Request to Change the Title of a Major and Minor Degree Program For the Newly-Named Latina/Latino Studies Department

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San Francisco State University

College of Ethnic Studies

Department of Latina/Latino Studies

Request to Change the Title of a Major and Minor Degree Program

For the Newly-Named Latina/Latino Studies Department
June 29, 2010
Contact Person:
Teresa Carrillo, Ph.D.

Chair, Associate Professor

Department of Latina/Latino Studies

Tel. 415 338-2700


Request to Change the Title of a Major and Minor Degree Program

This is a request submitted by the Department of Latina/Latino Studies to change the title of our baccaulaureate and minor programs from Raza Studies to Latina/Latino Studies.. This change is being requested subsequent to the approval for the change of the department name from Raza Studies to Latina/Latino Studies. . The reason we are requesting a change in the title of the major and minor degree programs is analogous to the departmental name change --the rationale behind both is outlined below.


A. Background

Overview and Historical Context:

The Latina/Latino Studies Department at San Francisco State University has a long and distinguished history among Ethnic Studies programs in the United States. It was founded as the first program of its kind on a four-year college campus as a result of the campus-wide Third World Student Strike in October of 1968. The strike and boycott of classes lasted until April 1969 and led to the establishment of the College of Ethnic Studies in that year. The Program in Mexican American Studies was initially founded in the Fall 1969 (Cuellar, 1999). It evolved in 1975 into La Raza Studies and in the 1990s had its first departmental name change to Raza Studies, mainly to address the grammatical clumsiness of have the article “la” as a part of the departmental name. The “La Raza Studies” and then “Raza Studies” departmental titles were chosen to promote an inclusive identity for the uniquely San Francisco mix of Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Mexicanos, Central and South Americans living primarily in San Francisco's Mission District. The Department's multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary curriculum examines pan-Latino experiences in the U.S. and the transnational politics and movements of Latino communities. The department remains committed to a scholar-activist paradigm of social justice and community service.

B. Problem Statement

Why we seek to change the names of our degree programs:

