Reading Guide Name: Date: Hour: Read Ch. 12 and Identify the following


New foods and agricultural techniques



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. New foods and agricultural techniques were adopted in populated areas.

“firestick farming”

Iroquois adopted maize and bean farming techniques used in Mesoamerica

China-reservoirs, irrigation works, planting a billion trees to reforest


B. The spread of epidemic diseases, including the Black Death, followed the well-established paths of trade and military conquest.

Population in Western Europe recovered after the Plague

Key Concept 3.2

Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions


I. Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged.

A. Following the collapse of empires, most reconstituted governments, combined traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovations better suited to the current circumstances.

Ming China after Mongols disrupted empirical rule of Chinese and reinstated Civil service exam

Timur made a brief attempt to restore an empire like the Mongol Empire



B. In some places, new forms of governance emerged; including those developed in various Islamic states, city-states, and new states in Europe.

Spain, Portugal, France, England

City-states of Italy such as Milan, Venice, Florence

Russian state around Moscow

Vijayanagar

Igbo “stateless society”

Iroquois League of Five Nations

Fulbe in West Africa


C. Some states synthesized local and borrowed traditions.



D. In the Americas, as in Afro-Eurasia, state systems expanded in scope and reach: Networks of city-states flourished in the Maya region and, at the end of this period, imperial systems were created by the Mexica (Aztecs) and Inca.

Aztec empire in Mesoamerica, 1345-1521

Inca empire along the Andes, 1438-1533

Iroquois confederacy (New York State)

“complex” Paleolithic societies along west coast of North America



Key Concept 3.3




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