Reconstruction and Industrial Revolution Study Guide



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Reconstruction and Industrial Revolution Study Guide

Know these people, events, and terms. Be able to explain who/what they are and their significance.

  1. Andrew Johnson- became president after Lincoln’s assassination. Was brought up on impeachment charges because he violated the Tenure of Office Act.



  1. Andrew Carnegie- immigrant that became one of the wealthiest men in America. He brought the Bessemer process to America and mass produced steel.



  1. Thomas Edison- famous inventor. Had over 1093 patents. Invented the light bulb and help bring electricity to the masses.



  1. John D. Rockefeller- Ohioan, who became one of the wealthiest men in America. His company, Standard Oil, had a monopoly in the oil industry.



  1. Black Codes- laws passed by Southern states during Reconstruction that limited the civil rights of African Americans.



  1. Andrew Johnson’s impeachment- Congress brought up on impeachment charges because he violated the Tenure of Office Act. He was 1 vote short of being impeached by the Senate.



  1. John Wilkes Booth- actor that assassinated President Abraham Lincoln. He was later killed by the U.S. Army.



  1. Monopoly- complete control of an industry by one person or company.



  1. 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments-



    1. 13th amendment made slavery illegal

    2. 14th amendment gave civil rights to African Americans

    3. 15th amendment gave African American men the right to vote



  1. Reconstruction- the process of rebuilding the South after the Civil War.



  1. Transcontinental railroad- railroad that connected the Eastern United States with the West Coast. Two companies were building the railroad (one heading east from San Francisco, the other heading west from Omaha, NE). A golden spike was hammered in the rail where the two tracks connected.



  1. Carpetbaggers- a term of insult to a Northerner who went South after the Civil War.



  1. Scalawags- a dishonest person; a Southerner who sided with Union in Reconstruction



  1. Freedmen’s Bureau- Federal agency established after the Civil War to help aid formerly enslaved people. They opened thousands of schools throughout the South.



  1. Ku Klux Klan- secret society established after the Civil War that used violence and intimidation.



  1. Industrial Revolution- a time of great and rapid change, when people used machines to manufacture goods.



  1. Wright Brothers- Brothers (Orville and Wilbur) who successfully completed the first powered, controlled flight in Kitty Hawk, NC.



  1. Bessemer Process- process to make steel quickly and inexpensively. Hot air was blasted into molten iron which burned off the impurities.



  1. Immigration-the movement of people from other countries or regions into a new country to live.



  1. Ellis Island- Immigration center in New York Harbor. Millions of immigrants passed through this facility to start their new lives in America. 40% of all Americans can trace their ancestry through Ellis Island.



  1. Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction- also known as the 10% percent plan. Required 10% of a state’s population to take an oath of loyalty.



  1. Andrew Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction- very lenient plan as well as Lincoln’s plan. Johnson required 50% of a state’s population to take an oath of loyalty.



  1. Radical Republican’s plan for Reconstruction- harsh plan for Reconstruction. Looked to punish the South. The South was divided into military zones and the military would be a presence in the South until 1877.



  1. Sharecropping-a system of farming in which a farmer rented land and provided labor in return for a share of the crop or for part of the income from the crop.



  1. Alexander Graham Bell- invented the telephone



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