Slavery was legal in the U.S. Constitution, which was insisted upon by the southern States at the Constitutional Convention. In addition, the southern Founding Fathers, in order to maintain their superiority in the new Congress, insisted that slaves be counted as population. The northern states objected. In order to keep the southern states involved in the constitutional process, a compromise was agreed to: EACH SLAVE would be counted as not one person, but three-fifths of a person for calculating population and apportioning representative.
Period directly following the Civil War and lasting until 1877, when the Republican government attempted to rebuilt and “revamp” the South. During this period, Amendments were passed to bring ex-slaves into their civil rights. Almost one hundred years would pass before civil rights for African Americans would be addressed in the modern civil rights movement, which began in 1955.
Black Codes, often called “Jim Crow Laws,” became legal in the South after the Civil War to enforce segregation between ex-slaves and the white population of the South, who would not accept the equality of the races, which was sought by the Reconstruction Republicans. These laws covered every aspect of life for black people and would last for almost 100 years.
Civil War Amendments
Passed by the Reconstruction Congress after the Civil War to provide Constitutional rights to ex-slaves. Following Reconstruction, especially in the South, these amendments curtailed all blacks marginalized in society.
Thirteenth Amendment: constitutionally freed all slaves in America (abolishment of slavery)
Fourteenth Amendment: extended liberties and rights granted by the Bill of Rights to former slaves, citizenship to ex-slaves and provided them due process of law.
Fifteenth Amendment: provided the vote for all black males in America stated the right to vote should not be denied on the basis of “race, color or previous condition of servitude.”
AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The third American industrial revolution, based on electricity and gas power, began shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War. Many factors contributed to the beginning of American industrialization, especially the existence of a large workforce, primarily from Europe, plentiful natural resources, a host of new inventions (especially from Thomas Edison), and a government system that promoted laissez-faire, and free enterprise. Laissez-faire is a doctrine opposing governmental interference in economic affairs beyond the minimum necessary for the maintenance of peace and property rights. The American railroad industry was the first monopoly in the United States, run by a group of aggressive businessmen like Cornelius Vanderbilt, whose tactics served as a business model for future industrialists, John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie, pursued America’s industrial growth as well as their own personal wealth. As businesses grew to increased demand from our expanding population, new business models were created to organize industry, such as the corporation, and the trust. Cities blossomed around the country, populated by the rising influx of American immigrants looking for opportunities not available in Europe or Asia. Andrew Carnegie (Steel Magnate), Henry Ford (automaker), J.P. Morgan (corporate financier), John D. Rockefeller (Standard Oil Trust Co.) and Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroad) are five of the greatest American businessmen. Remembered for their entrepreneurial spirit and innovative approaches to growing their respective empires, these men ushered post-Civil War America into the modern era.
By the end of the 19th century, American had become the industrial leader of the world, with high exports and a growing GNP: by 1910, the American gross national product had grown x 8 since the Civil War.
GILDED AGE Approximately 1877 to 1900, characterized by industrialism and immigration. The name “Gilded Age” was coined by Mark Twain, in his novel of the same name, which reflected the fact that America was a country of great wealth enjoyed by the few, while the majority of the population, immigrants and farmers, lived in abject poverty. Society was defined by three distinct classes: an enormous underclass of immigrant labor, a small middle class and a small but powerful upper class, that controlled half of the wealth in America.
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR AND AMERICAN COLONIALISM In 1898, America fought a brief war with Spain and gained an empire. President McKinley declared war on fading imperialist power Spain over a conflict of interests in Cuba, where America had many financial holdings and where we objected to the Spanish treatment of its colonials. When the USS Maine was sunk in Havana Harbor, the president declared war with Spain. Fighting occurred on two fronts, the Atlantic in Cuba and in the Pacific, as Spain controlled the Philippines and Guam. When the brief war ended in an American victory, we gained the Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico and Cuba was given its freedom, although would be tightly controlled by the American Platt Amendment.
McKinley – war Spain – Cuba – Spain sunk USS Maine – President War!
America wins – Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico - Cuba gains freedom – controlled by Platt Agreement
To protect our interests, President Theodore Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, warning Europe to stay out of North America. Roosevelt threatened any intruders with his “Big Stick Diplomacy,” the threat of American force should any nation interfere with our holding, although his successor, William Howard Taft, would soften this belligerent policy with what is now called “ Dollar Diplomacy,” offering nations monetary rewards for their cooperation.
