iron and blood.” Bismarck used war as well as diplomacy to achieve his goal of German unification. He strengthened German industry and the military and criticized those who opposed him. He even tricked France into declaring war on Prussia (the most powerful state of the 38 German states). When Prussia easily defeated France in about 6 months, the southern German states agreed to join the Northern German Confederation. On January 18th, 1871, Bismarck and about 600 nobles, princes, and generals filled the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles in Paris and declared Wilhelm of Prussia Emperor Wilhelm of the German Empire, and the country of Germany we know today was created.
In Italy, inspirational and military leader Giuseppe Garibaldi and his army of about a thousand volunteers became known as “the thousand” or the “red shirts”. After fighting in Brazil and Uruguay in South America, Garibaldi returned to his home of Italy. To help his king, King Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia and Piedmont in northern Italy, Garibaldi led his “army of the thousand” to the island of Sicily, where he quickly took control of most of the island by 1860. He then crossed over into the mainland of Italy and marched up the Italian peninsula winning victories and raising more men for his army as he went. In March of 1861, a new state of Italy was created under King Victor Emmanuel II. Though most of Italy was now united, the papal state of Rome was still under control of the Pope with French protection, and northern areas like Venice were under foreign control. When the French left Rome to fight the Prussians (Germans), Italians who wanted unification saw their chance. The rest of Italy became unified and Rome became its capital by 1871. The year 1871 is considered the year that both Germany and Italy became states (countries).
Review: There were also nationalistic movements in South and Central America in the early 1800s. Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar helped liberate Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, Colombia, and Chile from Spain. The Monroe Doctrine of 1823, created by President James Monroe, states that any more colonizing in North or South America by European powers would be seen as an act of aggression and may result in U.S. intervention.