Renaissance Feudalism – An economic system that evolved during the Middle Ages based upon a lord-vassal relationship. It created a hierarchical society in which created self-sufficient units

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All of these need to be written on 3x5 index cards. Write the term on one side and the definition of the reverse. These will be your most valuable study aid.

Feudalism – An economic system that evolved during the Middle Ages based upon a lord-vassal relationship. It created a hierarchical society in which created self-sufficient units.

Scholasticism - Medieval system of thought in which philosophy and reason was applied to theological questions.

Alexander VI (1492-1503) - Corrupt Spanish pope. He was aided militarily and politically by his son, Cesare Borgia, who was the hero of The Prince.

Leo X (1475-1521) - Pope Leo X was responsible for the political rise of the papacy in Europe. Born Giovanni de’Medici, his father was Lorenzo the Magnificent. He was made cardinal at 13 and because of the support of Pope Julius II rose through the papal ranks. He was pope during the early Reformation and excommunicated Martin Luther. What surprising is that he was never ordained a priest.

Boccaccio - Giovanni Boccaccio was one of the first writers of the early Renaissance, famous for his prose. Wrote the Decameron a series of 100 short stories, which tell about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society in the time of the Black Death (1348).

Botticelli - One of the leading painters of the Florentine Renaissance, developed a highly personal style. He was one of the many artists sponsored by the Medici family. His most famous work was The Birth of Venus (1482).

Brunelleschi - Italian architect and sculptor of the early Renaissance, celebrated for designing the dome of the cathedral of Florence. His style was anti-Gothic, preferring instead to use domes to create space. He also designed the Foundling Hospital in Florence.

Michalangelo - The greatest artist of the High Renaissance. Worked in Rome and painted the Sistine Chapel for Pope Julius II. Sculpted the statue of David.

Castiglione - Wrote The Courtier, which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.

Charles V (r. 1519-1556) - Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was perhaps, the most powerful man in Europe during the first part of the sixteenth century. He was king of Spain, but also ruled the vast Habsburg empire, which included the Netherlands, Austria, much of Italy, Burgundy, and Spain’s possessions in the New World. He was considered the “universal monarch” and spent much of his reign defending Catholicism.

Leonardo Da Vinci - Leonardo dominated the Renaissance like no other person. His paintings, sculptures, engineering feats, and biological research changed the course of history. He was continually looking for patrons and spent much of his life traveling. His greatest works include the Last Supper and the Mona Lisa.

Lucrezia Borgia - Lucrezia was the daughter of Pope Alexander VI, who used his daughter to gain political power. She was one of the most notable women during the Renaissance.

Miguel De Cervantes - Spanish writer. Wrote Don Quixote.

Pico Della Mirandola - Wrote On the Dignity of Man, which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there are no limits to what man can accomplish.

Donatello - Sculptor of the early Renaissance who studied under Ghiberti and Brunelleschi. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. He was sponsored by the Medici family of Florence. His most important statue was the David, a freestanding nude. His work expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.

Reconquista - The removal of the Moors and Jews by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain.

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella - Monarchs who united Spain; responsible for the reconquista.

Erasmus - Dutch Humanist who wanted to reform the Catholic Church. He stressed the importance of religious education. Wrote Praise of Folly. Friends with Thomas More and a critic of Martin Luther.

Hans Holbein the Younger - Painter noted for his portraits and religious paintings.

Humanism - Humanism was the philosophical framework of the Renaissance period. Scholars studied the ancient classics to learn what they revealed about human nature rather than for religious meanings. Humanism emphasized the rationalism of human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.

Individualism - Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents.

Pope Julius II (r.1503-1513) - Very militaristic pope, who was responsible for some of the greatest art found in the Vatican. Tore down the old Saint Peter’s Basilica and began work on the present structure in 1506. He commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel.

Niccolò Machiavelli - Wrote The Prince (1513), the first modern manual of politics. It was a very secular text based on reality and practical politics. Believed the end justifies the means. His model was Cesare Borgia.

Montaigne – French author who was the finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay. Published Essays in 1580.

Sir Thomas More - Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia, which presented a revolutionary view of society in which greed did not exist. Would not acknowledge Henry’s right to get a divorce and was beheaded.

Johann Gutenberg - Gutenberg is credited with the invention of the printing press in Germany about 1450. The first book printed was the Gutenberg Bible. With the development of the press printed items were cheap to produce and readily available which increased the demand for education.

"New Monarchs" - Monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church within their countries.

Petrarch - Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.

François Rabelais - French satirical author. Gargantua and Pantagruel.

"Renaissance Man" - A man that is multitalented and is well educated.