A canal was inevitable. A boat trip from New York to San Francisco forced a crew to sail around the tip of South America — a journey of 12,000 miles. President Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt decided it was time for action. The canal became his legacy. Construction on the canal was extremely difficult and an engineering feat. Beginning in 1907, American civilians blasted through tons of mountain stone. U.S Army physicians Walter Reed and William Gorgas curbed the threats of yellow fever and malaria. When Theodore Roosevelt visited the blast area, he became the first sitting American President to travel outside the country. In 1914, at the cost of $345 million, the Panama Canal opened.
Construction began 1907-Theodore Roosevelt- physicians Walter Reed and William Gorgas curbed yellow fever and malaria- opened 1914-cost $345 million
PROGRESSIVE ERA Approximately 1900-1920, characterized by a move to correct the damage caused by the excesses of the Gilded Age. This era of reform began in the farm community, which was abused by industrialism, especially abuses by the railroad industry and the financial sector, in the Populist movement, led by the Grange and reformist politician William Jennings Bryan. Reform moved into the cities, led by reformers, known as “muckrakers,” for the dirt they stirred up in American magazines and newspapers, such as Jane Addams (Founder of Hull House), Lillian Wald(Nurse, Social Worker, Women’s Rights Activist and Founder of Henry Street Settlement), Upton Sinclair (Journalist) and three American presidents, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson. Business was controlled by the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, which was approved July 2, 1890. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was the first measure passed by the U.S. Congress to prohibit trusts and outlawed monopolistic business practices. It was named for Senator John Sherman of Ohio, who was a chairman of the Senate finance committee and the Secretary of the Treasury under President Hayes. Several states passed similar laws, but they were limited to intrastate businesses. The Sherman Antitrust Act was based on the constitutional power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce. “Muckrackers” Jane Addams, Lillian Wald, Upton Sinclair, Presidents T Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson
William Jennings Bryan fought for a "righteous cause." For thirty years the Great Commoner was a progressive force in the Democratic Party. As a congressman from Lincoln, Nebraska, he supported women's suffrage, championed the rights of farmers and laborers and believed passionately in majority rule. In 1921, Bryan began a new campaign -- to ban the teaching of evolution in public schools. Bryan was progressive in politics and a conservative in religion. The eight-day Scopes trial took a toll on Bryan. The next day the jury pronounced John Scopes guilty. William Jennings Bryan won the case, but history would not look kindly on his last crusade. The Scopes trial cast a long shadow over his remarkable career. Clarence Darrow was a famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution. He caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when he questioned Bryan about the Bible. “Scopes Monkey Trial” Evolution vs. Religion
The 16th Amendment provides a national, per capita income tax, the 17th Amendment increased democracy with the direct election of senators, in 1919 the 18th Amendment curtailed alcohol abuse and prohibited the “sale, manufacture and transportation” of alcohol, due to the era’s attempt to “purify” its populace. The amendment was so violated, that Congress was forced to pass the Volstead Act in 1919, which established a force within the Treasury Department to catch violators, including members of the Mafia, who controlled much of the illegal alcohol in America. The “speakeasy” was born, underground drinking clubs, which were often raided by police. The 19th Amendment granted women the right to vote. President Roosevelt was a keen conservationist, and who oversaw the increase in our national park system (Grand Canyon, Yellowstone) and supported the National Reclamation Act 1902. President Taft supported the establishment of the Bureau of Mines to improve mine safety. The ProgressiveEra also established labor unions in America to protect the rights and safety of America’s industrial class.
Roosevelt-conservationist- National Reclamation Act 1902- National Parks
Taft-Bureau of Mines-safety in mines Progressive Era- established Labor Unions
National Reclamation Act 1902
June 17, 1902, Congress enacted the National Reclamation Act, also known as the Newland Act, to "appropriate the receipts from the sale and disposal of public lands in certain States and Territories to the construction of irrigation works for the reclamation of arid lands." With this act, Congress intended to harness the intermittent precipitation in seventeen western states and use it to encourage individual families to settle in the West by converting arid federal land into agriculturally productive land. The act created a Reclamation Service with the technical expertise to construct monumental water projects to irrigate the West, and established a Reclamation Fund to finance these expensive ventures. A century later, with every major river but the Yellowstone dammed, the Bureau of Reclamation was forced to shift its focus from massive construction projects to the operation and maintenance of these facilities.
