Retreat from democracy the authoritarian and totalitarian states

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Totalitarian States =

1. Nazi Germany

2. Stalinist Russia
Aspects of Totalitarian regimes -

1. Extended the functions and power of the state

2. Active loyalty and commitment of the citizens

3. Modern mass propaganda and modern communications - conquer hearts and minds

4. Economic control

5. Political control

6. Social control

7. Intellectual control

8. Cultural control

9. Single leader or party

10. Rejection of liberalism - no constitutions, no limited govt, no civil liberties, no voting

11. Focus on the “will of the people” - which the leader or party determined

12. Transcended traditional political labels = it was both extreme left and extreme right

Italy in 1919 -

1. Poor performance in WW I

2. Felt they were cheated at the Paris Peace Conference

3. Inflation and unemployment

4. Discontented veterans

5. Weak and ineffective government

6. Fear of communism and Bolshevik style revolution

Benito Mussolini -

1. Fails as a school teacher

2. Becomes a socialist and editor of a socialist newspaper

3. Supports Italian entry into WW I - becomes a nationalist - expelled from the socialist party

4. In 1919 forms a new political party called the Fascio di Combittimento = the League of Combat
Fasces = axe and bundle of rods/sticks that was the ancient Roman symbol of the power of the state
Fascism = the political party and ideology developed by Mussolini
The rise of Mussolini and the Fascists -

1. Growing political power of the socialists

2. Fear that Italy might have a communist revolution

3. Strikes, class conflict and violence rip through Italy

4. Business and middle class begin supporting Mussolini - protection from revolution

5. Mussolini’s beliefs = anti-communism/anti-strike activity/nationalism

6. Fascists from armed groups called the Squarest - attack socialist offices and newspaper

7. Alliance between the liberals and the Fascists

8. The March on Rome - Oct. 1922 = Mussolini plans to march to Rome and seize power

9. The government caves in before the march takes place and the King names Mussolini as Prime Minister

The Black Shirts = Mussolini’s followers
1924 national elections - the Fascists win 65% of the vote
1924 the Fascists assassinate the socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti - political crisis and Mussolini almost loses power
1925 Mussolini begins the process of establishing a full dictatorship
By 1926 Mussolini had

1. Abolished freedom of the press

2. Rigged elections

3. Government ruled by decree

4. Political opponents were arrested

5. Labor unions disbanded

6. Schools were controlled by the fascists

7. Italy had become a one-party dictatorship

Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state!”

Mussolini = he and his party were the state
Mussolini tried to create a totalitarian state =

1. Police/secret police - repression and intimidation

2. Propaganda

3. Control of education and brain washing of youth

4. Creation of numerous fascists organizations
But he never was able to accomplish it

1. The army remained independent

2. The monarchy remained independent

3. The church - The Lateran Accords 1929 = recognized the Vatican as an independent state and the in

Return urged people to support the Fascist regime of Mussolini
Mussolini was never able to destroy the old power structure and was never able to become all-powerful
Fascists supported social conservatism -

1. Divorce was abolished

2. “Woman into the Home!” - stay at home and produce babies

3. Female emancipation was “unfascist”

4. Tax imposed on bachelors

5. Laws passed encouraging larger families

6. Laws passed limiting the number of women allowed in the workforce
Fascist Italy was undemocratic and a dictatorship but never became totalitaria

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