Secularism - The belief in material things instead of religious things.

Lorenzo Valla - On Pleasure, and On false Donation of Constantine. Father of modern historical criticism.

Vernacular - Everyday language of a specific nation.

Virtu - The striving for excellence. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.

Catherine de’Medici - Queen of France who had three sons who all became kings of France. Catherine was married to Henry I, who was killed in a jousting match in 1559. She dominated French politics for almost fifty years, but especially during the reign of her sons.

Reformation and Religious wars

Act of Supremacy (1534) - Declared the king the supreme head of the Church of England.

Anglicanism - Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I. Initially advocated 3 sacraments but the only 2: Communion and baptism.

John Calvin - Theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion. Although he was French he was located in Geneva, which became a theocracy. Believed in 2 sacraments: Communion and baptism. Advocated salvation through faith alone and the idea of predestination.

Consubstantiation - The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change, espoused by Luther.

Transubstantiation - Catholic belief that the bread and wine actually become the body and blood of Christ.

Council of Trent (1545) - Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.

Diet of Worms (1521) - Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

Edict of Nantes (1598) - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.

Excommunication - When a person is expelled from the Catholic Church.

Huguenots - French Calvinists.

John Hus - Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation.

Ignatius Loyola - Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, Spiritual Exercises.

Indulgences - Selling of these was common practice by the Catholic Church, corruption that led to reformation.

The Institutes of Christian Religion - Written by John Calvin in 1536. Bible the only source of Christian doctrine; only two sacraments – baptism and communion.

Jesuits - Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola they were dedicated to removing the abuses of the church and restoring the Catholic Church.

John Knox - Calvinist who learned from Calvin in Geneva and then dominated the movement for reform in Scotland.

Martin Luther - 95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: Communion and baptism. Justification through faith alone, good works is a result of justification. Lutherans owe loyalty to the state. Believed in consubstantiation.

Simony - The selling of church offices.

Usury - The practice of lending money for interest.

Theocracy - A community in which the state is subordinate to the church. Best example was Geneva under John Calvin.

Predestination - Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life. God already knows who is going to Heaven regardless of their life on Earth.

Johann Tetzel - The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.

John Wycliffe - Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope. Translated the Bible into English.

Baroque - Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.

Henry IV of Bourbon-Navarre - The first Bourbon king of France who ended nearly forty years of civil war. He won the War of the Three Henrys and converted to Catholicism to save France from further bloodshed stating “Paris is worth a Mass.” He was assassinated by a religious fanatic in 1610.

Defenestration of Prague (1618) - The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.

Peace of Westphalia (1648) - Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.

St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572) - Mass slaying of Huguenots (Protestants) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day.

War of the Three Henrys - French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.


John Cabot - Italian-born navigator explored the coast of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Gave England a claim in North America.

Pedro Cabral - Claimed Brazil for Portugal

Entrepot; - Big commercial center for importing and exporting commodities.

Conquistadores - Spanish 'conqueror' or soldier in the new World

Bartholomew Diaz - Portuguese explorer. First European to reach the southern tip of Africa.

Sir Francis Drake - English sea captain, robbed Spanish treasure ships, 'singed the king beard' involved in the fighting the Spanish armada (1588).

Encomienda - Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, but had their own land to work as well.

Vasco da Gama - Sailed from Portugal for India.

Prince Henry the Navigator - Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.

Ferdinand Magellan - Portuguese navigator. While trying to find a western route to Asia, he was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.

Northwest Passage - A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.

Sir Walter Raleigh - English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.

Treaty of Tordesillas (1493) - Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.

Giovanni de Verrazano - Italian explorer of the Atlantic coast of North America.

Absolutism and Constitutionalism

Absolutism - When sovereignty is embodied in the person of the ruler.

Sovereignty - Possessing a monopoly over the instruments of justice.

Totalitarianism - Twentieth century phenomenon that seeks to direct all facets of a state’s culture in the interest of the state.

Cardinal Richelieu - Became President of the Council of ministers and the first minister of the French crown. Strengthened the absolute power of King Louis XIII.

Louis XIII (r. 1610-1643) - Influenced by Richelieu to exult the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state.

Fronde (1648-53) - Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIV.

Jules Mazarin - Became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government.

Louis XIV - "Sun King" (r. 1643-1715) -had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of absolutist power.

Jean-Babtiste Colbert - An advisor to Louis XIV who proved himself a financial genius who managed the entire royal administration.

Mercantilism - The philosophy that a state's strength depends upon it wealth.

French Classicism - Art, literature, and advancements of the age of Louis XIV. France became the cultural center of the world.

