-European diseases passed on to indigenous peoples
-Differing Approaches to the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas
-Northern indigenous peoples had a better relationship with Europeans because the Europeans relied on the indigenous peoples to survive and traded with them
-Southern indigenous peoples treated poorly by Europeans
-Efforts to halt the destruction of indigenous cultures in the South
-Las Casas (Spanish priest/historian)
-Responses to Slavery
-Olaudah Equiano's autobiography criticizes the harsh treatment of slaves
-People finally begin to understand the true horror of the situation
-Abolitionist movement begins to grow
-The Grand Exchange
-Industrialization and Social Change
-Traditional craftspeople driven out of work
-Britain led this revolution, being the first to industrialize.
Key Terms (Ch. 7) Imperialism - One country's domination over another country's economic, political, and cultural institutions.
Historical Globalization - A period that is often identified as beginning in 1492, when Christopher Columbus made his first voyage to the Caribbean, and ending after World War 2, when the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers.
Mercantilism - A policy followed by European imperial powers from the 16th to the 19th century. In colonies, trade was strictly controlled to benefit the economy of the imperial power.
Capitalism - An economic system that advocates free trade, competition, and choice as a means of achieving prosperity.
Industrial Revolution - The period between about 1750 and 1850, when work became mechanized and began to occur in factories. The Industrial Revolution brought about dramatic economic, social, and cultural change.
Acculturation - The cultural changes that occur when two cultures accommodate, or adapt to, each other's worldviews.
Cultural Contact –
Chapter 8 – Foundations of Historical Globalization
To what extent do the legacies of historical globalization affect peoples of the world?
What are some legacies of historical globalization?
- Ethnocentrism and Eurocentrism
- Building Empires
-The Scramble for Africa
-African peoples not consulted
-King Leopold and the Congo
-Forced indigenous peoples to give up land and resources
-Enslaved indigenous peoples
-Resistors killed, beaten, or mutilated
-Kept atrocities secret for a long time
How has cultural contact affected people?
-Legacies and Patterns of Historical Change
-Legacies of migration
-Fleeing conflict to begin a new life
-Legacies of displacement
-Indigenous peoples displaced with arrival of European settlers
-Traditional government and community boundaries ignored
-European colonizers had a strong disregard for traditional indigenous beliefs, traditions, and lives
-Lead to civil war, starvation, and culture destruction
-Legacies of depopulation
-Forced migration of African slaves
-Famine, disease, and slavery
-East Indian depopulation
How has the exchange of goods and technologies affected people?
-First Nations Trades with Europeans
-Contact and Cultural Change in India
-The British East India Company
-World's first unofficial transnational corporation
-British rule in India
-Cotton and deindustrialization
-British put trade tariffs on cloth and cotton from India
-Crushed the cotton industry in India
-Cotton trade and Mohandas Gandhi
-Wanted people to be self-sufficient
How are the legacies of historical globalization continuing to affect people?
-Imperialism changed not only economic relations but also indigenous cultures
-Art, religious beliefs, and values were all changed
-Languages continuously being lost
-Legacies of Imperialism in India
-India's constitution made it a parliamentary democracy based on the British model
-India separated into India and Pakistan to separate Muslims and Hindus
Key Terms (Ch. 8) Legacy- Something that has been passed on by those who lived in the past.
Ethnocentrism- A word that combines "ethnic" and "center". It refers to a way of thinking that centers on one's own race and culture. Ethnocentric people believe that their worldview is the only valid one.
Eurocentrism- A form of ethnocentrism that uses European ethnic, national, religious, and linguistic criteria to judge other peoples and their cultures.
Depopulation- A reduction in population caused by natural or human-made forces such as famine, war, or displacement.
Deindustrialization- The reduction in or loss of industries.
Historical Globalization- A period that is often identified as beginning in 1492, when Christopher Columbus made his first voyage to the Caribbean, and ending after World War 2, when the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers.
Chapter 9 - Historical Globalization and Imperialism
To what extent have the legacies of historical globalization affected Canada?
How did historical globalization affect Canada?
