Remembering the Native American Indians U. S. History Name: E. Napp Date


It was the reason that Zitkala-Ša cried at the boarding school



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It was the reason that Zitkala-Ša cried at the boarding school

_________ Counting Coup

  1. The Native Americans of the Great Plains came to depend on these

_________ The cutting off of her braids

  1. It was the practice of touching a live enemy and escaping unharmed

_________ Horses and Buffalo

  1. The horse gave these “gifts” to Plains Indians

_________ Easterners

  1. These individuals had an inaccurate view of Plains Indians

_________ Speed and Mobility


While allowing more settlers to move westward, the arrival of the railroads also influenced the government’s policy toward the Native Americans who lived on the plains. In 1834, the federal government had passed an act that designated the entire Great Plains as one enormous reservation, or land set aside for Native American tribes. In the 1850s, however, the government changed its policy and created treaties that defined specific boundaries for each tribe. Most Native Americans spurned the government treaties and continued to hunt on their traditional lands, clashing with settlers and miners – with tragic results.
One of the most tragic events occurred in 1864. Most of the Cheyenne, assuming they were under the protection of the U.S. government, had peacefully returned to Colorado’s Sand Creek Reserve for the winter. Yet General S. R. Curtis, U.S. Army commander in the West, sent a telegram to militia colonel John Chivington that read, ‘I want no peace till the Indians suffer more.’ In response, Chivington and his troops descended on the Cheyenne and Arapaho – about 200 warriors and 500 women and children –camped at Sand Creek. The attack at dawn on November 29, 1864 killed over 150 inhabitants, mostly women and children.
The Bozeman Trail ran directly through Sioux hunting grounds in the Bighorn Mountains. The Sioux chief, Red Cloud (Mahpiua Luta), had unsuccessfully appealed to the government to end white settlement on the trail. In December 1866, the warrior Crazy Horse ambushed Captain William J. Fetterman and his company at Lodge Trail Ridge. Over 80 soldiers were killed. Native Americans called this fight the Battle of the Hundred Slain. Whites called it the Fetterman Massacre. Skirmishes continued until the government agreed to close the Bozeman Trail. In return, the Treaty of Fort Laramie, in which the Sioux agreed to live on a reservation along the Missouri River, was forced on the leaders of the Sioux in 1868. Sitting Bull (Tatanka Iyotanka), leader of the Hunkpapa Sioux, had never signed it. Although the Ogala and Brule Sioux did sign the treaty, they expected to continue using their traditional hunting grounds.” ~ The Americans

6. In the 1850s, the government changed its policy and created treaties that defined specific boundaries for tribes on the Great Plains because this had increased westward expansion




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