William of Orange (r. 1689-1702) - Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.

Peace of Utrecht (1713) - Ended Louis XIV’s attempts to gain military power and land, Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Austrian Succession.

Constitutionalism - Limitation of government by law, developed in times of absolutism. May or may not be written.

Leviathan (1651) - Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract. Claimed only absolutism could save society from constant war in which life was “solitary, poor, brutish, and short.”

Oliver Cromwell - Led the Roundheads. Thought he was chosen by God He ruled England as Lord Protector by using his New Model Army to control the government. Eventually he ruled as a military dictator.

The Restoration (1660) - Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established Anglican Church, courts of law and local government.

John Locke - Believed people were born like blank slates and the environment shapes development, (tabula rasa). Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and Second Treatise of Government.

Thomas Hobbes - Leading secular exponent of absolutism and unlimited sovereignty of the state. Absolutism produced civil peace and rule of law. Tyranny is better than chaos.

Bill of Rights (1689) - Stated no law could be suspended by the king; no taxes raised; no army maintained except by parliamentary consent. Established after The Glorious Revolution.

New Model Army - Created by Oliver Cromwell during the English Civil War.

Petition of Rights (1628) - Initiated by Sir Edward Coke it limited the power of Charles I of England. a) could not declare martial law; b) could not collect taxes; c) could not imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent.

War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) - European conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.

Junkers - Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.

Pragmatic Sanction (1713) - Issued by Charles VI of Austria to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne.

Romanovs (1613-1917) - Russian royal family, started with Michael Romanov (1613) and lasted until 1917.

Frederick William the Great Elector (1620-1688) - First man who made modern Prussia by strengthening the army and centralizing the bureaucracy.

Boyars - Land owning aristocracy in early Russia.

Muscovy - A former principality in west-central Russia. Centered on Moscow, it was founded c. 1280 and existed as a separate entity until the 16th century, when it was united with another principality to form the nucleus of the early Russian empire. The name was then used for the expanded territory.

Hohenzollern - German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to Prussia (1525). Under Frederick I (r. 1701-1713) the family's possessions were unified as the kingdom of Prussia.

Scientific Revolution

Aristotelian World View - Motionless earth was fixed at center of universe, God was beyond.

Andreas Vesalius - Vesalius studied the anatomical work of the ancient Greek physician Galen. He published On the Fabric of the Human Body (1543), which is concerned the first great work of modern science and became the foundation of modern biology.

Bacon, Francis - English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum (1620). Encouraged inductive reasoning.

Brahe, Tycho - Established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day, made detailed observations of a new star in 1572.

Copernicus, Nicolaus - Polish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres (1543). Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.

Kepler, Johanes – German mathematician. Expanded on the work of Brahe and found the orbit of the planets were ellipses

Heliocentric Theory - Sun is the center of the universe. Coperican view.

Geocentric Theory - Earth is the center of the universe. Aristotelian view.

Descartes, René - French philosopher and mathematician who was educated by the Jesuits. Discovered analytical geometry and saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical (Cartesian Dualism). Famous for the saying “cogito, ergo sum” (I think therefore I am).

Deductive Reasoning - Descartes, doubt everything and use deductive reasoning. Reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.

Inductive Reasoning - Baconian empiricism. Based speculations on other situations.

Discourse on Methods (1677) - Descartes espoused deductive reasoning.

Empiricism - Bacon's theory of inductive reasoning.

Galileo Galilei - Created modern experimental method. Formulated the law of inertia. Tried for heresy and forced to recant. Saw Jupiter’s moons. Wrote Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World.

Gresham College - First time scientists had an honored roll in society; center of scientific activity in England during the seventeenth century.

Harvey, William - Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body. Laid the foundation of modern medicine.

Natural Law - Universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.

Newton, Isaac - English scientist and mathematician who developed 3 laws of motion. Principal of Natural Philosophy (1687).

Voltaire - French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide.

Deism - God built the Universe and let it run. Clockmaker theory.

Enlightened despot - Enlightened ruler. Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great.

Humanitarianism - Promoting human welfare and social reform.

Two Treatise of Civil Government (1690) - Written by Locke, Government created to protect life, liberty, and property.

Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) - Written by Locke, tabula rasa theory.

Rococo - Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentimental portraits.

The Spirit of Laws (De L’espirit des Lois) (1750) - Montesquieu, about separation of powers.

The Social Contract (1762) - Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modelled after the Greek polis.

Candide (1759) – Voltaire’s novel satirizing society and organized religion in Europe.

Montesquieu - French philosophe. Wrote The Spirit of Laws (1748). Said, "Power checks power" and expressed the idea of separation of powers.