The Latina/Latino Studies Department is unique among the hundreds of programs that make the pan-Latino population their primary academic area of scholarly focus and teaching. These programs emerged as a result of the identity politics and social movements of the late 1960s and 1970s. The Chicano and Puerto Rican student movements demanded the creation of the first departments, institutes, and research centers in Chicano Studies, Mexican American Studies, Puerto Rican Studies, Central American Studies, Hispanic Studies, and Cuban American Studies in various parts of the nation. Initially, each was primarily concerned with a specific Latino nationality and only secondarily with a broader, pan-ethnic construction of the field. It was not until the late 1980s and 1990s that Latino Studies, and later Latina/o Studies, became the nomenclature of choice signaling this more inclusive mapping of the field. Yet the Raza Studies Department at San Francisco State University remains the first, and to this day the only, department in the country that uses the term “Raza” to define itself. While the term “Raza” initially signaled a sharp break with the ethnic-specific focus of these early programs, it has become somewhat anachronistic and introduces unnecessary semantic confusion. Finally, in using the title “Raza Studies,” our department foregoes an opportunity to locate ourselves squarely within the emerging and exciting field of Latina/Latino Studies.
The term “Raza” literally means race but is more colloquially used by Latinos as an inclusive reference to people hood. It figuratively references the Spanish conquest of the indigenous Indians of Mexico and the resulting mestizaje or racial mixing of indigenous, European, and African peoples unique to the Americas. In practical usage, the term Raza refers to mestizos or mixed-raced peoples who are the product of over five hundred years of racial miscegenation under Spanish colonial rule. The term Raza was popularized by Mexican educator Jose Vasconcelos who invoked the term La Raza Cósmica to inclusively refer to a new "race" of people born out of the history of racial mixing in Mexico as well as the Caribbean and Central and South America (Vasconcelos, 1948).
The department was named La Raza Studies in order to foreground an inclusive identity for the uniquely pan-Latino population in San Francisco. In so doing, it avoided privileging the Mexican population (as did most “Chicano” or “Mexican American” Studies Departments at the time) or resorting to hybrid constructions such as the “Chicano-Boricua” Studies Department at Wayne State University or the “Puerto Rican and Latino” Studies Department at the University of Connecticut. Recently, the name of La Raza Studies Department was streamlined to "Raza Studies;" correcting a grammatically awkward repetition of “the” in English and “la” in Spanish, while retaining the inclusiveness that is even more important today than it was in 1969.
Yet the decidedly Mexican inflection of the term Raza and the way it was overly-racialized by the masculinist Chicano movement of that period has not escaped us (Haney-Lopez, 2003). In addition, the term “Raza” is superficially, but commonly construed as exclusive, thwarting the term’s inclusive intent. Indeed, conservative political commentators and critics use it to paint us as a self-racializing and single-mindedly ethnocentric population. We seek to move beyond essentialism and at the same time, reaffirm our right to self-determination by invoking a term that more accurately reflects how Latinos primarily self-identify today. The term Latina/Latino Studies also reflects how the larger society now acknowledges our internal diversity and uses a particular nomenclature to capture that pan-ethnicity.
B. Justification
Why We Renamed Ourselves the Latina/o Studies Department:
While the term Raza initially acknowledged San Francisco’s pan-Latino diversity in the late 1960s, it has now been eclipsed by the widespread use of the term “Latino” to capture that internal diversity. Yet we remained singular among contemporary Latino Studies Departments in our use of the moniker “Raza Studies” to reflect our mapping of the pan-Latino population. At the time of our founding, the term Raza was a very forward thinking and inclusive approach to our community’s self-designation and identity. The term Latino meant something very different at that particular time; yet its meaning too has evolved in the past forty years and has been used throughout Latin America. It has now primarily become the preferred alternative to the governmental invocation and use of the term “Hispanic.” That troubling term clearly privileges our Spanish ancestry while obscuring or denying the equally important Indigenous, African, Asian, Arab, and other elements of our multi-racial ancestries. We sought to reconcile our department name with the changing landscape and reaffirm our commitment to the original intent of the term Raza as an inclusive, umbrella term that captures the inherent diversity of our communities (Aparicio, 2007; Flores, 2000).
Even the federal decennial census has recently confirmed the widespread acceptance among the general public of the term Latino. For example, Census 2000 and the upcoming Census 2010 uses it synonymously with the once privileged term “Hispanic” or earlier constructions of Latinos as “Spanish-origin” or “Spanish-speaking” (Rodriguez, 2000). The federal government has formally accepted the term “Latino” and defines it as "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race” (Census 2000). The once regionally-concentrated Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban populations of the sixties have been irreversibly transformed into a nationwide pan-Latino population that includes Salvadoran, Nicaraguan, Guatemalan, Dominican, Peruvian, and other South American nationalities (Portes, 2007). The scope of the population that now comprises our academic field, scholarly work, and teaching has changed over time; so too how we now have come to define ourselves. We seek to reconcile our department’s name with this demographic transformation and the attendant way in which we prefer to self-identify.
In so doing, we seek to affirm our principled commitment to gender equity by not privileging a masculinist construction of our department and rename our unit the Latina/Latino Studies Department. That particular construction signals the importance of gender equity among our faculty, students, and in our curriculum. Where the field was once largely preoccupied with the heroic contributions of Latino men, our department is committed to exploring the role of gender in all of its varied constructions among the pan-Latino population. In foregrounding the importance of this principle, we believe our departmental renaming captures the contributions and experiences of both Latinas and Latinos in the United States. While this construction is admittedly cumbersome, we remain confident that Latina/Latino Studies clearly reflects our commitment to gender equity while also reaffirming our ethnic diversity as well. This is a foundational principle in our department and is in line with numerous other programs in the field that use the construction “Latina/o Studies” to represent this programmatic commitment.
Finally, perhaps the most compelling reason to change our degree title name is to affirmatively and unambiguously become a part of the larger field of Latina/o Studies. In doing so, we join a large and diverse community of scholars across the nation and across the Americas that shares a commitment to scholarship and curricular development centered on Latinos in the US and the transnational links between the Latino Diaspora and the home countries in Latin America.
List of Degree Requirements

Our degree requirements remain the same before and after the degree title changes; they include:

The 39-unit major program leading to a Bachelor of Arts in [proposed new degree title] Latina/Latino Studies [formerly Raza Studies Major] requires: (Note: The prefix LTNS was approved by the Course Review Committee, effective summer 2011. Course titles and descriptions replacing “Raza” with “Latina/Latino” are also in place for summer 2011.)