Labor Unions Improve Working Conditions
By 1900, only 3% of American workers belonged to unions. Management held the upper hand in labor disputes and struggles with organized labor with government generally taking its side. With a surplus of cheap labor, strikers could easily be replaced by bringing in strikebreakers, or scabs that were unemployed persons desperate for jobs. The first attempt to organize all workers in all states (skilled and unskilled), (agricultural and industrial workers) was the National Labor Union founded in 1866, it had 640,000 members in two years. Besides the goals of higher wages and the 8-hour day, they wanted equal rights for women and blacks, monetary reform and worker cooperatives. Its chief victory was winning the 8-hour day for workers employed by the federal government. It lost support, however, after a depression began in 1873, and after the unsuccessful strikes of 1877. However the public recognized the need for a better balance between the demands of employers and employees to avoid the numerous strikes and violence that characterized the late 19th century (Great Railroad Strike of 1877, Haymarket Riots, Homestead Strike, and Pullman Strike.)
WORLD WAR I America will overcome our commitment to isolationism and enter WWI April 1917, as a direct result of the activities of Germany, especially the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare against our Atlantic shipping, the discovery of the Zimmermann Telegram, inciting Mexico to attack the United States and President Wilson’s commitment to safeguarding democracy in the world. John J. Pershing led the American Expeditionary force. This fairly “unpopular” war saw a massive mobilization of the American economy through the War Industries Board; the draft of 4 million men and the selling of war bonds financed the war. Germany-unrestricted submarine warfare-Zimmerman Telegram, President Wilson’s safeguarding democracy- John J Pershing led American Expeditionary force
CAUSES, EVENTS AND EFFECTS OF WWI World War 1 is more complicated than a simple list of causes. While there was a chain of events that directly led to the fighting, the root causes are much deeper and part of continued debate and discussion. This is an overview of the most popular reasons cited as the root causes of World War 1.
1. Mutual Defense Alliances
Over time, countries throughout Europe made mutual defense agreements, which pulled them into battle. Thus, if one country was attacked, allied countries were bound to defend them. Before World War 1, the following alliances existed:
Russia and Serbia
Germany and Austria-Hungary
France and Russia
Britain and France and Belgium
Japan and Britain
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia got involved to defend Serbia. Germany seeing Russia mobilizing, declared war on Russia. France was then drawn in against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germany attacked France through Belgium pulling Britain into war. Then Japan entered the war. Later, Italy and the United States would enter on the side of the allies.
Imperialism a country increases their power and wealth by bringing additional territories under their control. Before World War 1, Africa and parts of Asia were points of contention amongst the European countries. This was especially true because of the raw materials these areas could provide. The increasing competition and desire for greater empires led to an increase in confrontation that helped push the world into World War I.
As the world entered the 20th century, an arms race began. By 1914, Germany had the greatest increase in military buildup. Great Britain and Germany greatly increased their navies in this time period. Furthermore in Germany and Russia particularly, the military establishment had a greater influence on public policy. This increase in militarism helped push the countries involved to war.
4. Nationalism Proud of your country
Much of the origin of the war was based on the desire of the Slavic peoples in Bosnia and Herzegovina to no longer be part of Austria Hungary but instead be part of Serbia. In this manner, nationalism led directly to the War. But in a more general way, the nationalism of various European countries contributed not only to the beginning but the extension of the war in Europe. Each country tried to prove their dominance and power.
5. Immediate Cause: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The immediate cause of World War I that made all the aforementioned items come into play (alliances, imperialism, militarism, nationalism) was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. In June 1914, a Serbian nationalist assassinated him and his wife while they were in Sarajevo, Bosnia that was part of Austria-Hungary. This was in protest to Austria-Hungary having control of this region. Serbia wanted to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina. This assassination led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia. When Russia began to mobilize due to its alliance with Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia. Thus began the expansion of the war to include all those involved in the mutual defense alliances.
The Start of the War
World War I began July 28, 1914, when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. This seemingly small conflict between two countries spread rapidly: soon, Germany, Russia, Great Britain, and France were all drawn into the war, largely because they were involved in treaties that obligated them to defend certain other nations. Western and eastern fronts quickly opened along the borders of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
The Western and Eastern Fronts
The first month of combat consisted of bold attacks and rapid troop movements on both fronts. In the west, Germany attacked first Belgium and then France. In the east, Russia attacked both Germany and Austria-Hungary. In the south, Austria-Hungary attacked Serbia. Following the Battle of the Marne (September 5–9, 1914), the western front became entrenched in central France and remained that way for the rest of the war. The fronts in the east also gradually locked into place.