Agricultural Revolution

Capitalism - Economic theory of maintaining balance of exports and imports. The opposite of socialism and communism.

"General Will" - Betterment of the community. Founded by Rousseau, he felt that the will of the people determines a country's course in economics and politics.

Physiocrats - Opponents of mercantilism and Colbertism in particular. Led by François Quesnay. Felt the need for a strong independent republic.

Adam Smith - Scottish professor of philosophy. Developed the idea of free enterprise, critical of mercantilism. Wrote Wealth of Nations.

Jethro Tull - English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Invented the seed drill (1701?), selective breeding and the idea of using manure.

Enclosure movement - 18th century English movement, marked the rise of market oriented estate.


Jean le Rond D’Alembert - coeditor of the Encyclopedie.

Assignats - Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.

Bastille - Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.

Bougeoisie - Comfortable members of the 3rd estate. Basically middle class, wanted the privileges of the nobility and upper clergy.

Committee of Public Safety - Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.

Consulate - Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.

National Convention - The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.

Danton - Led the Mountains with Robespierre-also executed with Robespierre.

Jacques Louis David - Napoleon’s painter: painted in the neoclassical style. He painted the famous portrait of Napoleon’s coronation and other pictures that portrayed Napoleon in a heroic manner.

Declaration of the Rights of Man - Written by the National Convention -declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.

Encyclopedie - Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment -explained many aspects of society.

Estates General - Not called since 1614-finally called by Louis XVI at the advice of his financial minister-demanded control over the King’s finances -he refused and dismissed them-sat as three segregated groups.

Gabelle - Tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France-included in the Estate’s list of grievances.

Levée en Masse - Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.

Versailles - Site of palace outside Paris. Women marched there to demand action from Louis XVI.

First Estate - Clergy.

Second Estate - Nobility.

Third Estate - Peasants, artisans etc. Every one not in the First or Second Estate.

Tennis Court Oaths (1789) - Taken by the National Assembly-stated that they would not disband until they had made a new constitution. Met here because they were unable to go to their meeting place.

Louis XVI (1774-1792) - King of France-executed for treason by the National Convention-absolute monarch-husband of Marie Antoinette.

Marie Antoinette - Louis XVI’s wife and sister of Leopold of Austria-executed.

Robespierre - A very radical Jacobin and member of the National Assembly. He led the Mountains and created the Committee of Public Safety, which he led a dictator. He also began the Reign of Terror during which time he tried to eliminate all opposition. Executed in 1794 during the Thermidorian Reaction.

Sans-culottes - Petty laborers and laboring poor-wore pants not knee breeches-became a major political group in revolutionary France.

Great Fear - Followed the storming of the Bastille-people were scared of outlaws and reprisals-fanned flames of rebellion.

Guillotine - Fast and relatively humane-used for mass executions.

Reign of Terror (1793-1794) - The attempt by the Convention, led by Robespierre, to suppress the counter revolution. Hundreds were executed including Danton and Marie Antoinette. Ended with the Thermidorian Reaction.

Thermidorean Reaction - A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror. Robespierre was executed.

Ancien Regime - The old order before the Revolution in France

Regicide - The killing of the king.

Mary Wollstonecraft – English feminist author who wrote Vindication of the Rights of Women. She went to Paris to witness the Revolution.

Directory (1975-1799) - Group of five men who served after Robespierre and the Assembly. It was created to remedy the abuses of Robespierre, but it was weak and ineffective form of government. Overthrown by Napoleon.

Berlin Decree (1806) - Issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.

Joseph Bonaparte - Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain (1808) but unable to control the Spanish and he abdicated (1813). His failure to control the Spanish led to the costly Peninsula War.

Confederation of the Rhine - In 1806 Napoleon dissolved the archaic Holy Roman Empire. League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.

Continental System (1806-12) - French economic plan to cripple Britain. Beginning with the Berlin Decree (1806) Napoleon closed all European ports to British ships. The Continental System was largely a failure since it hurt the European economy as well as the British economy. Napoleon trying to enforce the policy in Spain led to the Peninsula War and Russia's refusal to conform led to the Russian campaign.

The Grand Army - Combined French armies under Napoleon. Virtually destroyed during Napoleon's ill-fated Russian campaign.

Louis XVIII (r. 1814-24) - Tried to issue the Constitutional Charter of 1814, which accepted many revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties

Napoleonic Code (1807) - Laws, especially civil laws, passed by Napoleon. Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablishing the "family monarchy". Modified after Napoleon's defeat, but still is the basis of continental law.

