REFORMATION CHEAT SHEET Martin Luther- German monk who in many ways, started the Reformation. Wrote the 95 Theses, attacking what he believed were corrupt Church practices. Taught that faith was most important in achieving salvation, the Bible was the sole authority on Christian matters, and promoted equality among all Christians. These ideas are still the tenants of Lutheranism.
Pope Leo X- Threatened Luther with excommunication if he did not take back his statements attacking the church. After Luther went as far as suggesting violence could be used to drive the Pope from power, Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther.
Emperor Charles V-Holy Roman Emperor who was devoutly religious and opposed Luther’s teachings. Made the Edict of Worms, forbidding anyone from aiding Martin Luther in the Holy Roman Empire, as well as calling for all his writings to be burnt. Many princes chose to break away from the Holy Roman Empire as a result of his actions.
Henry VIII-Broke England’s ties to the Catholic Church as a result of the Pope’s refusal to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon when she would not bear Henry VIII a son. He called upon Parliament to pass a set of laws ending the Pope’s power in England, which they did in 1529. The split was finalized in 1534, when Henry was made the head of England’s church.
Mary I- Henry’s daughter who ruled over England from 1553 to 1558. She was a Catholic and attempted to restore the Catholic Church to power in England. She executed many Protestants and earned the nickname “Bloody Mary”.
Catherine of Aragon- Henry VIII’s first wife. Her age and inability to bear Henry VII a son lead to England leaving the Catholic Church.
Anne Boleyn- Henry’s second wife, who he married in 1533. She gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth, but lost favor with Henry VIII. He had her charged with treason and beheaded in 1536.
John Calvin-Believed that humans were naturally sinful. Believed in predestination, or the concept that a small group of humans were chosen by God to be saved before they even existed. Also believed that the ideal government was a theocracy. He led the city of Geneva, Switzerland in this fashion.
John Knox- Brought back many of John Calvin’s teachings to Scotland, where he formed the Presbyterian Church. He believed each community church should be led by a group of elders. Calvinism later became the official religion of Scotland.
Katherina von Bora-Martin Luther’s wife. She played a significant behind-the-scenes role in Luther’s work and managed his day-to-day affairs. She disagreed with his beliefs regarding inequality in marriage.
Ignatius of Loyola- Spanish reformer who created the “Society of Jesus”, or Jesuits. The Jesuits worked to reform the Catholic Church through the founding of schools, missionary work, and a stop to the spread of Protestantism. Many Catholic schools around the world today are still run by the Jesuits.
Pope Paul III- First Pope to recognize the need for reform inside the Catholic Church. He investigated abuses inside the Church, approved the Jesuits, sought out heresy, and called upon a meeting of church officials known as the Council of Trent. In response to Martin Luther, this Council decided that the Church’s interpretation was final on religious matters, that faith and good works were necessary for salvation, the Bible and the Church were equally powerful in guiding Christians, and that indulgences were valid expression of faith.
Pope Paul IV-Carried out the decrees decided by the Council of Trent. Created a list of banned books for Catholics that should be burned in bonfires.
Anabaptists- Believed that people should only be baptized when they are old enough to decide to be Christian. Taught that wars were wrong and that church and state should be separate. Were persecuted by Protestants and Catholics alike, but their teachings heavily influence groups such as the Quakers and Baptists today.