The Ottoman Empire
Late in 1914, the Ottoman Empire was brought into the fray as well; after Germany tricked Russia into thinking that Turkey had attacked it. As a result, much of 1915 was dominated by Allied actions against the Ottomans in the Mediterranean. First, Britain and France launched a failed attack on the Dardanelles. This campaign was followed by the British invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula. Britain also launched a separate campaign against the Turks in Mesopotamia. Although the British had some successes in Mesopotamia, the Gallipoli campaign and the attacks on the Dardanelles resulted in British defeats.
The middle part of the war, 1916 and 1917, was dominated by continued trench warfare in both the east and the west. Soldiers fought from dug-in positions, striking at each other with machine guns, heavy artillery, and chemical weapons. Though soldiers died by the millions in brutal conditions, neither side had any substantive success or gained any advantage.
The United States’ Entrance and Russia’s ExitUS – IN – Atlantic ships sunk - against Germany
Despite the stalemate on both fronts in Europe, two important developments in the war occurred in 1917. In early April, the United States, angered by attacks upon its ships in the Atlantic, declared war on Germany. Then, in November, the Bolshevik Revolution prompted Russia to pull out of the war.
Russia – OUT – Bolshevik Revolution
The End of the War and Armistice
Although both sides launched renewed offensives in 1918 in an all-or-nothing effort to win the war, both efforts failed. The fighting between exhausted, demoralized troops continued to plod along until the Germans lost a number of individual battles and very gradually began to fall back. A deadly outbreak of influenza, meanwhile, took heavy tolls on soldiers of both sides. Eventually, the governments of both Germany and Austria-Hungary began to lose control as both countries experienced multiple mutinies from within their military structures. Flu! – Germany and Austria-Hungary – mutinies
The war ended in the late fall of 1918, after the member countries of the Central Powers signed armistice agreements one by one. Germany was the last, signing its armistice November 11, 1918. As a result of these agreements, Austria-Hungary was broken up into several smaller countries. Germany, under the Treaty of Versailles, was severely punished with hefty economic reparations, territorial losses, and strict limits on its rights to develop militarily.
War ended 1918 – Armistice Agreement – Austria-Hungary broken – Germany, Treaty of Versailles – punished
Germany after the War (WWI)
Many historians believe the Allies were excessive in their German punishment and the harsh Treaty of Versailles planted the seeds of World War II, rather than foster peace. The treaty’s declaration that Germany was entirely to blame for the war was a blatant untruth, which humiliated the German people. Furthermore, the treaty imposed steep war reparations payments on Germany, meant to force the country to bear the financial burden of the war. Although Germany ended up paying only a small percentage of the reparations it was supposed to make, it was already stretched financially thin by the war, and the additional economic burden caused enormous resentment. Ultimately, extremist groups, such as the Nazi Party, exploited this humiliation and resentment and took political control of the country in the following decades.
Allies excessive- Germany humiliated and blamed for WW1- steep war reparations- Germany financially responsible-caused resentment-Nazi Party took control
U.S foreign policy that avoided involvement in European affairs after World War I. Isolationism refers to America's longstanding reluctance to become involved in European alliances and wars. Isolationists held the view that America's perspective on the world was different from European societies and that America could advance the cause of freedom and democracy by means other than war. American isolationism did not mean disengagement from the world stage. Isolationists were not averse to the idea that the United States should be a world player and even further its territorial, ideological and economic interests, particularly in the Western Hemisphere.
Woodrow Wilson’s plan for a peace treaty after World War I. The U.S. entered World War I in April 1917. On January 8, 1918, President Woodrow Wilson announced his Fourteen Points, which would serve as the basis for peace in November 1918. Primary Source document retrieved from < http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1918wilson.html>
1. No more secret agreements ("Open covenants openly arrived at").
2. Free navigation of all seas.
3. An end to all economic barriers between countries.
4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers.
5. All decisions regarding the colonies should be impartial
6. The German Army is to be removed from Russia. Russia should be left to develop her own
7. Belgium should be independent like before the war.
8. France should be fully liberated and allowed to recover Alsace-Lorraine
9. All Italians are to be allowed to live in Italy. Italy's borders are to "along clearly recognizable
lines of nationality."
