o Repressed Jansenism (a kind of _________________________within Catholic Church)
Mercantilism brought to its apex by Jean-Baptiste ___________________ (1661-1683)
o State control _________________________________________________in order to achieve a favorable _____________________________________________ with other countries.
o Colbert‘s goal was economic self-sufficiency for France
Promoted ―____________________________:a nation‘s policy of accumulating as much precious metal (gold and silver) as possible while preventing its outward flow to other countries.
Built _______________________ & ________________________; gov‘t supported monopolies; cracked down on guilds; reduced local tolls and tariffs; organized French trading companies for international trade: _____________________ and the ______________________.
Most important accomplishment: developed the ______________________________'>____________________________________
o By 1683, France leading industrial country: ________________, __________________, lace making, foundries for_______________ making and ____________________
Poor peasant conditions (esp. taxation) resulted in __________________________________
Louis opted for army instead of______________; France later lost naval wars w/ England
War in later years nullified Colbert‘s gains; Louis at war for _______________ of his reign
Wars of Louis XIV: initially ___________________ but eventually ____________ to France
France created a massive modern army with the potential to dominate Europe
o A system of _____________________________________ developed to keep France in check
William of ____________ (later, King William III of England) thwarted Louis‘ expansionism
o War of Devolution (First Dutch War), 1667-68: France gained 12 fortified towns along the French-Belgian border but gave up Burgundy in return.
o Second Dutch War (1672-78) – Invasion of the Dutch Rhineland
France took Franche-Comté from Spain, gained some Flemish towns, and took ___________
Represented the furthest extent of Louis XIV‘s expansion
War of the League of Augsburg(1688-97): eventually ended in status quo
o League of Augsburg (formed in 1686 to counter France‘s growing power): included the ___________________, Spain, _______________, Bavaria, _______________, Dutch Republic
o William of Orange (now king of England) brought England in against France.
War of Spanish Succession(1701-13)
o The will of Charles II (Spanish ___________________king) gave all Spanish territories to grandson of _______________________; other countries feared France would dominate
o ______________________________ sought to preserve the balance of power: England, Dutch Rep., HRE, Brandenburg, Portugal, Savoy
o Treaty of______________ (1713):most important treaty since __________________(in 1648)
Britain was biggest winner: gained the _______________ (slave trade) from Spain; gained Gibraltar and Minorca.
Spanish Netherlands (Belgium) was given to ___________(became the Austrian Netherland)
Although Louis XIV‘s grandson enthroned, the treaty prevented the unification of Bourbon dynasties.
Kings recognized in Sardinia (Savoy) and Prussia (Brandenburg)
Costs of Louis XIV‘s wars:
o Destroyed France‘s economy
o _____________% of French subjects died
o Huge debt placed on the _____________Estate
French gov‘t was__________________
o Financial and social tensions sowed the seeds of the _________________________________
Decline of the Spanish Empire(although it remained most powerful military until mid-17th c.)
Foundation for _________________________ in Spain was laid by Charles V (1519-1556) and Philip II (1556-1598)
Spanish Armada, 1588: symbolized the rise of England as a world power and the limits of Spanish dominance
Loss of middle class: _________________ and _______________ had been expelled in large numbers (Spain‘s population declined by over ______________%)
Spain‘s trade with its colonies fell __________% between 1610 and 1660
Spanish treasury became ___________________
National taxes particularly hurt the peasantry
Inflation from the _______________hurt domestic industries that were unable to export goods
Poor work ethic among the upper classes stunted economic growth (lack of ______________)
Religion _________________________________ politics in domestic affairs
Defeat in ______________________ War: politically and economically disastrous
1640, Portugal reestablished independence.
Treaty of the ___________________________(1659): marked end of Spain as a Great Power