Writing Guidelines for essays. Pattern of Attack for M/C
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BasicA.P.LANGUAGE/LITERARYANDRHETORICALTERMS Every A.P. English student should be familiar with the basic terms used to describe style—imagery, diction,syntax, figuresof speech, structureand tone. In addition, here are some more relatively useful terms used to describe techniques of language and argument.
simile personification apostrophe allusion hyperbole
Glossary of Important Grammatical, Literary, and Rhetorical Terms
Abstract: refers to things that are intangible, that is, which are perceived not through the senses but by the mind, such as truth, God, education, vice, transportation, poetry, war, love.
AdHominem:/ ăd hŏm ə nəm /An argument based on the failings of an adversary rather than on the merits of the case; a logical fallacy that involves a personal attack.; relies on intimidation and ignorance
AdMisericordiamfallacy Appeal to Pity, attempts to evoke feelings of pity or compassion not relevant
Allegory: Extending a metaphor so that objects, persons, and actions in a text are equated with meanings that lie outside the text. A sustained metaphor continued through whole sentences or eve through a whole discourse.
Alliteration: repetition of the same sound beginning several words in sequence.
*Let us go forth to lead the land we love. J. F. Kennedy, Inaugural
**Veni, vidi, vici. Julius Caesar
Allusion: A brief, usually indirect reference to a person, place, or event--real or fictional.
Ambiguity: The presence of two or more possible meanings in any passage. The result of expressing an idea in words that have two or more possible meanings. Ambiguity is sometimes unintentional, as when a pronoun is used without a clear referent [antecedent].
*Agreements entered into when one state of facts exists -- are they to be maintained regardless of changing conditions? J.
Anadiplosis: ( n -d -pl s s) ("doubling back") the rhetorical repetition of one or several words; specifically, repetition of a word that ends one clause at the beginning of the next.
*Men in great place are thrice servants: servants of the sovereign or state; servants of fame; and servants of business.
Analogy: Reasoning or arguing from parallel cases. A set of point-by point resemblances between members of the same class or between different classes.
Anaphora: (ə năf ər ə) the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines.
*We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender. Churchill.
Anastrophe: transposition of normal word order; most often found in Latin in the case of prepositions and the words they control.
Anastrophe is a form of hyperbaton.
*The helmsman steered; the ship moved on; yet never a breeze up blew. Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
Anathem: ( -n th -m ) an object of intense dislike; a curse or strong denunciation (often used adjectivally without the article)
Antecedent: ( n t -s d nt)The noun or noun phrase referred to by a pronoun.
Anthimeria: the use of one part of speech (or word class) for another
“Hey, my checker reached the other side; king me.”
Anticlimax: see Bathos
Antimetabole (an-tee-meh-TA-boe-lee): Figure of emphasis in which the words in one phrase or clause are replicated, exactly or closely, in reverse grammatical order in the next phrase or clause; an inverted order of repeated words in adjacent phrases or clauses (A-B, B-A). (Related to Chiasmus but exact wording)
"The absenceofevidence is not the evidenceofabsence." -- Carl Sagan
*Extremism in defense of liberty is no vice, moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue. Barry Goldwater
*Brutus: Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more. Shakespeare, Julius Caesar
*The vases of the classical period are but the reflection of classical beauty; the vases of the archaic period are beauty itself." Sir John Beazley
Aphorism/epigram [‘æf ə ‘rɪ zəm]A concise statement designed to make a point or a common belief. (1) A tersely phrased statement of a truth or opinion.
(2) A brief statement of a principle.
Example: A penny saved is a penny earned- - Ben Franklin
Aposiopesis: [‘æ pə ˌ’saɪ ə ‘pi sɪs]a form of ellipse by which a speaker comes to an abrupt halt, seemingly overcome by passion (fear, excitement, etc.) or modesty.
Apostrophe: A rhetorical term for breaking off discourse to address some absent person or thing;a sudden turn from the general audience to address a specific group or person or personified abstraction absent or present.
*For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel.
Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him. Shakespeare, Julius Caesar
AppealtoAuthority: A fallacy in which a speaker or writer seeks to persuade not by giving evidence but by appealing to the respect people have for a famous person or institution.
AppealtoFlattery Sucking Up, (plain folks is a subcategory) Apple Polishing: whenever a person attempts to compliment or flatter another in order to get her to accept the truth of a proposition. In some instances, it may be implied that the person deserves the flattery because they accept the position in question.