Peninsula War - France was forced to invade Spain after the failure of Joseph Bonaparte. Very costly for Napoleon who later claimed, “It was the Spanish ulcer that ruined me.” The Duke of Wellington helped the Spanish.

Plebiscite - A vote of the people.

Rosetta Stone - Found by one of Napoleon's officers during the Egyptian campaign. Allowed people to decipher hieroglyphics.

Talleyrand, Charles Maurice de - French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French.

Saint Helena - British island in the South Atlantic. Napoleon's final home after the Battle of Waterloo until his death in 1821.

Trafalgar (October 1805) - Britain's Admiral Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish navies. Nelson was killed but invasion of Britain now became impossible.

Metternich, Count Klemens von - Metternich was the Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of liberal nationalism throughout Europe.

The Hundred Days - The time from Napoleon's return from exile on Elba (March 20) to defeat at Waterloo (July 8, 1815).

Industrial Revolution

Sir Richard Arkwright - Invented water frame at almost the same time as the spinning jenny was invented.

Edmund Cartwright - English inventor of the modern power loom (1785).

Chartism - Agitation against poor laws-working class discontent, very anti-capitalistic.

Combination Acts - 1799 and 1800-made trade unionism illegal.

The Communist Manifesto (1848) - Pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and became the basis of Socialism.

Corn Laws - 1815 tariff on imported grain to protect domestic producers. Repealed in 1846.

Benjamin Disraeli - British Conservative-extended vote to all middle class male workers, needed to broaden aristocratic voter base.

Friedrich Engels - Condition of Working Class in England (1845) - society’s problems caused by capitalism and competition. Colleague of Karl Marx.

Factory Act (1833) - Created factory workday for children between 9-13 to 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child labor under 9-factory owners establish schools. Destroyed family unit.

Charles Fourier (1772-1837) - French social theorist-criticized capitalism-wanted socialist utopia and emancipation of women.

James Hargreaves - About 1760 invented spinning jenny

Industrialization - New inventions, cotton and iron-changed small businesses beyond all recognition. New inventions improved production and abolished cottage industry.

John Kay - English inventor of the flying shuttle, (1733).

Laissez-faire capitalism - Minimal governmental interference in the economic affairs. Espoused by Adam Smith and François Quesnay.

Karl Marx - German - father of socialism - emancipation of women - Communist Manifesto (1848).

Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729) - English inventor of a steam engine (1705) that used coal, very inefficient.

First Reform Act (1832) - Modified the old political system by easing voting qualifications (but still not easy to qualify!). Abolished some smaller boroughs.

Second Reform Act (1867) - Conservatives and Liberals trying to gain votes. Disraeli's Conservatives extended the vote to almost 1 million more voters.

Poor Law (1834) - gave aid to the poor, but not very helpful against unemployment. Very favorable to employers.

Tory - Political party in Britain controlled by aristocracy.

Utopian Socialism - Ideal society based on socialist ideals-Louis Blanc and Charles Fourier

James Watt - Added a condenser to Newcomen's steam engine to make it more efficient. Led to steam becoming a viable source of power.

Whig - British party more responsive to commercial and manufacturing interests.


Alexander II (r.1855-81) - Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.

Ausgleich (1867) - Refers to the compromise of 1867, which created the dual monarchy of Austria and Hungary.

"Blood and iron" - Refers to Prussian tactics brought about by Otto von Bismarck; his unification of Germany was through a policy of "blood and iron".

Bundesrat - The federal council of Austrian government.

Count Camillo di Cavour - Endorsed the economic doctrines of the middle class. Worked for a secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria. Worked to unite Italy.

Carlsbad Decrees (1819) - it discouraged liberal teachings in southern Germany. Censorship imposed by Metternich.

Constitutional monarchy - Monarch rules with limitations by the constitution; written or unwritten.

Ems Dispatch - A message from William I of Prussia to Napoleon III, which brought France into the Franco Prussian war. Bismarck altered the wording in such a way as to provoke France into declaring war.

Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) - War between France and Prussia; seen as German victory; seen as a struggle of Darwinism; led to Prussia being the most powerful European nation. Instigated by Bismarck; France seen as the aggressor.

Frankfurt Assembly (1807-82) - personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany.

Giuseppe Garibaldi - An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in Italian politics. He planned to liberate the Two Kingdoms of Sicily.

Louis Kossuth - Leader of the Hungarians, demanded national autonomy with full liberties and universal suffrage in 1848.

Leopold II (r. 1865-1909) - King of Belgium, sent Henry Stanley to the African Congo to encourage Belgium interests with African Chieftains.

Liberalism - The base ideas of liberty and equality.

