Reading Guide Name: Date: Hour: Read Ch. 12 and Identify the following



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WHAP Chapter 12 Reading Guide Name:
Date:
Hour:
Read Ch.12 and Identify the following:

1.“firestick farming”:

Deliberately setting fires to clear the land to make more room for hunting or other plants and animals

2.Igbo:

People whose lands were east of the Niger River in what is now southern Nigeria in West Africa; they built a complex society that rejected kingship and centralized statehood and relied on other institutions to provide social coherence

3.Iroquois:

Confederation of five Iroquois people in what is now New York State; the loose alliance was based on the Great Law of Peace, an agreement to settle disputes peacefully through a council of clan leaders

4.Timur:

Turkic warrior (1336-1405) also known as Tamerlane, whose efforts to restore the Mongol Empire devastated much of Persia, Russia, and India

5.Fulbe:

West Africa’s largest pastoral society, whose members gradually adopted Islam and took on a religious leadership role that led to the creation of a number of new states.

6.Ming Dynasty:

Dynasty (1368-1644) that succeeded the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols; noted for its return to traditional Chinese ways and restoration of the land after the destructiveness of the Mongols.

7.Yongle:

Ming emperor (1402-1422), Encyclopedia, moved capital to Beijing, constructed Forbidden City and Temple of Heaven

8.Forbidden City:

The Chinese imperial palace, constructed by Yongle


9.Zheng He:

Great Chinese admiral (1371-1433) who commanded a fleet of more than 300 ships in a series of voyages of contact and exploration that began in 1405

10.Renaissance:

“rebirth” of classical learning that is most often associated with the cultural blossoming of Italy in the period 1350-1500 and that included not just a rediscovery of Greek learning but also major developments in art, as well as growing secularism in society



11.Leonardo da Vinci:

Renaissance artist known for “Mona Lisa”, “Last Supper”, inventions

12.Michelangelo:

Renaissance artist and architect known for Sistine Chapel ceiling, many sculptures like “David”, St. Peter’s Basilica

13.Raphael:

Renaissance artist known for “School of Athens” and “Sistine Madonna”

14.Machiavelli:

Renaissance writer, The Prince, description of how to obtain political success, better to be feared than loved, the end justifies the means

15.Christine de Pizan:

Renaissance writer, City of Ladies

16.Christopher Columbus:

Italian explorer funded by Spain who crossed the Atlantic to the Caribbean in1492. Found “new world” by mistake.

17.Vasco da Gama:

1497, made voyage around the tip of Africa to India

18.Ottoman Empire:

Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include the Balkans, the Near East, and much of North Africa

19.Safavid Empire:

Major Turkic empire of Persia founded in the early 16th century, notable for its efforts to convert its populace to Shia Islam

20.Songhay Empire:

Major Islamic state of West Africa that formed in the second half of the fifteenth century



21.Mughal Empire:

One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by an Islamized Turkic group that invaded India in 1526; the Mughals’ rule was noted for their efforts to create partnerships between Hindus and Muslims

22.Malacca:

Muslim port city that came to prominence on the waterway between Sumatra and Malaya in the 15th century; it was the springboard for the spread of a syncretic form of Islam throughout the region

23.Mexica:

Semi-nomadic group from northern Mexico that established the Aztec empire, built Tenochtitlan

24.Aztec:

Major state that developed in what is now Mexico in the 14th and 15th centuries; dominated by the seminomadic Mexica, who had migrated into the region from northern Mexico

25.Chinampas:

“floating gardens” farming method of the Aztec, artificial islands created from swamplands

26.Hernan Cortes:

Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztec

27.Pochteca:

Professional merchants, commoners but exceedingly wealthy

28.Inca:

The Western Hemisphere’s largest imperial state in the 15th and early 16th centuries; built by a relatively small community of Quechua-speaking people, the empire stretched some 2500 miles along the Andes Mountains, which run nearly the entire length of the west coast of South America, and contained perhaps 10 million subjects


29.“gender parallelism”:

A separate but equal definition of gender roles, men and women have different jobs but both are equally important to society








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