjective sense of being overwhelmed or out of control

(11) other physical symptoms, such as breast tenderness or swelling, headaches, joint or muscle pain, a sensation of "bloating," Weight gain

from DSM IV

Criteria for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Comparing Retrospective and
Prospective Data

Mood Fluctuations:

Women versus men and menstrual versus other cycles

Jessica McFarland, C.L. Martin &
T. MacBeth Williams


Methodological problems with existing literature:

  • demand characteristics (expectations of participants, bias, volunteers)

  • Measured negative moods (truncated range)

  • Retrospective reports

  • No control groups

  • No assessment of “normal” range of moods

Arousal Levels

Mood Pleasantness

Mood Pleasantness Ratings by days of the Week

Data on Prevalence of PMS Symptoms

  • In surveys, most women report being more emotional premenstrually

  • With prospective studies, most women do not show any relationship between mood and “time of month”

  • Of those who report PMS symptoms, only 50% actually have these mood fluctuations

  • Subsequent studies have shown a significant positive correlation between a woman’s belief in PMS prevalence and the extent of her retrospective bias.

Characteristics of Volunteers
From Text Book pp. 122-128

Issues are:

  • Whether volunteers differ in meaningful ways from non-volunteers

  • Do any differences affect the external validity of research

  • Do any differences affect the internal validity of research

Characteristics of Research Volunteers


1. Volunteers tend to be more highly educated than nonvolunteers.

2. Volunteers tend to come from a higher social class than nonvolunteers.

3. Volunteers are of higher intelligence in general, but not when volunteering for atypical research (such as hypnosis, sex research).

4. Volunteers have a higher need for approval than nonvolunteers.

5. Volunteers are more social than nonvolunteers.

SOURCE: Adapted from Rosenthal & Rosnow, 1975.

Characteristics of Research Volunteers


1. Volunteers are more "arousal seeking" than nonvolunteers (especially when the research involves stress).

2. People who volunteer for sex research are more unconventional than nonvolunteers.

3. Females are more likely to volunteer than males, except where the research involves physical or emotional stress.

4. Volunteers are less authoritarian than nonvolunteers.

5. Jews are more likely to volunteer than Protestants; however, Protestants are more likely to volunteer than Catholics.

6. Volunteers have a tendency to be less conforming than nonvolunteers, except where the volunteers are female and the research is clinically oriented.

From Horowitz, 1969

Remedies for Volunteerism (p. 127-128)

  • Make the appeal interesting

  • Make the appeal nonthreatening

  • State the importance of the research

  • State why the target population is relevant

  • Pay them. Give gifts.

  • Have request come from a high status (preferable female) person.

  • Avoid stressful research

  • Communicate the normative nature of participating

  • Make the appeal come from a a known person if possible

  • Depending, commitment to volunteer might be better made privately or publicly

Midterm Review


  • Factorial Experiments: Advantages

  • Factorial designs: terminology

  • #levels IV1 x #levels IV2 x #levels IV3 etc.

  • Interpreting data from 3 factor experiments and/or experiments with three or more levels of one or more IV (e.g., in class

  • Ex-post-facto designs: prospective and retrospective designs - advantages disadvantages

  • Problems & Partial solutions:

Midterm Review

  • DVs used in Ex-post-facto studies

  • Problem with both in that absolute risks are hidden, both should be reported

  • Time-series designs, small-n designs

  • A-B studies (e.g., homicides after prize fights, JFK’s assassination, TV effects etc.)

  • multiple baseline designs

  • internal validity

  • non-equivalent control group

  • replication within-subjects

  • generalizability

  • Assessing external and ecological validity

  • Volunteers

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