+ 12 units of core courses

Raza 215 Introduction to Raza Studies

Raza 410 The Raza Women Seminar on Gender

Raza 435 Oral History and Traditions: Theory and Method

Raza 680 Community Organizing

+ 12 units of courses distributed among specific areas of study

3 units from Latina/o Studies Arts and Humanities courses

3 units from Latina/o Studies History courses

6 units from Latina/o Studies Behavioral and Social Science courses

+ 15 units of Latina/o Studies elective courses selected on advisement.

Students must complete at least one CSL module in conjunction with a Latina/o Studies course.

The 24-unit minor program in [proposed new degree title] Latina/Latino Studies [formerly Raza Studies Minor] requires:

+ 9 units of core courses

Raza 215 Introduction to Raza Studies

Raza 680 Community Organizing

And one of the two following courses:

Raza 410 The Raza Women Seminar on Gender or

Raza 435 Oral History and Traditions: Theory and Method

+ 9 units of courses distributed among specific areas of study

3 units from Latina/o Studies Arts and Humanities courses

3 units from Latina/o Studies History courses

3 units from Latina/o Studies Behavioral and Social Science courses

+ 6 units of Latina/o Studies elective courses selected on advisement.

These requirements compare to those of similar Latina/o Studies programs across the CSU. Three of the most comparable major programs include the Chicana and Chicano Studies Major Degree Program at San Diego State University, the Chicano and Latino Studies Major Degree at Sonoma State University, and the Single Major in Chicana/o Studies at CSU Northridge. The requirements for those programs are as follows:

Chicana and Chicano Studies Major (SDSU)

All candidates for a degree in liberal arts and sciences must complete the graduation requirements listed in the section of this catalog on “Graduation Requirements.” No more than 48 units in Chicana and Chicano studies courses can apply to the degree. A minor is not required with this major.

Preparation for the Major. Chicana and Chicano Studies 110 and 150. (6 units)

Language Requirement. Competency (successfully completing the third college semester or fifth college quarter) is required in one foreign language to fulfill the graduation requirement. Students are encouraged to satisfy this language requirement in Spanish. Refer to section of catalog on “Graduation Requirements.”

Graduation Writing Assessment Requirement. Passing the Writing Proficiency Assessment with a score of 10 or above or completing one of the approved upper division writing courses (W) with a grade of C (2.0) or better. See “Graduation Requirements” section for a complete listing of requirements.

Major. A minimum of 27 upper division units to include Chicana and Chicano Studies 301, 410, and 21 units selected from one area of specialization: (social sciences) Chicana and Chicano Studies 303, 306, 320, 340, 350A-350B, 355, 480, 497, 498; or (humanities) Chicana and Chicano Studies 310, 335, 375, 376, 380, 396W, 400, 497; or (border studies) Chicana and Chicano Studies 306, 355, 375, 380, 497, 498, Economics 565, History 551, Political Science 568. Up to six units, with appropriate content, can be applied to each area of specialization from Chicana and Chicano Studies 496, 499, and 596.
Bachelor of Arts in Chicano and Latino Studies (CALS) from Sonoma State University

Degree Requirements Units Major requirements 40 units

Major Core Requirements

CALS 374 Chicano/Latino Literature 3-4

CALS 403 Chicano/Latino Youth & Adolescents or 3-4

CALS 405 The Chicano/Latino Family 4

CALS 426 Chicano/Latino Sociolinguistics 4

CALS 445 Chicano/Latino History 4

CALS 451 Chicano/Latino Humanities 3-4

CALS 458 Chicano and Latino Studies Research Issues 4

CALS 480 Chicano/Latino Studies Seminar 4

Total units in major core 28

CALS Electives

Choose an additional 12 units from the following courses for the general major:*

CALS 225 Spanish for Bilinguals (4) plus 225L (1)