Magyars - In 1867 the Hungarian nobility restored the constitution of 1848 and used it to dominate both the Magyar peasantry & the minority population.

Giuseppe Mazzini - Italy idealistic patriot; preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal suffrage and the will of the people.

Nationalism - Pride in one's nation, group, or traditions; a desire for independence.

Napoleon III (r. 1852-1870) - Original Napoleon’s nephew; consolidated conservative government and the ideals of nationalism.

Panslavism - A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.

Realpolitik - Political theory, advocated by Bismarck, that national success justifies any means possible. Very Machiavellian.

Red Shirts - Volunteers in Garibaldi's army

Reichstag - Popularly elected parliament in Germany. Very little power.

Syllabus of Errors (1864) - Pope Pius IX denounced rationalism, socialism, and separation of church and state.

Treaty of Frankfurt - The end of the Franco-Prussian War. Alsace and Lorraine given to Germany.

Otto von Bismarck - Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule.

Zollverein - Economic custom union of German states, founded in 1818 by Prussia. Eliminated internal tariffs.

Risorgimento - Italian period of history from 1815 to1850.

Volksgeist - Idea created by J.G. Herder to identify the national character of Germany, but soon passed to other countries.


Imperialism - One who dominates the political, social, and economic life of another.

Belgian Congo - exploited by Leopold II at Belgium under the Berlin Act, Leopold was supposed to act as a trustee. He violated the agreement and stripped the country of its resources.

Boer War (1899-1902) - A war in South Africa between the English and the Dutch settlers. England won despite early setbacks. Showed that English tactics were no good and needed to be modernized.

East India Company - Dutch trading company worried about colonizing the world.

Berlin Conference (1885) - Laid down the rules for the conquest of Africa: 1) European countries holding a coast inland. 2) Occupation must be with real troops 3) Must give notice of which countries were occupied. 4) Started the scramble for Africa.

Fashoda Incident (1896) - Conflict in Africa between France and Britain.

Cecil Rhodes - Played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.

Protectorate - Relationship between 2 states in which the stronger state guarantees to protect the weaker state from external aggression in return for full or partial control of its domestic and foreign affairs.

Sphere of Influence - In international politics, the claim by a state to exclusive or predominant control over a foreign area or territory.

The White Man’s Burden (1899) - Rudyard Kipling's poem, "The White Man's Burden," critical about imperialism.

Heart of Darkness (1902) - Written by Joseph Conrad. The story reflects the physical and psychological shock Conrad himself experienced in 1890, when he worked briefly in the Belgian Congo.

Great War

Balkan Wars - Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria took Macedonia from the Ottomans in 1912. Serbia then fought Bulgaria in the second Balkan War in 1913 Austria intervened to stop the war.

Berlin Congress (1878) - Bismarck acted as the “honest broker” in helping the European powers solve the Eastern question.

Black Hand - Ultra Nationalist, Serbian Society. Secretly supported by members of the Serbian government.

Conscription - Forced recruitment into the army to meet the needs of war.

Entente Cordiale (1904) - Britain and France agreed to work together to solidify their position in the world in the face of growing German expansion. Britain gained control of Egypt. France gained control of Morocco. Not a written alliance only and agreement that basically against Germany.

Francis Ferdinand - The heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, he and his wife were assassinated in Sarajevo (June 1914) by a Bosnian fanatic. This was one of the events that started World War I.

Isolationism - Not becoming involved in global or regional events.

Kaiser Wilhelm II (r. 1888-1918) - Germany. Dismissed Bismarck in 1890. Did not renew Bismarck’s treaty with Russia and "forced" Russia to look for another ally, France.

Kruger Telegram (1895) - William II sent Kruger of the Transvaal a congratulatory telegram upon hearing of the failure of the Jamison Raid. Alerted Britain of the dangers from Germany.

V. I. Lenin - Believed in Marxist Socialism: 1) Believed capitalism must be destroyed. 2) A social revolution was possible in backward Russia. 3) The need for highly trained workers partly controlled by revolutionaries like himself.

Triple Entente (1914) - Great Britain, France, and Russia.

League of Nations (1919) - Allies worked out terms for peace with Germany, precursor to the United Nations.

Lusitania - Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.

Battle of the Marne (Sept. 1914) - A major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI. In reality lost Germany the war.

Morocco Crisis (1911) - After the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference- German bullying forced England and France closer. Germany gained nothing.

Nicholas II (r. 1894-1917) - the last tsar. Wanted supreme rule of army and government. Led the armies to defeat. Forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Duma.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) - Treaty between Bolsheviks and Germans, dictated by the Germans: 1) Russia lost 1/3 of her population. 2) height of German success in World War I. Signed by Lenin.

