Reasons why Europe emerges from the Middle Ages

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Period 4: 1450-1750

Why 1450? Printing press invented, Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks, America enters the global world (Columbian Exchange)

Why 1750 CE? Cut off right before impact of the Industrial Revolution

Cut off right before major world revolutions based on Enlightenment principles

Big Picture Events:

The Old World (Afro-Eurasia) and New World become connected

Columbian Exchange

China withdrawals from the world and becomes isolationists

Zheng He expeditions stopped in 1433/ Ming policy shift

Europe comes back strong

Renaissance, exploration and powerful maritime empires (Portugal, Spain, England and the Dutch)

Maritime empires dominate over land based empires

Labor systems are transformed

Indentured servants, encomiendas, mita system and African slaves

Gunpowder empires emerge and then weaken

Ottomans, Mughals, Safavids

Byzantine empire falls to Ottoman Turks and Russia emerges

Europe becomes the most dominant region

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