10. Self-determination should be allowed for all those living in Austria-Hungary.
11. Self-determination and guarantees of independence should be allowed for the Balkan states.
12. The Turkish people should be governed by the Turkish government. Non-Turks in the old
Turkish Empire should govern themselves.
13. An independent Poland should be created which should have access to the sea.
14. A League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial independence of
The final important treaty that ended World War I, which was chief among the five peace treaties that terminated World War I. Signed on June 28, 1919 at Versailles, by Germany on the one hand and by the Allies (save Russia) on the other; the Treaty of Versailles embodied the results of the long and often bitter negotiations of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. The leading negotiations figures were the “Big Four” Woodrow Wilson (United States), Georges Clemenceau (France), David Lloyd George (England), and Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (Italy). Germany, as the defeated power, was not included in the consultation. Wilson's Fourteen Points were, to a large extent, sacrificed, but his main objectives, the creation of states based on the principle of national self-determination and the formation of the League of Nations, were embodied in the treaty. However, the U.S. Senate refused to ratify the treaty, and the United States merely declared the war with Germany at an end in 1921.
The treaty formally placed the responsibility for the war on Germany and its allies. Germany was imposed the burden of the reparations payments. The German army was reduced to a maximum of 100,000 soldiers, the navy was similarly reduced, and they were forbidden to build major weapons of aggression. Germany, after futile protests, accepted the treaty, which became effective January 1920. Later German dissatisfaction with the terms of the treaty was thought to play an important part in the rise of National Socialism, or the Nazi movement. Reparations payments, the most ruinous part of the treaty, were suspended in 1931 and never resumed. In 1935 Chancellor Adolf Hitler unilaterally canceled the military clauses of the treaty. In 1936 he began the remilitarization of the Rhineland.
Germany and Allies Responsible- reparations $$- military reduced- forbidden to build weapons- rise of National Socialist Party (Nazi Party)- 1935 Chancellor Adolf Hitler ignored treaty- 1936 remilitarized Germany
League of Nations
Peace-keeping organization in Europe after World War I. Like its successor, the United Nations purpose was the promotion of international peace and security. The League was a product of World War I in the sense that the conflict convinced most the necessity of averting another such cataclysm. The League of Nations proved ineffectual in the 1930’s in dealing with world crises, and only weakly dealt with the dictatorships that arose after WWI. When the League imposed economic sanctions on Japan for its aggressive moves in the Pacific and Italy for its aggression against Ethiopia, both simply resigned from the League. The League never dealt with the violations of the Treaty of Versailles by Nazi Germany.
The Roaring Twenties disillusionment- WW1- Jazz Age- Prohibition violation- new personal credit- overspending- trade imbalance- rise in mass culture
The 1920’s were characterized by disillusionment as a direct result of our participation in WWI. The conservatism of the older generation clashed with the younger generation or the “Jazz Age.”
Young women, called flappers (cut her hair, wore make-up, and went to petting parties. She smoked, drank, danced, voted, was giddy and took risks), and young men violated Prohibition; the new, available credit led to overspending and industry overproduced goods, which would lead to a trade imbalance. The twenties would see the rise of mass popular culture, including the rise of radio, movies, professional sports, and popular literature from such authors as F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway.
Bull market- rising prices – farms and international trade declined - stock market crash
Economically, America will invest heavily in the stock market, using the now-illegal practice of speculation and margin buying, buying stock for only a fraction of its value and carrying the balance of the price as a loan to a broker. Throughout the decade, the stock market would soar in a “bull market,” while the farm community and international trade contracted, resulting in a weak base that will result in the great “Stock Market Crash” of 1929, leading America into the Great Depression. Socially, the twenties were a time of intolerance for “modernity” among the older generation, highlighted by the famous Scopes “Monkey” Trial of 1925, which pitted science against fundamentalist religion in USA. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr.
Massachusetts Senator and Woodrow Wilson’s political foe and heir to a shipping fortune, was a son of two wealthy Boston families - the Cabot’s and the Lodge’s. He was a blue-blooded Republican, conservative, not fond of immigrants, and determined to protect the sovereignty of the United States by defeating the League of Nations. He also opposed Wilson's Fourteen Points peace plan. Unable and perhaps unwilling to reach an agreement with Wilson, Lodge used his power and position to ensure the defeat of the treaty -- and prevent American participation in the League of Nations.
CHANGES IN US BETWEEN WWI AND WWII: CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION