Review Answer Key
(a) Spanish colonies were sponsored, funded, and strictly controlled by the Spanish crown; (b) French colonies were sponsored, funded, and strictly controlled by the French crown; and (c) English colonies were sponsored, funded by individual initiative (not state direction) and were not strictly controlled by Parliament (salutary neglect)
(a) Spanish conquistadors attacked Indians & had a “frontier of inclusions” involving Catholic conversion & intermarriage; (b) French trade with Indians for furs; (c) English had a “frontier of exclusion” in which they did not attempt significant religious conversion, trade, or intermarriage with Indians
Any three will do: Chesapeake were dominated by single young men (not families), looking for wealth (not religious ideals), did not work well together (unlike cohesive families in NE), established an elitist republican government in the House of Burgesses (unlike the democratic town meetings), were dominated by indentured servant labor, established an economic-driven society based on tobacco (not community farms)
Any SIX will do: “City on a Hill”—Massachusetts Bay
Order from largest to smallest: #1 indentured servants, #2, African slaves, #3 Germans, #4 Pilgrims
Any three will do: Because of salutary neglect, VA created the House of Burgesses, NE created town hall meetings, Britain did not enforce the Navigation Acts, colonists had religious freedom, royal governors were powerless (especially due to colonial assemblies paying their salaries), colonies created and collected their own taxes, England did not regulate immigration to the colonies.
Any three will do: proposed by Ben Franklin in 1754, proposed an inter-colonial army to counter Indian attacks, was rejected by colonists who didn’t want to pay for it, rejected by Parliament who feared colonial army, revealed the lack of unity in the colonies prior to the French & Indian War and American Revolution
Any three will do: Prime Minister Pitt’s “blank check” left England in considerable debt, England shifted from loose mercantilism to strict enforcement of revenue taxes, shift from salutary neglect to parliamentary sovereignty, beginning of colonial resentment against England, France ceded lands in North America to England and Spain, England created the Proclamation Line of 1763 to limit colonial western expansion, etc.
Any THREE will do:
Navigation Acts: (a) England restricted colonial trade to enforce mercantilist policy in 1660; (b) after initial resistance, the colonists accepted the Navigation Acts but England never really enforced them
Sugar Act: (a) revenue tax on sugar to raise money for French & Indian War; (b) few colonists protested, but the slogan “no taxation without representation” began among elite who were affected
Stamp Act: (a) revenue tax placed on common paper goods like newspapers and marriage and birth certificates; (b) massive colonial protests, boycotts, formation of the Sons of Liberty
Townshend Acts: (a) a series of indirect taxes on lead, glass, tea to raise revenue to pay off debt from the French & Indian War; (b) massive colonial resistance, boycott, Circular Letter
Intolerable Acts: (a) punishment for the Boston Tea Party, closed Boston Harbor & restricted colonial trade; (b) colonial unity, First Continental Congress formed to assist Boston