Why did Johnson believe the federal government could not force southern states to allow slaves to vote?
What happened to any land in the South that had been taken away by the Union army?
What were the three things that southern states did have to do according to Johnson’s Reconstruction plan?
As a result of Johnson's leniency, many southern states in 1865 and 1866 successfully enacted a series of laws known as the "black codes," which were designed to restrict freed blacks' activity and ensure their availability as a labor force. These cruel codes enraged many in the North, including numerous members of Congress, who refused to seat congressmen and senators elected from the southern states. In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature. The first bill extended the life of the bureau, originally established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens who were to enjoy equality before the law. After Johnson vetoed the bills–causing a permanent rupture in his relationship with Congress that would culminate in his impeachment in 1868–the Civil Rights Act became the first major bill to become law over presidential veto.