CALS 310 Chicano/Latino Folk Arts & Crafts (1)

CALS 339 Chicanos/Latinos in U.S. Society (3)

CALS 350 Chicano/Latino Theories and Cultures (4)

CALS 352 Chicano/Latino Philosophy (3-4)

CALS 365 Chicano/Latino Theater (1)

CALS 366 Mexican Folk and Traditional Dance (1)

CALS 368 Chicano/Latino Music (3)

CALS 393 Chicano/Latino Cinema (3)

CALS 403 Chicano/Latino Youth and Adolescents (4)

CALS 405 The Chicano/Latino Family (4)

CALS 450 Chicano/Latino Children’s Literature (3-4)

CALS 456 Bilingual/Cross-Cultural Education (4)

CALS 474 Major Authors in Chicano/Latino Literature (4)

CALS 479 Chicano/Latino Art History (3-4)

Total units for the general major 40


The single major in Chicano/a Studies is a 45 unit program designed to give the student special preparation in the discipline of Chicano/a Studies through a combination of lower and upper division core requirements. The lower and upper division core requirements are complemented by three options (Social Sciences, Humanities and the Arts, Education) from which the student must take at least 6.0 units from two of the options. The Major is particularly suited for those students preparing to enter the fields of teaching or social work. It is also a preparation for those intending to enter various graduate and professional fields such as history, sociology, psychology, library science, political science, social welfare, law, urban studies, and others.


Lower Division (12 units)

  • Ch.S. 100 Chicano/a Culture

  • Ch.S. 201 Mexican Literature in Translation

  • Ch.S. 230 Introduction to Research Methods in Chicano/a Studies

  • Ch.S. 270 Field Work in the Barrio

Upper Division (21 units)

  • Ch.S. 345 History of the Mexican Peoples or Ch.S. 351 Survey of Mexican Philosophical Thought

  • Ch.S. 365 Third World Women and the Chicana

  • Ch.S. 380 Chicano Literature

  • Ch.S. 401 Pre-Cuauhtemoc Meso-American Civilization

  • Ch.S. 445 History of the Chicano/a

  • Ch.S. 460 Politics of the Chicano/a

  • Ch.S. 497 Senior Seminar in Chicano/a Studies

Options: Select Six units from each of two of the options below w/approval of the Advisor (12 units)

Option One: Social Science

  • Ch.S. 346 History of the Chicana/Mexicana

  • Ch.S. 350 Religion and Chicano/a Society

  • Ch.S. 360 Political Organizations of the Barrio

  • Ch.S. 361 Urbanization and the Chicano/a

  • Ch.S. 364 World Migration and the Chicano/aCh.S. 366 Women in Latin America

  • Ch.S. 420 The Chicano/a and the U.S. Economy

  • Ch.S. 452 American Colonialism and the Chicano/a

  • Ch.S. 465 Third World Politics and the Chicano/a

  • Ch.S. 470 Cultural Differences and the Chicano/a

  • Ch.S. 473 The Chicano/a and Social Institutions

Option Two: The Humanities and The Arts

  • Ch.S. 306 The Chicano/a in Films

  • Ch.S. 310 Regional Music of Mexico

  • Ch.S. 390 Alternative Chicano/a Press

  • Ch.S. 405 Chicano/a Barrio Communications

  • Ch.S. 414 Mexican Dance I

  • Ch.S. 415 Mexican Dance II

  • Ch.S. 453 Ideology, Theory, and the Chicano/a Experience

  • Ch.S. 480 Children's Literature of Latin America in Translation

  • Ch.S. 486 A/B. Nahuatl I/II

  • Ch.S. 584 The Novel of the Mexican Revolution

  • Ch.S. 587 The Contemporary Mexican Novel

Option Three: Education

  • Ch.S. 416 Children's Songs and Games

  • Ch.S 430 The Chicano/a Child

  • Ch.S. 431 The Chicano/a Adolescent

  • Ch.S. 432 Counseling the Chicano/a Child

  • Ch.S. 433 Language Acquisition of the Chicano/a Child and ESL Speakers

  • Ch.S. 434 Current Educational Theories of the Chicanos/as in the Schools

  • Ch.S. 471 The Chicano/a Family

  • Ch.S. 482 Language of the Barrio
Total Units in the Major (45 Units)

