Reading Guide Name: Date: Hour: Read Ch. 12 and Identify the following



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Key Concept 3.1

Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks


I. Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks.

A. Existing trade routes flourished and promoted the growth of powerful new trading cities.

Silk Roads, Sea lanes of the Silk Roads/Sea Roads/Indian Ocean trade, Sand Roads

Malacca, Samarkand, Beijing, Milan, Venice, Florence



B. New trade routes centering on Mesoamerica and the Andes developed.


C. The growth of interregional trade in luxury goods was encouraged by significant innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies, including more sophisticated caravan organizations; use of the compass, astrolabe, and larger ship designs in sea travel; and new forms of credit and monetization.

Gold, spices, silk

Salt, slaves
Camel caravans in West Africa


D. Commercial growth was also facilitated by state practices, trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial infrastructures.

China sent out enormous fleets under Admiral Zheng He to enroll states in Chinese tribute system, but then emperors stopped sending them. China came to believe in the superiority of their culture and believed that if they desired something from abroad, others would bring it to them

In Europe, states competed and sent out explorers/conquistadors to trade and later conquer


China- rebuilding canals, reservoirs, irrigation works

E. The expansion of empires facilitated Trans-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks.

Ming Dynasty China

Mughal Empire

Ottoman Empire

Safavid Empire







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