Treaty of Versailles - Negotiated by the Big Three Germany was stripped of colonies Alsace and Loraine given back to France. Poland was reconstituted as a state. Polish corridor would split Prussia from Germany. The Saar region would be French for 15 years. Heavy repercussions (not specified)

Battle of Verdun (1916) - German assault on the French fortress- turned into a battle of attrition France won.

Wilson’s Fourteen Points - President Wilson’s Peace proposal in 1918 stressed national self-determination and the rights of the small countries. Freedom of the seas and free trade. Clemenceau said, "God only had ten."

Zimmerman Telegram - German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico City telling him to promise the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the U.S. the telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British, shocked the American public.

Russian Revolution

Nicholas II - Nicholas Romanov was the last tsar of Russia. He and his family were executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918.

Army Order #1 - Issued by the Petrograd Soviet shipped offices of their authority and placed the power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers.

Bloody Sunday (1905) - In Russia 1905 Russian soldiers inadvertently opened fire on demonstrators, turning them against the tsar. Possibly the start of the Revolution.

1905 Revolution – Civil unrest that followed the failed Russo-Japanese War and the massacre of Bloody Sunday. Forced Tsar Nicholas to issue the October Manifesto in which he promised to create a Duma.

Bolsheviks – Literally means "Majority group"

Cheka - Secret police set up by Lenin-arrested "enemies of the revolution".

Kulaks - The term means wealthier peasants. This class of society was labeled “enemies of the state” by Stalin who sought to wipe them out.

Gulags - Soviet prison camps organized under Stalin for the relocation of political prisoners in Siberia.

Leon Trotsky - Joined the Bolsheviks after being a Menshevik. He reorganized the Red Army and was responsible for enforcing the wishes of the party. After Lenin’s death in 1924, he was politically outmaneuvered by Stalin. Trotsky was exiled and ended up in Mexico, where he was assassinated by Stalin’s agents in 1940.

Duma - Popular parliament.

Fundamental Laws (1906) - Issued by the Russian Government. The tsar retained great power. The Duma was elected by universal male suffrage. The Upper House could pass laws but the Tsar had veto power.

Alexander Kerensky - Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty. He fled to America after the Bolshevik coup.

Provisional Government – A provisional government formed after the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. It was led by Alexander Kerensky who wanted free elections and a Constituent Assembly and was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in November 1917.

Kronstadt Revolt (1921) - Rebellion of previously loyal sailors at the naval base. Suppressed by the military. After the revolt Lenin introduced the New Economic Policy.

March Revolution (1917) - Bolsheviks become the leaders of Russia.

Mensheviks - 'Minority group'. They were Social Democrats who opposed Lenin in 1902.

Mir - Peasant village assembly responsible to the government.

October Manifesto (1905) - Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma.

Five-Year Plan – Economic plan to bring make the Soviet Union economically competitive. One plan simply replaced another.

"Peace, Bread, and Land" - Lenin’s slogan in the Revolution. Peace from the war; Land for the peasants; Food for all.

World War II and beyond

Anschluss - The annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938.

Atlantic Charter (August 1941) - Called for peace without territorial expansion or secret agreements, and for free elections, and self - determination for all liberated nations.

Casablanca Conference (1943) - Resolved to accept nothing less than unconditional surrender of Axis powers. Also decided to go ahead with invasion of Sicily and Italy.

Neville Chamberlain - Gullible British Prime Minister; declared that Britain and France would fight if Hitler attacked Poland.

Winston Churchill – Perhaps the greatest wartime leader; rallied the British with his speeches, infectious confidence, and bulldog determination; known for his "iron curtain" speech; led the British during World War II; agreed Hitler should be conquered; was replaced after the war.

D-Day (June 6, 1944) - Americans and British forces under General Dwight Eisenhower landed on the beaches of Normandy; this was history’s greatest naval invasion.

Battle of Stalingrad (1942) - Turning point for Germany in the war.

Francisco Franco - Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War.

Lebensraum - Room to move. Phrase used by Hitler to justify invasion of other countries.

Lend-Lease Program (1941) - The US lent money and resources to the European states to help reconstruction.

Maginot Line - Line of defense built by France before World War II, against German invasion from Belgium to Switzerland.

Munich Conference (1938) - Britain, France and other countries (not the USSR); they agreed that Sudetenland should be ceded to Germany; Chamberlain secured peace with Germany.

Pacificism - Advocates of peace. Anabaptists laid great stress on this; they would not run for office or serve in the armed forces.