Across the CSU there are a variety of major and minor degree program titles for Latina/Latino Studies, including the following:

Bachelor of Arts in Chicano and Latino Studies (CSU Long Beach)

Bachelor of Arts Degree in Mexican-American Studies (CSU Los Angeles)

Minor in Chicano Studies (CSU Los Angeles)

Minor in Central American Studies (CSU Los Angeles)

Single Major in Chicana/o Studies (CSU Northridge)

Chicana and Chicano Studies Major (SDSU)

Bachelor of Arts in Chicano and Latino Studies (CALS) from Sonoma State University

Minor Program in Chicano Studies, (Sacramento State University)

Concentration In Chicano Studies (CSU Bakersfield)

The Impact of our Department and Program Name Change on our Curriculum

Latina/Latino Studies Department at San Francisco State University critically explores the histories and cultures of the pan-Latino populations in the United States and beyond. This includes the study of internal culture and cultural production as well as the study of the Latino populations in relation to U.S. society and its institutions. In this regard, we find Latina cultural critic Frances R. Aparicio’s recent attempt at redefining the field useful. According to Aparicio: “As a multiple- and interdisciplinary site of academic inquiry; Latina/o studies examines the multiple factors that affect the everyday lives of US Latinas/os. Such heterogeneity challenges scholars to find new, interdisciplinary approaches that address our multiple and shifting realities (Aparicio, p. 39).” Moreover, “rather than reproducing the national and geographical segmentation that has structured the way we organize knowledge in teaching and research, Latina/o studies can become the space in which these diverse experiences, identities, and power dynamics can be accounted for in the construction of a new social imaginary that transcends the old paradigms and nationality based conflicts. By studying and reflecting on inter-Latino dynamics through interdisciplinary approaches we can produce more nuanced knowledge that moves even beyond comparative studies.” (Aparicio 2007:47)

To this we add the insights of cultural theorist Juan Flores who argues that: “While the activist relationship of Latino Studies programs to their social contexts and communities is weaker than in its founding years, the theoretical field of Latino Studies is now wider and more complex. The implementation of this rich theoretical agenda is also more complex, and certainly as challenging as in the years when Latino and other ethnic studies programs were first set in place.” (Flores 2000: 214)
In this regard, the Latina/o Studies Department’s curriculum is primarily multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary in focus and the backgrounds of the faculty include expertise in political science, health education, law, counseling, history, philosophy, anthropology, art, literature, creative writing, and sociology. The courses offered by Latina/o Studies critically examine issues involving the pan-Latino populations by drawing upon a range of innovative methodological and theoretical perspectives. The curriculum assists students in the use of data and theories to explain continuities and changes as well as understand their implications for various communities and the nation at large.
Program Goals/Outcomes

Expected Outcomes in Implementing the Name Change

The specific departmental subject areas include courses examining timely public policy issues such as Latina/o Immigration, Latino Health Care, and Crime & Social Justice to name a few. Students can also learn about various Latino populations and their issues through literature and art courses such as Latina/o Art History, Central American Literature, Latino Visual Arts, and Comparative Music