-Usually friendly, co-dependant
-Colonization in Canada
-Fur trade in Canada marked by change in focus
-Finding a route to Asia to finding a better way to collect furs
-First Nations played a huge role
-Trapping of animals
-Transportation of pelts
-First Peoples and European Settlers
-First Nations taught Europeans how to survive
-Natives believed status = ability, and land could not be owned VS European belief that status = wealth, and land ownership was key to wealth
-Oral treaties of the Natives VS European written treaties
How do some legacies of historical globalization continue to affect Canada?
-Diverse in language, perspectives, and cultures
-Treaties fulfilled and claims made
-Many claims remain unsettled
Key Terms (Ch. 9) Indian Act- First passed by the Canadian Parliament in 1876 and amended several times since then, this act continues to define who is, and isn't, a status Indian. Early versions of the act banned some traditional practices of First Nations cultures and allowed only those who renounced Indian status to vote in federal elections.
Status Indian- A First Nations person who is registered according to the provisions of the Indian Act and is therefore eligible to receive specific benefits.
Residential Schools- Boarding schools where First Nations children gathered to live, work, and study. These schools were operated or subsidized by the Canadian government as an important element of the government's assimilation policy. The last residential school shut down in 1996.
Cultural Mosaic- A society that consists of many distinct cultural groups.
Multiculturalism- An official Canadian government policy founded on the idea that Canadian society is pluralistic - made up of many culturally distinct groups who are free to affirm and promote their own cultural identity.
Cultural Pluralism- The idea that a variety of peoples are free to affirm and promote their customs, traditions, beliefs, and language within a society.
Controversy- A dispute that is a matter of opinion over which parties actively disagree, argue, or debate. These arguments can range in size from private disputes between individuals to large-scale disagreements between societies.
Compensation- Something given or received as a payment or reparation.
Assimilation- A process that occurs when the culture of a minority group is absorbed by another culture. The cultural identity of the minority group disappears as its members take on the identity of the other culture.
Perspectives- A point of view or outlook on a certain situation.
Chapter 10 - Living With the Legacies of Imperialism
To what extent have attempts to respond to the legacies of historical globalization been effective?
How effectively have people responded to the legacies of historical globalization?
-International responses to genocide
-UN officials refused to become involved
-Peacekeepers couldn't legally interfere unless in self-defense
-Failed to help stop the genocide
-Failed to acknowledge the genocide
How effectively have governments responded to the legacies of historical globalization?
-UN and Indigenous People
-Indigenous peoples not represented in UN
-South Africa - Redressing Inequities
-Eurocentric beliefs of the colonizers ensured that Indigenous people were always second-class
-Racism as government policy
-Blacks barred from voting
-Introduced when indigenous people began to demand independence
-Segregation in jobs, living areas, clothing, schools, etc.
-1970s and 1980s groups struggled to end the apartheid by using violent and non-violent means
-Internment of German, Ukrainian, and Japanese Canadians
-Seen as "enemy aliens" during the first and second World Wars
-Held in prison-like conditions
-Finally receiving compensation
-Legacies of the Indian Act
-Continues to embody the legacies of colonialism
-Royal Commission on aboriginal peoples
-Statement of Reconciliation
-Changing the Indian Act
How effectively have organizations responded to the legacies of historical globalization?
How does historical globalization continue to affect the world?
-Global Income Inequality
-Caucasian based countries have the highest in the world
-Unequal Foreign Aid
Key Terms - Chapter 10 Genocide- The mass killings of human beings, especially a targeted group of people. Usually has something to do with religious beliefs, race, etc.
Apartheid- An Afrikaans word that refers to a policy of segregating and discriminating against non-whites in South Africa.
Enemy Aliens- Labels assigned during World War I and World War II to people from countries that were at war with Canada. The rights of enemy aliens were sometimes restricted, and some were even interned in camps.
Non-Government Organizations- An organization established by groups of people to work toward specific goals and to gain public support in achieving these goals. NGOs depend on volunteer workers and donations, but they may also receive grants or contracts from governments. They may influence government policies at national and international levels.
Foreign Aid- Money, supplies, and other goods, as well as expertise, given by one country to another.
Gross National Income- The amount of money earned by everyone in a country.
Reconciliation- Changing for the better a relationship between two or more persons or groups of persons.
Commission- A special group delegated to consider an important issue.