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Percentages are calculated after excluding non-responses, "don't know" and "doesn't apply" responses from totals.
a. "Over fiscal year 2011, did this establishment have formal training programs for its permanent, full-time employees?"
b. "Does this establishment have an internationally-recognized quality certification, such as ISO 9000, 9002, 14000, or HACP?"
c. "Over the last 3 years, has this establishment introduced new managerial/ administrative processes?"
d. "In the last 3 years, did this establishment spend on research and development activities performed within the establishment?"
e. "Over the last 3 years, has this establishment introduced a new product or service?" (NB: Wording of question in Russia was slightly less restrictive: "In the last 3 years, has this establishment introduced new or significantly improved products or services?")
Table 6: Measures of cross-regional variation in regional/ local mean values:
Mean predicted likelihood:
Spent on R & D in last 3 years
Introduced new management practices in last 3 years
Cited access to finance as greatest obstacle
Cited tax rates as greatest obstacle
Informal sector competition more than minor obstacle
Management spends > 5% time dealing with government regulations
Inadequately educated workforce as more than minor problem
1 (Acknowledgements) .
2 Calculated from WDI data at .
3 Note that the geographic sampling units in Russia were regions, ie first-order administrative-territorial units, whereas the sampling units in China were cities. It is possible that this difference affects the results. Below I discuss this point further.
4 In the case of Russia, the coefficient of variation for mean size of firm was only .04 across the regions sampled; the cv for the proportion of firms that were in the service sector was .126 and that for the proportion of firms in manufacturing was .24. For China, the cv's were similar for individual sector shares. Here even more fine-grained sectoral categories are available. The cv for the average share of food and related industries was .3; for chemical industries it was .23; for machine-building .34; for retail and wholesale trade it was .69. The city samples are closely matched with respect to (logged) firm size as well. The coefficient of variation for firm size was .07.