Regents Review Vocabulary Terms Articles of Confederation

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Regents Review Vocabulary Terms

1. Articles of Confederation- (First Gov’t/states held the power/weak Central government)

2. Mercantilism- (limited colonies trading rights/good for Mother Country)

3. Declaration of Independence-(influenced by Enlightenment/John Locke/reasons to break from England)

4. Unwritten Constitution-(traditions of gov’t/ Cabinet, Political Parties)

5. Federalists-(those who supported Constitution/wanted strong federal gov’t)

6. Anti-federalists-(those who are against Constitution/against strong fed. gov’t)

7. Constitutional Convention-(representatives from the states/outline new gov’t)

8. Great Compromise-(settle issues of representation in gov’t/ House of Representatives and the Senate/ bi-cameral legislature)

9. Democracy – (people rule/consent of governed/citizen participation/popular sovereignty)

10. Common Sense – (pamphlet to convince colonists to break away from England/Thomas Paine)

11. Flexibility – (constitution can change to meet needs of society/Elastic Clause)

12. Amendment Process (process to change the Constitution)

13. Northwest Ordinance-(plan for admitting new states to the Union/only positive from Articles)

14. Mayflower compact/House of Burgesses-(early form of self- gov’t/representation in government)

15. Judicial Review-(Supreme Court’s power to interpret the Constitution)

16. Federalism-(levels of gov’t: National, State, and Local/division of power)

17. Separation of Powers-(three branches of gov’t/Executive, Legislative and Judicial)

18. Checks and Balances-(making sure no one branch has too much power)

19. Census – (counts US population/affects House of Representatives)

20. 18th Amendment – (Prohibition/Temperance Movement/difficult to enforce)

21. 13th, 14th, 15th, Amendments – (Reconstruction Amendments/Rights of African Americans)

22. 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, Amendments – (Progressive Amendments)

23. Three-fifths Compromise – (every 5 slaves count as 3 people/representation in House of Reps)

24. Elastic Clause – (Congress has power to make all laws “NECESSARY and PROPER”)

25. Bill of Rights – (first 10 amendments/protects against abuse of Federal gov’t/individual rights)

26. Electoral College – (method to elect president/flaw – can win popular vote but not election)

27. Missouri Compromise-(slavery in the new states as nation expanded/36 30 No free, So slave)

28. Compromise of 1850-(addresses slavery in the new states as nation expanded/Fugitive Slave Act)

29. Homestead Act-(gov’t provides free land to settlers out West)

30. Manifest Destiny-(desire for nation to expand the West)

31. Louisiana Purchase-(doubled size of nation/loose interpretation of Constitution)

32. Dawes Act-(forced assimilation of Native Americans)

33. The Grange-(social/labor organization of farmers)

34. Geographic Areas – (Great Plains: grassy, flat/ South: warm, fertile soil/ North: navigable rivers)
35. Dust Bowl – (drought/Great Plains/1930’s)

36. Kansas-Nebraska Act – (popular sovereignty/slavery in new territories)

37. Trail of Tears (forcible removal of Native Americans West of the Mississippi)

38. Abolitionists (against slavery/underground railroad)

39. Stock Market Crash 1929-(caused by speculation/buying stock on margin)

40. Hoovervilles-(shanty towns for homeless during the Great Depression/ President Hoover)

41. Progressive Era-(period of reform/exposing, correcting societal problems caused by industrialization)
42. Assembly line-(developed by Henry Ford/ speeds up production)

43. Rosenberg trial-(husband and wife accused of being Communist/split nation)

44. Sacco and Vanzetti-(reflect nativist’s feelings towards Italian immigrants/executed no evidence)

45. Harlem Renaissance-(establish African American culture/1920’s)

46. Quota System – (limits immigrants to the US from certain areas/nativists fears/1920’s)

47. G.I. bill-(provide educational and financial assistance to Veterans)

48. Civil Rights Acts-(end racial discrimination/1964)

49. New Deal-(series of gov’t programs intended to relieve problems of Depression/FDR)

50. Great Society-(similar to New Deal/ gov’t assistance to those living in poverty/LBJ)

51. Title IX- (US law/equal education for boys and girls)

52. Scopes Monkey Trial – (science vs religion/cultural clash/1920’s)

53. Social Darwinism – (survival of the fittest/big business)

54. Open Immigration – (all are welcome/needed for jobs)

55. Nativists – (hated immigrants/wanted to keep out)

56. Referendum/Recall/Initiative (increase citizen participation in government)

57. Manhattan Project-(development of Atomic bomb)

58. Détente- (Nixon’s policy of easing tensions between U.S. and U.S.S.R./Cold War)

59. Sputnik-(Russian space satellite/ proves U.S. behind in technology)

60. Palmer Raids- (caused by the fear of Communism in the U.S.)

61. Red Scare-(caused by a fear of Communism in the U.S.)

62. McCarthyism-(Communist accusations/ violation of civil liberties/House of Un-American Affairs)

63. Berlin Airlift-(U.S., Britain, and France fly supplies to Berlin during Cold War)

64. Pearl Harbor – (Japan bombs US /Dec 7. 1941/US enters WWI)

65. Nuremburg Trials – (after WWII/individuals accountable for crimes committed during war)

66. War Powers Act-(increases Congress’s role in the deployment of troops/weakens the role of President in the sending troops overseas)
67. Neutrality Acts-(reflect U.S. disillusionment with WW I/ avoid mistakes that drew us into war)
68. Fourteen Points-(Wilson’s plan for international peace after World War I)
69. Monroe Doctrine-(foreign policy-U.S. will defend Latin America/stay out of European affairs)