AppealtoIgnorance; A fallacy that uses an opponent's inability to disprove a conclusion as proof of the conclusion's correctness.
AppealtoPrejudicefallacy: Arguing from a bias or emotional identification or involvement with an idea (argument, doctrine, institution, etc.).
Appositive: [ə ‘pɒ zɪ tɪv] a noun, noun phrase, or noun clause which follows a noun or pronoun and renames or describes the noun or pronoun. Appositives are often set off by commas.
“Tom, thenewstudent, arrived the second week of class.” Tom= the new student
Jimbo Gold, aprofessionalmagician, performed at my sister's birthday party. Jimbo Gold=a professional magician,.
Some distance from where I was sitting; T. S. Eliot, "A Cooking Egg"
Argumentadignorantiumfallacy: that, because a premise cannot be proven false, the premise must be true; or that, because a premise cannot be proven true, the premise must be false. Arguer offers a conclusion and calls on opponent to disprove the conclusion. If opponent cannot, arguer asserts conclusion is true.
Argumentadpopulumfallacy: An argument that if many believe it so, it is so
Argument: A course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating truth or falsehood.
Argumentumadhominemfallacy "to the man":Name Calling and Personal Attack: uses derogatory implications or innuendos to turn people against a rival. Name-calling by itself is not technically an ad hominem fallacy. Rather, the attack on the arguer must occur as an ostensible attack on an argument. If no argument is offered there is no ad hominem (or any other kind of fallacy) at work.
Argumentumadpopulumfallacy Bandwagon appeal to popularity, authority of the many: relies on the uncritical acceptance of others' opinions; something must be true because many or all people believe it is.
Argumentumadtraditiofallacy Appeal to Inertia (don't rock the boat ) based on the principle of "letting sleeping dogs lie". We should continue to do things as they have been done in the past. We shouldn't challenge time-honored customs or traditions.
Assonance: repetition of the same sound in words close to each other.
*But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. Lincoln, Gettysburg
Atmosphere: the general feeling or emotion created in the reader at a given point in a literarywork (mood)
Audience one'slistenerorreadership;thosetowhoma speechorpieceofwritingis addressed Balancedsentence a type of parallel construction in which two major sentence elements that contrast with one another are balanced between a coordinating conjunction
Bandwagon: An appeal that tries to get its audience to adopt and opinion that “everyone else” is said to hold. Popular with advertisers and political candidates, attempts to get us to jump on a bandwagon rely on our eagerness to be on the winning side.
*The candidate that “everyone is voting for,” and the jeans “everyone will be wearing”
Bathos: An abrupt, unintended transition in style from the exalted to the commonplace, producing a ludicrous effect, an anticlimax.
* He has seen the ravages of war, he has known natural catastrophes, he has been to singles bars: (Woody Allen).
OR Insincere or grossly sentimental pathos: "a richly textured man who . . . can be . . . sentimental to the brink of bathos" (Kenneth L. Woodward).
*I listen vainly, but with thirsty ear. MacArthur, Farewell Address
Causeandeffect A method of development in which a writer analyzes reasons for an action, event, or decision, or analyzes its consequences.
Cherrypicking/CardStackingfallacy the act of pointing at individual cases or data that seem to confirm a particular position, while ignoring a significant portion of related cases or data that may contradict that position.
Chiasmus: [kaɪ ˈæz məs]two corresponding pairs arranged not in parallels (a-b-a-b) but in inverted order (a-b-b-a); from shape of the Greek letter chi (X).
*Those gallant men will remain often in my thoughts and in my prayers always. MacArthur
CircularArgument:(Beggingthequestion) An argument that commits the logical fallacy of assuming what it is attempting to prove. Asserts an unsupported premise and later restates that premise as a conclusion.
*Here is an example [of begging the question] taken from an article on exclusive men's clubs in San Francisco. In explaining why these clubs have such long waiting lists, Paul B. 'Red' Fay, Jr. (on the roster of three of the clubs) said, 'The reason
there's such a big demand is because everyone wants to get in them.' In other words, there is a big demand because there is a big demand."
(H. Kahane and N. Cavender, LogicandContemporaryRhetoric:TheUseofReasoninEverydayLife, 10th ed.