Potsdam Conference (July 1945) - Brought forward many differences over east Europe; Stalin would not allow any type of freely elected government in east European countries; Roosevelt had died and was succeeded by Harry Truman, who demanded free elections.

Rome-Berlin Axis (1936) - Close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined; resulted from Hitler; who had supported Ethiopia and Italy, he overcame Mussolini’s lingering doubts about the Nazis.

Russo-German Nonaggression Pact (August 1939) - Hitler and Stalin promised to remain neutral if either country were to become involved in war. Germany violated the pact by invading Russia in 1941.

Joseph Stalin - Communist statesman; leader of Bolshevik Party; became ruler of USSR after Lenin; assumed full military and political leadership.

Sudetenland - Hitler wanted German-speaking people in West Czechoslovakia; this would be given to Germany by France and Britain who refused to stop Hitler.

Teheran Conference (1943) - Meeting between Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill; confirmed their defense to crush Hitler.

Yalta Conference (1945) - On the Black Sea; the Big Three met in February 1945 in southern Russia; it was agreed that Germany would be divided into zones of occupation and would pay heavy reparations to the soviet Union in the form of agricultural and industrial goods; when the Big Three met in 1945 at Yalta in southern Russia they agreed that east European governments were to be freely elected but pro-soviet.

Modern Europe

Clement Attlee - Socialist Labor Party under him moved toward establishment of a "Welfare State"; formed government of England after Churchill; nationalized industries.

Willy Brandt - West German chancellor; sought peace with East Germany; went to Poland in December 1970; laid a wreath at the tomb of the unknown soldier and another monument commemorating the armed uprising of Warsaw's Jewish ghetto against Nazi armies after which the ghetto was destroyed and survivors were sent to the gas chambers.

Brezhnev Doctrine - Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.

Brinkmanship - International relations involving the deliberate creation of a risk of war to apply pressure on the other party.

COMECON - The economic association organized by the communist states

Containment – U.S. policy that attempted to contain Communism in areas already occupied by the Red Army as indicated in the Truman Doctrine.

Council of Europe - Brought about by the Marshall Plan in 1948 as an attempt to evolve into a Parliament yet became only a multinational debating society.

Charles De Gaulle - Leader of Free French General that resigned in 1946 after re-establishing the free, democratic Fourth Republic.

de-Stalinization - Liberalization of the Soviet Union, led by Khrushchev.

Euratom - European Atomic Energy Community established by the treaty of Rome to regulate and research nuclear energy merged with the EEC.

European Coal and Steel Community (1950) - International organization to control and integrate all European coal and steel production. Consisted of West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France. Number one goal to be economically tied together so that war against them or by one of them would be impossible. Created by French foreign minister Robert Schuman. Began operations in 1952.

European Economic Community - Caused by the Marshall Plan. Developed in 1957.

Hungarian Revolution (1956) - Led by students and workers, installed Liberal Communist Imre Nagy. Forced soviet soldiers to leave and promised free election, renounced Hungary’s military alliance with Moscow. Revolution was crushed by the Soviet Union.

Iron Curtain Speech (March 1946) - Winston Churchill at Fulton College Missouri; said an "iron curtain" had fallen across the Continent.

Nikita Khrushchev - Russian premier after Stalin. Led de-Stalinization of Russia. A reformer who argued for major innovations.

Marshall Plan (1947) - U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall urged Americans to offer economic aide to post-war Europe. The plan was implemented in 1948, but Stalin refused to participate.

Imre Nagy - Liberal Communist reformer installed as Chief by the people of Budapest. He was executed by the Soviets for supporting the Hungarian people in the revolution of 1956.

Nicolae Ceauşescu – Communist hard-line ruler of Romania who was supported by the Soviet Union. He ordered Romania troops to open fire on citizens to enforce his authority. Eventually he was forced out after the collapse of the Soviet Union and he and his wife Elena, were executed on Christmas day 1989.

NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization- formed in 1949 by U.S. anti-Soviet Military alliance of Western Governments.

"peaceful coexistence" - Khrushchev’s foreign policy; peaceful coexistence with communism was possible.

Schuman Plan (1950) - Proposed by French foreign minister Robert Schuman (1886-1963), called for the creation of a special international organization to control and integrate all European coal and steal production.

Treaty of Rome - Six nations of Coal and Steal Community signed to create EEC.

Warsaw Pact (1955) - Counter to NATO created by Stalin to tighten his hold on satellites. Albania withdrew in 1968 when Czechoslovakia was invaded.

Perestroika - Economic restructuring by Gorbachev

Glasnost - A newfound openness of government and media.

restalinization - Soviet Union started a period of stagnation. Saw de-Stalinization as a dangerous threat.

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