70. Marshall Plan-(provides economic aid to Western Europe after World War II)

71. Truman Doctrine-(provides aid to Turkey and Greece after WW II/President Theodore Roosevelt)

72. Big Stick Policy-(U.S. will intervene in Latin American affairs/protect interests)

73. Open Door Policy – (trade with China and Asia)

74. Domino Theory – (if one country falls to communism others will fall)

75. Imperialism (strong country takes over weaker country)

76. Homeland Security (September 11/war on terror)

77. Black Codes-(limited African American rights in the South)

78. Jim Crow Laws-(segregation in the South/limited African American rights)

79. Reconstruction-(rebuild the South after the Civil War)

80. Federal Reserve System-(regulates currency in the United States)

81. Sherman Anti-trust Act-(promotes fair business practices)

82. Spanish American War-(establishes U.S. as World power/yellow journalism)

83. Gilded Age-(Age of Big Business)

84. Arsenal of Democracy-(U.S. supplies weapons to Allies early in World War II)

85. Populist Party-(political party that fought for the rights of farmers against R.R.)

86. Yellow Journalism – (propaganda/exaggeration/sinking of Maine in Cuba)

87. Labor Unions – (protect workers’ rights)

88. Muckrakers – (exposed abuses of Big Business)

89. Reformers – (tried to fix problems caused by Big Business)

90. Baby Boom (after WWII/affects social security)

Court Cases:

1. Marbury v. Madison-(establishes judicial review/ strengthens Fed. Gov’t)

2. Mapp v. Ohio- (protects rights of the accused/ illegal search and seizure)

3. Gideon v. Wainright-(protects rights of the accused/ right to an attorney)

4. Miranda v. Arizona-(protects rights of the accused/ establishes Miranda warnings)

5. Korematsu v. U.S.-(Japanese internment camps/ gov’t can limit rights of a group)

6. Schenck v. U.S.-(criticizes draft/ gov’t can limit rights of an individual)

7. New Jersey v. T.L.O-(search of a student’s purse/ rights are limited in school)

8. Tinker v. Des Moines-(students wear black arm bands/do not lose all rights in school)

9. Plessy v. Ferguson-(segregated railway cars/ establishes “separate but equal”)

10. Brown v. Board of Ed.-(“separate but equal” unconstitutional/ forced integration)

11. Roe v. Wade-(abortion/ right to privacy)


1. George Washington- (Farewell Address: Proclamation of Neutrality/beginning of Unwritten Constitution)

2. John Marshall-(Supreme Court chief justice/ strengthens power of federal Government)

3. Thomas Jefferson-(Louisiana Purchase-used a “loose construction of Const.)

*Jefferson and Hamilton caused first political parties*

4. Alexander Hamilton-(created National Bank/regulation of money supply)

5. Andrew Jackson-(Dawes Act/ Spoils system)

6. Abraham Lincoln-(Emancipation Proclamation/ Preserve the Union)

7. Theodore Roosevelt-(“Trustbuster”/ Big Stick Policy/ Meat Inspection Act)

8. Woodrow Wilson-(Federal Reserve System/ Fourteen Points/WWI)

9. Herbert Hoover-(blamed for Great Depression/didn’t help the people)

10. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (F.D.R.)-(New Deal/court packing)

11. Harry Truman-(use of Atomic bomb/ Containment/Cold War)

12. Dwight D. Eisenhower-(Containment/Domino Theory/Cold War/Vietnam/Little Rock Nine)

13. John F. Kennedy-(Peace Corp/ Cuban Missile Crisis/Space Race)

14. Lyndon B. Johnson-(Great Society/similar to FDR New Deal)

15. Richard Nixon-(Détente/Cold War/War Powers Act/Watergate)

16. Jimmy Carter – (Oil Crisis/OPEC/Camp David Accord)

17. Ronald Reagan – (cut taxes/supply side economics/Star Wars/escalates Arms Race)

18. George H Bush Sr. – (oversees end Cold War/operation Desert Storm/protect US interests -OIL)

19. Bill Clinton – (Impeached for lying/troops to Bosnia to protect Human Rights)

20. George W Bush Jr – (2000 election/Sept 11, 2001 War on Terror/Homeland Security)

21. Barak Obama – (end war in Iraq)

22. Elizabeth Cady Stanton-(Women’s suffrage/Seneca Falls Convention)

23. Susan B. Anthony-(Women’s suffrage)

24. Jacob Riis-(muckraking photographer/ Progressive Era)

25. Jane Addams-(Hull House/ Progressive Era/reformer)

26. Upton Sinclair-(The Jungle/ Progressive Era/muckraker)

27. Booker T. Washington-(vocational training/ Equal rights)

28. W.E.B. Dubois-(educational equality/ Equal rights/NAACP)

29. Duke Ellington-(Harlem Renaissance/Music)

30. Langston Hughes-(Harlem Renaissance/Literature)

31. Martin Luther King, Jr.-(non-violent civil-disobedience/Civil Rights Movement)

32. Rosa Parks-(Montgomery bus boycott/ Civil Rights Movement)

33. Alfred T. Mahan-(supporter of Imperialism)

34. John D. Rockefeller-(Standard Oil Trust/ Robber Baron/Captain of Industry)

35. Andrew Carnegie-(Carnegie Steel Company/ Robber Baron/Captain of Industry)

36. Cornelius Vanderbilt-(Monopoly in the shipping industry/Robber Baron/ Captain of Industry)

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