Folklore. Moreover, the curriculum of the Latina/o Studies Department addresses the social history, political economy, citizenship, immigration, health care, and legal system as well as the Latino family, culture, social relations, philosophy, literature, arts, and other cultural forms. There are Latina/o Studies courses that examine globalization, racialization, women’s issues, educational equity, social movements, community organizing, and various cultural issues. Examples of these courses include “Afro Latina/o Diasporas,” “Caribbeans in the U.S.: History & Heritage,” “Caribbean Cultures and Spirituality,” “Gendered Borders: Latinas and Globalization,” “Gender, Sexuality, and Latino Communities,” “Human Rights in Central America,” “Indigenismo: Indigenous Cultures in the Americas,” “Resistance Literatures of the Americas,” “Latina/o Cinema,” “Latinos and the Media,” “Educational Equity,” “Latino Community Mental Health,” and “Latino Community Organizing.” With a department name change to Latina/o Studies many of our courses can retain their former title, including the courses listed above. Some courses would be more appropriately titled using the term “Latina/o” in place of “Raza.” Please see the attached table of proposed course title changes for a complete list of course titles.

Students gain the necessary skills to think, read, and communicate critically and creatively in diverse multicultural environments. They are able to systematically collect, construct and deconstruct, analyze and interpret information using multiple methods, theories, perspectives, and paradigms. In this regard, the curriculum is critical, holistic, reflexive, and community centered (Mills). It is designed to develop the knowledge base and the critical skills necessary to pursue a variety of graduate and professional studies and entry-level careers.
The Department pioneered the use of critical pedagogies, multidisciplinary approaches, cultural studies approaches, and the integration of social practice with abstract theory in a cutting-edge community service-learning program. Graduates of the Latina/Latino Studies Department move on with a firm grounding in a multicultural education responsive to the challenges of an increasingly diverse U.S. population. Latino peoples and cultures, particularly Mexicans and Chicanos as well as Central Americans are rapidly becoming the majority of all groups in California. Mexicans and Chicanos along with Puerto Ricans and Cubans continue to dominate and are the largest racial-ethnic group in the most populous states in the Bay Area. Dominicans, Guatemalans and Salvadorans contribute to population increases in many states including California. Our presence impacts every sector of society. An understanding of diversity in the United States and fluency with a range of histories, cultures and current issues equip our graduates with a unique body of knowledge and the leadership skills to make a difference for their own careers and for the Latina/Latino community at large.

Now that the department has changed its name and the new prefix of LTNS has been approved (to be implemented beginning Summer 2011), a title change for the major and minor programs is the logical next step. We are ready at any point to change the program titles to match our new department name.


Aparicio, Frances R. “(Re)constructing Latinidad: The Challenges of Latino/a Studies” in Juan Flores and Renato Rosaldo, A Companion to Latino Studies (Malden, Mass: Blackwell Publishing, 2007).

Cuellar, Jose. “A History of SFSU's La Raza Studies” Presented at: “Taking Control of Our Destinies: El Desarollo de Chicana and Chicano Studies,” A Symposium on Standards, Processes and Assessment for Developing and Maintaining Chicana and Chicano Studies in California, San Diego State University. October 15, 1999.

Davila, Arlene. Latinos, Inc.: The Marketing and Making of a People, (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001).

Flores, Juan. “Latino Studies: New Contexts, New Concepts,” in Juan Flores, From Bomba to Hip-Hop: Puerto Rican Culture and Latino Identity. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2000).

Haney-Lopez, Ian F. Racism on Trial: The Chicano Fight for Justice (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2003).

Mills, C. Wright. The Sociological Imagination. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press 1959)

Oboler, Suzanne. Ethnic Labels, Latino Lives: Identity and the Politics of (Re)Presentation in the United States. (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1995).

Oboler, Suzanne, and Deena J. González, Eds. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States, (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2005).

Portes, Alejandro. “The New Latin Nation: Immigration and Hispanic Populations in the United States” in Juan Flores and Renato Rosaldo, A Companion to Latino Studies (Malden, Mass: Blackwell Publishing, 2007).

Rodriguez, Clara. Changing Race: Latinos, the Census and the History of Ethnicity in the United States  (New York, NY: New York University Press, 2000).

US Census Bureau. Census 2000, Special Reports. “We the People: Hispanics Population in the United States” (Washington, D.C., 2004).

Vasconcelos, Jose. La Raza Cósmica (Mexico D.F., MX: Espasa Calpe, S.A., 1948).


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